The World Factbook (1990)/Luxembourg

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Luxembourg


World Factbook (1990) Luxembourg.jpg

See regional map V



Geography


Total area: 2,586 km²; land area: 2,586 km²

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Rhode Island

Land boundaries: 359 km total; Belgium 148 km, France 73 km, FRG 138 km

Coastline: none—landlocked

Maritime claims: none—landlocked

Climate: modified continental with mild winters, cool summers

Terrain: mostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys; uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle floodplain in the southeast

Natural resources: iron ore (no longer exploited)

Land use: 24% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 20% meadows and pastures; 21% forest and woodland; 34% other

Environment: deforestation

Note: landlocked


People


Population: 383,813 (July 1990), growth rate 1.1% (1989)

Birth rate: 12 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 9 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 80 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.5 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Luxembourger(s); adjective—Luxembourg

Ethnic divisions: Celtic base, with French and German blend; also guest and worker residents from Portugal, Italy, and European countries

Religion: 97% Roman Catholic, 3% Protestant and Jewish

Language: Luxembourgish, German, French; many also speak English

Literacy: 100%

Labor force: 161,000; one-third of labor force is foreign workers, mostly from Portugal, Italy, France, Belgium, and FRG; 48.9% services, 24.7% industry, 13.2% government, 8.8% construction, 4.4% agriculture (1984)

Organized labor: 100,000 (est.) members of four confederated trade unions


Government


Long-form name: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Luxembourg

Administrative divisions: 3 districts; Diekirch, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg

Independence: 1839

Constitution: 17 October 1868, occasional revisions

Legal system: based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: National Day (public celebration of the Grand Duke's birthday), 23 June (1921)

Executive branch: grand duke, prime minister, vice prime minister. Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral Chamber of Deputies (Chambre des Députés); note—the Council of State (Conseil d'Etat) is an advisory body whose views are considered by the Chamber of Deputies

Judicial branch: Superior Court of Justice (Cour Supérieure de de Justice)

Leaders: Chief of State—Grand Duke JEAN (since 12 November 1964); Heir Apparent Prince HENRI (son of Grand Duke Jean, born 16 April 1955);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Jacques SANTER (since 21 July 1984); Deputy Prime Minister Jacques F. POOS (since 21 July 1984)

Political parties and leaders: Christian Social Party (CSV), Jacques Santer; Socialist Workers Party (LSAP), Jacques Poos; Liberal (DP), Colette Flesch; Communist (KPL), René Urbany; Green Alternative (GAP), Jean Huss

Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18

Elections: Chamber of Deputies—last held on 18 June 1989 (next to be held by June 1994); results—CSV 31.7%, LSAP 27.2%, DP 16.2%, Greens 8.4%, PAC 7.3%, KPL 5.1%, others 4%; seats—(60 total) CSV 22, LSAP 18, DP 11, Greens 4, PAC 4, KPL 1, others 4

Communists: 500 party members (1982)

Other political or pressure groups: group of steel industries representing iron and steel industry, Centrale Paysanne representing agricultural producers; Christian and Socialist labor unions; Federation of Industrialists; Artisans and Shopkeepers Federation

Member of: Benelux, BLEU, CCC, Council of Europe, EC, EIB, EMS, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOOC, IPU, ITU, NATO, OECD, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Andre PHILIPPE; Chancery at 2200 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 265-4171; there are Luxembourg Consulates General in New York and San Francisco; US—Ambassador Jean B. S. GERARD; Embassy at 22 Boulevard Emmanuel-Servais, 2535 Luxembourg City (mailing address is APO New York 09132); telephone [352] 460123

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and light blue; similar to the flag of the Netherlands which uses a darker blue and is shorter; design was based on the flag of France


Economy


Overview: The stable economy features moderate growth, low inflation, and negligible unemployment. Agriculture is based on small but highly productive family-owned farms. The industrial sector, until recently dominated by steel, has become increasingly more diversified, particularly toward high-technology firms. During the past decade growth in the financial sector has more than compensated for the decline in steel. Services, especially banking, account for a growing proportion of the economy. Luxembourg participates in an economic union with Belgium on trade and most financial matters and is also closely connected economically with the Netherlands.

GDP: $6.3 billion, per capita $17,200; real growth rate 4% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.0% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 1.6% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $2.5 billion; expenditures $2.3 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (1988)

Exports: $4.7 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—finished steel products, chemicals, rubber products, glass, aluminum, other industrial products; partners—EC 75%, US 6%

Imports: $5.9 billion (c.i.f., 1988 est.); commodities—minerals, metals, foodstuffs, quality consumer goods; partners—FRG 40%, Belgium 35%, France 15%, US 3%

External debt: $131.6 million (1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 5% (1989 est.)

Electricity: 1,500,000 kW capacity; 1,163 million kWh produced, 3,170 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: banking, iron and steel, food processing, chemicals, metal products, engineering, tires, glass, aluminum

Agriculture: accounts for less than 3% of GDP (including forestry); principal products—barley, oats, potatoes, wheat, fruits, wine grapes; cattle raising widespread

Aid: none

Currency: Luxembourg franc (plural—francs); 1 Luxembourg franc (LuxF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Luxembourg francs (LuxF) per US$1—35.468 (January 1990), 39.404 (1989), 36.768 (1988), 37.334 (1987), 44.672 (1986), 59.378 (1985); note—the Luxembourg franc is at par with the Belgian franc, which circulates freely in Luxembourg

Fiscal year: calendar year


Communications


Railroads: Luxembourg National Railways (CFL) operates 270 km 1.435-meter standard gauge; 162 km double track; 162 km electrified

Highways: 5,108 km total; 4,995 km paved, 57 km gravel, 56 km earth; about 80 km limited access divided highway

Inland waterways: 37 km; Moselle River

Pipelines: refined products, 48 km

Ports: Mertert (river port)

Merchant marine: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,138 GRT/9,373 DWT; includes 2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 2 chemical tanker

Civil air: 13 major transport aircraft

Airports: 2 total, 2 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways less than 1,220 m; 1 with runways over 3,659 m

Telecommunications: adequate and efficient system, mainly buried cables; 230,000 telephones; stations—2 AM, 4 FM, 6 TV; 2 communication satellite earth stations operating in EUTELSAT and domestic systems


Defense Forces


Branches: Army

Military manpower: males 15-49, 99,734; 83,237 fit for military service; 2,368 reach military age (19) annually

Defense expenditures: 1.2% of GDP, or $76 million (1989 est.)