The World Factbook (1990)/Luxembourg

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World Factbook (1990) Luxembourg.jpg

See regional map V


Total area: 2,586 km²; land area: 2,586 km²

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Rhode Island

Land boundaries: 359 km total; Belgium 148 km, France 73 km, FRG 138 km

Coastline: none—landlocked

Maritime claims: none—landlocked

Climate: modified continental with mild winters, cool summers

Terrain: mostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys; uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle floodplain in the southeast

Natural resources: iron ore (no longer exploited)

Land use: 24% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 20% meadows and pastures; 21% forest and woodland; 34% other

Environment: deforestation

Note: landlocked


Population: 383,813 (July 1990), growth rate 1.1% (1989)

Birth rate: 12 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 9 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 80 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.5 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Luxembourger(s); adjective—Luxembourg

Ethnic divisions: Celtic base, with French and German blend; also guest and worker residents from Portugal, Italy, and European countries

Religion: 97% Roman Catholic, 3% Protestant and Jewish

Language: Luxembourgish, German, French; many also speak English

Literacy: 100%

Labor force: 161,000; one-third of labor force is foreign workers, mostly from Portugal, Italy, France, Belgium, and FRG; 48.9% services, 24.7% industry, 13.2% government, 8.8% construction, 4.4% agriculture (1984)

Organized labor: 100,000 (est.) members of four confederated trade unions


Long-form name: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Luxembourg

Administrative divisions: 3 districts; Diekirch, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg

Independence: 1839

Constitution: 17 October 1868, occasional revisions

Legal system: based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: National Day (public celebration of the Grand Duke's birthday), 23 June (1921)

Executive branch: grand duke, prime minister, vice prime minister. Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral Chamber of Deputies (Chambre des Députés); note—the Council of State (Conseil d'Etat) is an advisory body whose views are considered by the Chamber of Deputies

Judicial branch: Superior Court of Justice (Cour Supérieure de de Justice)

Leaders: Chief of State—Grand Duke JEAN (since 12 November 1964); Heir Apparent Prince HENRI (son of Grand Duke Jean, born 16 April 1955);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Jacques SANTER (since 21 July 1984); Deputy Prime Minister Jacques F. POOS (since 21 July 1984)

Political parties and leaders: Christian Social Party (CSV), Jacques Santer; Socialist Workers Party (LSAP), Jacques Poos; Liberal (DP), Colette Flesch; Communist (KPL), René Urbany; Green Alternative (GAP), Jean Huss

Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18

Elections: Chamber of Deputies—last held on 18 June 1989 (next to be held by June 1994); results—CSV 31.7%, LSAP 27.2%, DP 16.2%, Greens 8.4%, PAC 7.3%, KPL 5.1%, others 4%; seats—(60 total) CSV 22, LSAP 18, DP 11, Greens 4, PAC 4, KPL 1, others 4

Communists: 500 party members (1982)

Other political or pressure groups: group of steel industries representing iron and steel industry, Centrale Paysanne representing agricultural producers; Christian and Socialist labor unions; Federation of Industrialists; Artisans and Shopkeepers Federation


Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Andre PHILIPPE; Chancery at 2200 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 265-4171; there are Luxembourg Consulates General in New York and San Francisco; US—Ambassador Jean B. S. GERARD; Embassy at 22 Boulevard Emmanuel-Servais, 2535 Luxembourg City (mailing address is APO New York 09132); telephone [352] 460123

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and light blue; similar to the flag of the Netherlands which uses a darker blue and is shorter; design was based on the flag of France


Overview: The stable economy features moderate growth, low inflation, and negligible unemployment. Agriculture is based on small but highly productive family-owned farms. The industrial sector, until recently dominated by steel, has become increasingly more diversified, particularly toward high-technology firms. During the past decade growth in the financial sector has more than compensated for the decline in steel. Services, especially banking, account for a growing proportion of the economy. Luxembourg participates in an economic union with Belgium on trade and most financial matters and is also closely connected economically with the Netherlands.

GDP: $6.3 billion, per capita $17,200; real growth rate 4% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.0% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 1.6% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $2.5 billion; expenditures $2.3 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (1988)

Exports: $4.7 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—finished steel products, chemicals, rubber products, glass, aluminum, other industrial products; partners—EC 75%, US 6%

Imports: $5.9 billion (c.i.f., 1988 est.); commodities—minerals, metals, foodstuffs, quality consumer goods; partners—FRG 40%, Belgium 35%, France 15%, US 3%

External debt: $131.6 million (1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 5% (1989 est.)

Electricity: 1,500,000 kW capacity; 1,163 million kWh produced, 3,170 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: banking, iron and steel, food processing, chemicals, metal products, engineering, tires, glass, aluminum

Agriculture: accounts for less than 3% of GDP (including forestry); principal products—barley, oats, potatoes, wheat, fruits, wine grapes; cattle raising widespread

Aid: none

Currency: Luxembourg franc (plural—francs); 1 Luxembourg franc (LuxF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Luxembourg francs (LuxF) per US$1—35.468 (January 1990), 39.404 (1989), 36.768 (1988), 37.334 (1987), 44.672 (1986), 59.378 (1985); note—the Luxembourg franc is at par with the Belgian franc, which circulates freely in Luxembourg

Fiscal year: calendar year


Railroads: Luxembourg National Railways (CFL) operates 270 km 1.435-meter standard gauge; 162 km double track; 162 km electrified

Highways: 5,108 km total; 4,995 km paved, 57 km gravel, 56 km earth; about 80 km limited access divided highway

Inland waterways: 37 km; Moselle River

Pipelines: refined products, 48 km

Ports: Mertert (river port)

Merchant marine: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,138 GRT/9,373 DWT; includes 2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 2 chemical tanker

Civil air: 13 major transport aircraft

Airports: 2 total, 2 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways less than 1,220 m; 1 with runways over 3,659 m

Telecommunications: adequate and efficient system, mainly buried cables; 230,000 telephones; stations—2 AM, 4 FM, 6 TV; 2 communication satellite earth stations operating in EUTELSAT and domestic systems

Defense Forces

Branches: Army

Military manpower: males 15-49, 99,734; 83,237 fit for military service; 2,368 reach military age (19) annually

Defense expenditures: 1.2% of GDP, or $76 million (1989 est.)