The World Factbook (1990)/Senegal

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World Factbook (1990) Senegal.jpg

See regional map VII


Total area: 196,190 km²; land area: 192,000 km²

Comparative area: slightly smaller than South Dakota

Land boundaries: 2,640 km total; The Gambia 740 km, Guinea 330 km, Guinea-Bissau 338 km, Mali 419 km, Mauritania 813km

Coastline: 531 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm
Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: short section of the boundary with The Gambia is indefinite; the International Court of Justice (ICJ) rendered its decision on the Guinea-Bissau/Senegal maritime boundary in favor of Senegal—that decision has been rejected by Guinea-Bissau; boundary with Mauritania

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; rainy season (December to April) has strong southeast winds; dry season (May to November) dominated by hot, dry harmattan wind

Terrain: generally low, rolling, plains rising to foothills in southeast

Natural resources: fish, phosphates, iron ore

Land use: 27% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 30% meadows and pastures; 31% forest and woodland; 12% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: lowlands seasonally flooded; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

Note: The Gambia is almost an enclave


Population: 7,713,851 (July 1990), growth rate 3.0% (1990)

Birth rate: 44 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 14 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 87 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 53 years male, 56 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.3 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Senegalese (sing. and pl.); adjective—Senegalese

Ethnic divisions: 36% Wolof, 17% Fulani, 17% Serer, 9% Toucouleur, 9% Diola, 9% Mandingo, 1% European and Lebanese, 2% other

Religion: 92% Muslim, 6% indigenous beliefs, 2% Christian (mostly Roman Catholic)

Language: French (official); Wolof, Pulaar, Diola, Mandingo

Literacy: 28.1%

Labor force: 2,509,000; 77% subsistence agricultural workers; 175,000 wage earners—40% private sector, 60% government and parapublic; 52% of population of working age (1985)

Organized labor: majority of wage-labor force represented by unions; however, dues-paying membership very limited; major confederation is National Confederation of Senegalese Labor (CNTS), an affiliate of governing party


Long-form name: Republic of Senegal

Type: republic under multiparty democratic rule

Capital: Dakar

Administrative divisions: 10 regions (régions, singular—région); Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick, Kaolack, Kolda, Louga, Saint-Louis, Tambacounda, Thies, Ziguinchor

Independence: 4 April 1960 (from France); The Gambia and Senegal signed an agreement on 12 December 1981 (effective 1 February 1982) that called for the creation of a loose confederation to be known as Senegambia, but the agreement was dissolved on 30 September 1989

Constitution: 3 March 1963, last revised in 1984

Legal system: based on French civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme Court, which also audits the government's accounting office; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 4 April (1960)

Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Suprême)

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government—President Abdou DIOUF (since 1 January 1981)

Political parties and leaders: Socialist Party (PS), Abdou Diouf; Senegalese Democratic Party (PDS), Abdoulaye Wade; 13 other small uninfluential parties

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections: President—last held 28 February 1988 (next to be held February 1993); results—Abdou Diouf (PS) 73%, Abdoulaye Wade (PDS) 26%, others 1%;

National Assembly—last held 28 February 1988 (next to be held February 1993); results—PS 71%, PDS 25%, others 4%; seats (120 total) PS 103, PDS 17

Communists: small number of Communists and sympathizers

Other political or pressure groups: students, teachers, labor, Muslim Brotherhoods

Member of: ACP, AfDB, APC, CCC, CEAO, EAMA, ECA, ECOWAS, EIB (associate), FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB—Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, OAU, OCAM, OIC, OMVS (Organization for the Development of the Senegal River Valley), UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Ibra Deguene KA; Chancery at 2112 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 234-0540 or 0541; US—Ambassador George E. MOOSE; Embassy on Avenue Jean XXIII at the corner of Avenue Kleber, Dakar (mailing address is B. P. 49, Dakar); telephone [221] 21-42-96

Flag: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red with a small green five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia


Overview: The agricultural sector accounts for about 20% of GDP and provides employment for about 75% of the labor force. About 40% of the total cultivated land is used to grow peanuts, an important export crop. The principal economic resource is fishing, which brought in about $200 million or about 25% of total foreign exchange earnings in 1987. Mining is dominated by the extraction of phosphate, but production has faltered because of reduced worldwide demand for fertilizers in recent years. Over the past 10 years tourism has become increasingly more important to the economy.

GDP: $5.0 billion, per capita $680; real growth rate 5.1% (1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): -1.8% (1988 est.)

Unemployment rate: 3.5% (1987)

Budget: revenues $921 million; expenditures $1,024 million; including capital expenditures of $14 million (FY89 est.)

Exports: $761 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—manufactures 30%, fish products 27%, peanuts 11%, petroleum products 11%, phosphates 10%; partners—US, France, other EC, Ivory Coast, India

Imports: $1.1 billion (c.i.f., 1988); commodities—semimanufactures 30%, food 27%, durable consumer goods 17%, petroleum 12%, capital goods 14%; partners—US, France, other EC, Nigeria, Algeria, China, Japan

External debt: $3.8 billion (1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 4.9% (1986)

Electricity: 210,000 kW capacity; 760 million kWh produced, 100 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: fishing, agricultural processing, phosphate mining, petroleum refining, building materials

Agriculture: including fishing, accounts for 20% of GDP and 75% of labor force; major products—peanuts (cash crop), millet, corn, sorghum, rice, cotton, tomatoes, green vegetables; estimated two-thirds self-sufficient in food; fish catch of 299,000 metric tons in 1987

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $492 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $4.4 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $589 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $295 million

Currency: Communauté Financière Africaine franc (plural—francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Communauté Financière Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1—287.99 (January 1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987), 346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June


Railroads: 1,034 km 1.000-meter gauge; all single track except 70 km double track Dakar to Thies

Highways: 14,000 km total; 3,770 km paved, 10,230 km laterite or improved earth

Inland waterways: 900 km total; 785 km on the Senegal, 115 km on the Saloum

Ports: Dakar, Kaolack

Merchant marine: 3 ships (1,000 GRT and over) totaling 9,263 GRT/15,167 DWT; includes 2 cargo, 1 bulk

Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

Airports: 25 total, 20 usable; 10 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 15 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: above-average urban system, using radio relay and cable; 40,200 telephones; stations—8 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 3 submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Gendarmerie

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,682,786; 878,812 fit for military service; 88,940 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 2% of GDP, or $100 million (1989 est.)