The World Factbook (1990)/Nigeria

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World Factbook (1990) Nigeria.jpg

See regional map VII


Total area: 923,770 km²; land area: 910,770 km²

Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of California

Land boundaries: 4,047 km total; Benin 773 km, Cameroon 1,690 km, Chad 87 km, Niger 1,497 km

Coastline: 853 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation
Extended economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 30 nm

Disputes: exact locations of the Chad-Niger-Nigeria and Cameroon-Chad-Nigeria tripoints in Lake Chad have not been determined, so the boundary has not been demarcated and border incidents have resulted; Nigerian proposals to reopen maritime boundary negotiations and redemarcate the entire land boundary have been rejected by Cameroon

Climate: varies—equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north

Terrain: southern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus; mountains in southeast, plains in north

Natural resources: crude oil, tin, columbite, iron ore, coal, limestone, lead, zinc, natural gas

Land use: 31% arable land; 3% permanent crops; 23% meadows and pastures; 15% forest and woodland; 28% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: recent droughts in north severely affecting marginal agricultural activities; desertification; soil degradation, rapid deforestation


Population: 118,819,377 (July 1990), growth rate 3.0% (1990)

Birth rate: 46 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 17 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 1 migrant/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 119 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 48 years male, 49 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.5 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Nigerian(s); adjective—Nigerian

Ethnic divisions: more than 250 tribal groups; Hausa and Fulani of the north, Yoruba of the southwest, and Ibos of the southeast make up 65% of the population; about 27,000 non-Africans

Religion: 50% Muslim, 40% Christian, 10% indigenous beliefs

Language: English (official); Hausa, Yoruba, Ibo, Fulani, and several other languages also widely used

Literacy: 42.4%

Labor force: 42,844,000; 54% agriculture, 19% industry, commerce, and services, 15% government; 49% of population of working age (1985)

Organized labor: 3,520,000 wage earners belong to 42 recognized trade unions, which come under a single national labor federation the Nigerian Labor Congress (NLC)


Long-form name: Federal Republic of Nigeria

Type: military government since 31 December 1983

Capital: Lagos

Administrative divisions: 21 states and 1 territory*; Abuja Capital Territory*, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Bendel, Benue, Borno, Cross River, Gongola, Imo, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kwara, Lagos, Niger, Ogun, Ondo, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto

Independence: 1 October 1960 (from UK)

Constitution: 1 October 1979, amended 9 February 1984, revised 1989

Legal system: based on English common law, Islamic, and tribal law

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 October (1960)

Executive branch: president of the Armed Forces Ruling Council, Armed Forces Ruling Council, National Council of State, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: National Assembly was dissolved after the military coup of 31 December 1983

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, Federal Court of Appeal

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government—President and Commander in Chief of Armed Forces Gen. Ibrahim BABANGIDA (since 27 August 1985)

Political parties and leaders: two political parties established by the government in 1989—Social Democratic Party (SDP) and National Republican Convention (NRC)

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections: President scheduled for 1 October 1992

Communists: the pro-Communist underground consists of a small fraction of the Nigerian left; leftist leaders are prominent in the country's central labor organization but have little influence on government

Member of: ACP, AfDB, APC, CCC, Commonwealth, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IRC, ISO, ITC, ITU, IWC—International Wheat Council, Lake Chad Basin Commission, Niger River Commission, NAM, OAU, OPEC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Hamzat AHMADU; Chancery at 2201 M Street NW, Washington DC 20037; telephone (202) 822-1500; there are Nigerian Consulates General in Atlanta, New York and San Francisco; US—Ambassador Lannon WALKER; Embassy at 2 Eleke Crescent, Victoria Island, Lagos (mailing address is P. O. Box 554, Lagos); telephone [234](1) 610097; there is a US Consulate General in Kaduna

Flag: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green


Overview: In 1989, despite rising oil prices, the economic performance failed to meet government expectations because of higher inflationary pressures fueled by a relatively poor agricultural performance. Agricultural production was up only 4% following a 10% decline in 1988, and manufacturing remained below the 1985 level with only a 6% increase. The government is continuing an economic adjustment program to reduce Nigeria's dependence on oil and to help create a basis for sustainable noninflationary growth.

GNP: $30.0 billion, per capita $270; real growth rate 4% (1989)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 47.5% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 7.5% (1988 est.)

Budget: revenues $6.5 billion; expenditures $7.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.9 billion (1988 est.)

Exports: $8.4 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities—oil 95%, cocoa, palm kernels, rubber; partners—EC 51%, US 32%

Imports: $5.7 billion (c.i.f., 1989 est.); commodities—consumer goods, capital equipment, chemicals, raw materials; partners—EC, US

External debt: $32 billion, medium and long-term (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 5% (1987 est.)

Electricity: 4,737,000 kW capacity; 11,270 million kWh produced, 100 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: mining—crude oil, natural gas, coal, tin, columbite; primary processing industries—palm oil, peanut, cotton, rubber, petroleum, wood, hides and skins; manufacturing industries—textiles, cement, building materials, food products, footwear, chemical, printing, ceramics, steel

Agriculture: accounts for 28% of GNP and half of labor force; inefficient small-scale farming dominates; once a large net exporter of food and now an importer; cash crops—cocoa, peanuts, palm oil, rubber; food crops corn, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava, yams; livestock cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; fishing and forestry resources extensively exploited

Illicit drugs: illicit heroin and some cocaine trafficking; marijuana cultivation for domestic consumption and export; major transit country for heroin en route from Southwest Asia via Africa to Western Europe and the US; growing transit route for cocaine from South America via West Africa to Western Europe and the US

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $662 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $1.9 billion; Communist countries (1970-88), $2.2 billion

Currency: naira (plural—naira); 1 naira (N) = 100 kobo

Exchange rates: naira (N) per US$1—7.6221 (December 1989), 7.3647 (1989), 4.5370 (1988), 4.0160 (1987), 1.7545 (1986), 0.8938 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year


Railroads: 3,505 km 1.067-meter gauge

Highways: 107,990 km total 30,019 km paved (mostly bituminous-surface treatment); 25,411 km laterite, gravel, crushed stone, improved earth; 52,560 km unimproved

Inland waterways: 8,575 km consisting of Niger and Benue Rivers and smaller rivers and creeks

Pipelines: 2,042 km crude oil; 500 km natural gas; 3,000 km refined products

Ports: Lagos, Port Harcourt, Calabar, Warri, Onne, Sapele

Merchant marine: 28 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 428,116 GRT/680,343 DWT; includes 19 cargo, 1 refrigerated, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 5 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 1 bulk

Civil air: 76 major transport aircraft

Airports: 84 total, 72 usable; 32 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways over 3,659 m; 13 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 22 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: above-average system limited by poor maintenance; major expansion in progress; radio relay and cable routes; 155,000 telephones; stations—37 AM, 19 FM, 38 TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, domestic, with 19 stations; 1 coaxial submarine cable

Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Police Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 27,282,248; 15,587,485 fit for military service; 1,263,883 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 1% of GNP, or $300 million (1990 est.)