The World Factbook (1982)/Rwanda

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The World Factbook (1982)
by the Central Intelligence Agency


World Factbook (1982) Rwanda.jpg
(See reference map VII)


25,900 km2; almost all the arable land, about one-third under cultivation, about one-third pastureland

Land boundaries: 877 km


Population: 5,451,000 (July 1982), average annual growth rate 3.2%

Nationality: noun—Rwandan(s); adjective—Rwandan

Ethnic divisions: 90% Hutu, 9% Tutsi, 1% Twa (Pygmoid)

Religion: 45% Catholic, 9% Protestant, 1% Muslim, rest animist

Language: Kinyarwanda and French official; Kiswahili used in commercial centers

Literacy: 25% in French and Kinyarwanda

Labor force: approximately 5% in cash economy


Official name: Republic of Rwanda

Type: republic, presidential system in which military leaders hold key offices; new constitution adopted 17 December 1978

Capital: Kigali

Political subdivisions: 10 prefectures, subdivided into 143 communes

Legal system: based on German and Belgian civil law systems and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 July

Branches: executive (President, 16-member Cabinet); legislative (National Development Council); judiciary (4 senior courts, magistrates)

Government leader: Maj. Gen. Juvénal HABYARIMANA, President and Head of State

Suffrage: universal

Elections: national elections including constitutional referendum and presidential plebiscite held December 1978; National Development Council elected in December 1981

Political parties and leaders: National Revolutionary Movement for Development (MRND), General Habyarimana (officially not a party—a "development movement" only)

Communists: no Communist party Member of: AFDB, EAMA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IPU, ITU, NAM, OAU, OCAM, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO


GDP: $1,388 million (1981), $270 per capita; real average annual growth rate (1970-77), 5.5%

Agriculture: cash crops—mainly coffee, tea, some pyrethrum; main food crops—bananas, cassava; stock raising; self-sufficiency declining; country imports foodstuffs

Major industries: mining of cassiterite (tin ore), wolfram (tungsten ore), agricultural processing, and light consumer goods

Electric power: 38,000 kW capacity (1980); 160 million kWh produced (1980), 31 kWh per capita

Exports: $115 million (f.o.b., 1981 est.); mainly coffee, tea, cassiterite, wolfram, pyrethrum

Imports: $188 million (c.i.f., 1981 est.); textiles, foodstuffs, machines, equipment

Major trade partners: US, Belgium, West Germany, Kenya

External debt: $170 million (1980), external debt ratio 3.8% (1980)

Budget: (1981) revenues $146.0 million; current expenditures $146.0 million, development expenditures $32.3 million

Monetary conversion rate: 92.84 Rwanda francs=US$1 (official), 1979

Fiscal year: calendar year


Railroads: none

Highways: 9,020 km total; 460 km paved, 2,700 km gravel and/or improved earth, remainder unimproved

Inland waterways: Lake Kivu navigable by barges and native craft

Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft

Airfields: 8 total, 8 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair system with low-capacity radio-relay system centered on Kigali; 4,600 telephones (0.1 per 100 popl.); 2 AM, 1 FM, no TV stations; SYMPHONIE satellite station, INTELSAT terminal under construction


Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,151,000; 583,000 fit for military service; no conscription

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1981, $22.1 million; 14% of central government budget