The World Factbook (1982)/Romania

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ROMANIA[edit]

World Factbook (1982) Romania.jpg
(See reference map V)

LAND[edit]

237,503 km2; 44% arable, 19% other agriculture, 27% forested, 10% other

Land boundary: 2,969 km

WATER[edit]

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm

Coastline: 225 km

PEOPLE[edit]

Population: 22,510,000 (July .1982), average annual growth rate 0.7%

Nationality: noun—Romanian(s); adjective—Romanian

Ethnic divisions: 87% Romanian, 8% Hungarian, 2% German, 3% other

Religion: 14 million Romanian Orthodox, 1 million Roman Catholic, 1 million Protestants, 60,000 Jews, 30,000 Muslims

Language: Romanian, Hungarian, German

Literacy: 98%-99% of total population

Labor force: 12.1 million (1979); 36% agriculture, 26% industry, 38% other nonagricultural

GOVERNMENT[edit]

Official name: Socialist Republic of Romania

Type: Communist state

Capital: Bucharest

Political subdivisions: 41 counties including city of Bucharest, which has administrative status equal to a county, and 46 municipalities

Legal system: mixture of civil law system and Communist legal theory that increasingly reflects Romanian traditions; constitution adopted 1965; legal education at University of Bucharest and two other law schools; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Liberation Day, 23 August

Branches: Presidency; Council of Ministers; the Grand National Assembly, under which is Office of Prosecutor General and Supreme Court; Council of State

Government leaders: Nicolae CEAUSESCU, President of the Socialist Republic, head of state; Ilie VERDET, Prime Minister

Suffrage: universal over age 18, compulsory

Elections: elections held every five years for Grand National Assembly deputies and local peopled councils

Political parties and leaders: Communist Party of Romania only functioning party, Nicolae Ceausescu, Secretary General

Voting strength (1980 election): overall participation reached 99.99%; of those registered to vote (15,631,351), 98.52% voted for party candidates

Communists: 3,044,336 (March 1981)

Member of: CEMA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IFAD, ILO, IMCO, IMF, IPU, ITC, ITU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, Warsaw Pact, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

ECONOMY[edit]

GNP: $116.5 billion in 1980 (1980 dollars), $5,244 per capita; 1980 real growth rate, 1.0%

Agriculture: net exporter; main crops—corn, wheat, oil-seed; livestock—cattle, hogs, sheep; caloric intake, 118% of requirements

Fishing: catch 140,000 metric tons (1979)

Major industries: machinery, metals, fuels, chemicals, textiles, food processing, timber processing

Shortages: iron ore, coking coal, metallurgical coke, cotton fibers, natural rubber

Crude steel: 3.2 million metric tons produced (1980), 579 kg per capita

Electric power: 16,104,000 kW capacity (1981); 68.455 billion kWh produced (1981), 3,048 kWh per capita

Exports: $11.2 billion (f.o.b., 1980); 26% machinery and equipment; 12% agricultural materials and foodstuffs; 16% manufactured consumer goods; 29% fuels, minerals, and metals; 17% other (1979)

Imports: $12.8 billion (mixture f.o.b. and c.i.f., 1980); 32% machinery and equipment; 43% fuels, minerals, metals; 7% agricultural raw materials and foodstuffs; 18% other (1979)

Major trade partners: $24.0 billion in 1980; 59% non-Communist countries, 41% Communist countries (1980)

Monetary conversion rate: 4.47 lei = US$1 (commercial), 11 lei = US$1 (tourist)

Fiscal year: same as calendar year; economic data reported for calendar years except for caloric intake, which is reported for consumption year, 1 July-30 June

COMMUNICATIONS[edit]

Railroads: 11,113 km total; 10,509 km standard gauge (1.435 m), 559 km narrow gauge, 45 km broad gauge; 2,202 km electrified, 2,280 km double track; government owned (1979)

Highways: 73,361 km total; 28,738 km concrete, asphalt, stone block; 36,790 km asphalt treated, gravel, crushed stone and 7,833 km other (1979)

Inland waterways: 1,660 km (1979)

Pipelines: 2,735 km crude oil; 1,429 km refined products; 5,149 km natural gas

Freight carried: rail—273.0 million metric tons, 76.0 billion metric ton/km (1979); highway—414.7 million metric tons, 11.5 billion metric ton/km (1979); waterway—9.6 million metric tons, 2.1 billion metric ton/km

Ports: 4 major (Constanta, Galati, Braila, Mangalia), 7 minor; principal inland waterway ports are Giurgiu, Turnu Severin, and Orsova (1981)

DEFENSE FORCES[edit]

Military manpower: males 15-49, 5,378,000; 4,500,000 fit for military service; 141,000 reach military age (20) annually

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1981, 10.4 billion lei; about 3.3% of total budget