The World Factbook (1990)/Bermuda

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The World Factbook (1990)
United States Central Intelligence Agency

pages 32–33

(dependent territory of the UK)

World Factbook (1990) Bermuda.jpg

 See regional map II


Total area: 50 km²; land area: 50 km²

Comparative area: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 103 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation
Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in winter

Terrain: low hills separated by fertile depressions

Natural resources: limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures; 20% forest and woodland; 80% other

Environment: ample rainfall, but no rivers or freshwater lakes; consists of about 360 small coral islands

Note: 1,050 km east of North Carolina; some reclaimed land leased by US Government


Population: 58,337 (July 1990), growth rate 1.5% (1990)

Birth rate: 15 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: -6 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 12 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 78 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1 .7 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Bermudian(s); adjective—Bermudian

Ethnic divisions: 61% black, 39% white and other

Religion: 37% Anglican, 14% Roman Catholic, 10% African Methodist Episcopal (Zion), 6% Methodist, 5% Seventh-Day Adventist, 28% other

Language: English

Literacy: 98%

Labor force: 32,000; 25% clerical, 22% services, 21% laborers, 13% professional and technical, 10% administrative and managerial, 7% sales, 2% agriculture and fishing (1984)

Organized labor: 8,573 members (1985); largest union is Bermuda Industrial Union


Long-form name: none

Type: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: Hamilton

Administrative divisions: 9 parishes and 2 municipalities*; Devonshire, Hamilton, Hamilton*, Paget, Pembroke, Saint George*, Saint George's, Sandys, Smiths, Southampton, Warwick

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Constitution: 8 June 1968

Legal system: English law

National holiday: Bermuda Day, 22 May

Executive branch: British monarch, governor, deputy governor, premier, deputy premier, Executive Council (cabinet)

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house or House of Assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State—Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor Sir Desmond LANGLEY (since NA October 1988);

Head of Government—Premier John William David SWAN (since NA January 1982)

Political parties and leaders: United Bermuda Party (UBP), John W. D. Swan; Progressive Labor Party (PLP), Frederick Wade; National Liberal Party (NLP), Gilbert Darrell

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections: House of Assembly—last held 9 February 1989 (next to be held by February 1994); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(40 total) UBP 23, PLP 15, NLP 1, other 1

Communists: negligible Other political or pressure groups: Bermuda Industrial Union (BIU), headed by Ottiwell Simmons

Member of: INTERPOL, WHO

Diplomatic representation: as a dependent territory of the UK, Bermuda's interests in the US are represented by the UK; US Consul General James M. MEDAS; Consulate General at Vallis Building, Parla-Ville Road (off Front Street West), Hamilton (mailing address is P. O. Box 325, Hamilton, or FPO New York 09560); telephone (809) 295-1342

Flag: red with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Bermudian coat of arms (white and blue shield with a red lion holding a scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea Venture off Bermuda in 1609) centered on the outer half of the flag


Overview: Bermuda enjoys one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, having successfully exploited its location by providing luxury tourist facilities and financial services. The tourist industry attracts more than 90% of its business from North America. The industrial sector is small, and agriculture is severely limited by a lack of suitable land. About 80% of food needs are imported.

GDP: $1.3 billion, per capita $23,000; real growth rate 2.0% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.8% (1988)

Unemployment: 2.0% (1988)

Budget: revenues $280 million; expenditures $279 million, including capital expenditures of $34 million (FY89 est.)

Exports: $23 million (f.o.b., 1985); commodities—semitropical produce, light manufactures; partners—US 25%, Italy 25%, UK 14%, Canada 5%, other 31%

Imports: $402 million (c.i.f., 1985); commodities—fuel, foodstuffs, machinery; partners US 58%, Netherlands Antilles 9%, UK 8%, Canada 6%, Japan 5%, other 14%

External debt: NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 134,000 kW capacity; 446 million kWh produced, 7,680 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tourism, finance, structural concrete products, paints, pharmaceuticals, ship repairing

Agriculture: accounts for less than 1% of GDP; most basic foods must be imported; produces bananas, vegetables, citrus fruits, flowers, dairy products

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $34 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $267 million

Currency: Bermudian dollar (plural—dollars); 1 Bermudian dollar (Bd$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Bermudian dollar (BdS) per US$1—1.0000 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: 1 April- 31 March


Highways: 210 km public roads, all paved (about 400 km of private roads)

Ports: Freeport, Hamilton, St. George Merchant marine: 93 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,163,947 GRT/7,744,319 DWT; includes 2 short-sea passenger, 10 cargo, 4 refrigerated cargo, 5 container, 10 roll-on/roll-off, 27 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 4 chemical tanker, 1 combination ore/oil, 10 liquefied gas, 20 bulk; note—a flag of convenience registry

Civil air: 16 major transport aircraft

Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runways 2,440-3,659 m

Telecommunications: modern with fully automatic telephone system; 46,290 telephones; stations—5 AM, 3 FM, 2 TV; 3 submarine cables; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK