The World Factbook (1982)/San Marino

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The World Factbook (1982)
by the Central Intelligence Agency
San Marino


World Factbook (1982) San Marino.jpg
(See reference map V)


62 km2; 74% cultivated, 22% meadows and pastures, 4% built on

Land boundaries: 34 km


Population: 22,000 (July 1982), average annual growth rate 1.6%

Nationality: noun—Sanmarinese (sing. and pl.); adjective—Sanmarinese

Religion: Roman Catholic

Language: Italian

Literacy: 97%

Labor force: approx. 4,300

Organized labor: General Democratic Federation of San-marinese Workers (affiliated with ICFTU) has about 1,800 members; Communist-dominated Camera del Lavoro, about 1,000 members


Official name: Republic of San Marino

Type: republic (dates from 4th century A.D.); in 1862 the Kingdom of Italy concluded a treaty guaranteeing the independence of San Marino; although legally sovereign, San Marino is vulnerable to pressure from the Italian Government

Capital: San Marino

Political subdivisions: San Marino is divided into 9 castelli: Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore, Chiesanuova, Dogmanano, Faetano, Fiorentino, Monte Giardino, San Marino, Serravalle

Legal system: based on civil law system with Italian law influences; electoral law of 1926 serves some of the functions of a constitution; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holidays: 1 April, 1 October

Branches: the Grand and General Council is the legislative body elected by popular vote; its 60 members serve five-year terms; Council in turn elects two Captains-Regent who exercise executive power for term of six months, the Council of State whose members head government administrative departments, and the Council of Twelve, the supreme judicial body; actual executive power is wielded by the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs and the Secretary of State for Internal Affairs

Government leaders: since 17 July 1978 Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs and for Information, Giordano Bruno REFFI (Socialist); Secretary of State for Internal Affairs and Justice, Alvaro SELVA (Communist); Secretary of State for Budget, Finance, and Planning, Emilio BALDO (Unitary Socialist)

Suffrage: universal (since 1960)

Elections: elections to the Grand and General Council required at least every five years; an election was held 28 May 1978

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Party (DCS), Gian Luigi Berti; Social Democratic Party (PSDSM), Alvaro Casali; Socialist Party (PSS), Remy Giacomini; Communist Party (PCS), Umberto Barulli; People's Democratic Party (PDP), leader unknown; Committee for the Defense of the Republic (CDR), leader unknown

Voting strength (1974 election): 39.6% DCS, 23.7% PCS, 15.4% PSDIS, 13.9% PSS, 1.9% PDP, 2.9% CDR

Communists: approx. 300 members (number of sympathizers cannot be determined); PSS, in government with Christian Democrats since March 1973, formed a government with the PCS from the end of World War II to 1957

Other political parties or pressure groups: political parties influenced by policies of their counterparts in Italy, the two Socialist parties are not united

Member of: ICJ, International Institute for Unification of Private Law, International Relief Union, IRC, UPU, WTO


Principal economic activities of San Marino are farming, livestock raising, light manufacturing, and tourism; the largest share of government revenue is derived from the sale of postage stamps throughout the world and from payments by the Italian Government in exchange for Italy's monopoly in retailing tobacco, gasoline, and a few other goods; main problem is finding additional funds to finance badly needed water and electric power systems expansions

Agriculture: principal crops are wheat (average annual output about 4,400 metric tons/year) and grapes (average annual output about 700 metric tons/year); other grains, fruits, vegetables, and animal feedstuffs are also grown; livestock population numbers roughly 6,000 cows, oxen, and sheep; cheese and hides are most important livestock products

Electric power: all power is imported from Italy (1981)

Manufacturing: consists mainly of cotton textile production at Serravalle, brick and tile production at Dogane, cement production at Acquaviva, Dogane, and Fiorentino, and pottery production at Borgo Maggiore; some tanned hides, paper, candy, baked goods, Moscato wine, and gold and silver souvenirs are also produced

Foreign transactions: dominated by tourism; in summer months 20,000 to 30,000 foreigners visit San Marino every day; several hotels and restaurants have been built in recent years to accommodate them; remittances from Sanmarinese abroad also represent an important net foreign inflow; commodity trade consists primarily of exchanging building stone, lime, wood, chestnuts, wheat, wine, baked goods, hides, and ceramics for a wide variety of consumer manufactures


Railroads: none

Highways: about 104 km

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airfields: none

Telecommunications: automatic telephone system serving 6,800 telephones (32.3 per 100 popl.); no radiobroadcasting or television facilities