The World Factbook (1990)/The Gambia

From Wikisource
Jump to navigation Jump to search
The World Factbook (1990)
United States Central Intelligence Agency
Gambia, The

pages 109–110

The Gambia


World Factbook (1990) The Gambia.jpg

 See regional map VII



Geography

Total area: 11,300 km²; land area: 10,000 km²

Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Delaware

Land boundary: 740 km with Senegal

Coastline: 80 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 18 nm
Continental shelf: not specific
Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: short section of boundary with Senegal is indefinite

Climate: tropical; hot, rainy season (June to November); cooler, dry season (November to May)

Terrain: flood plain of the Gambia River flanked by some low hills

Natural resources: fish

Land use: 16% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 9% meadows and pastures; 20% forest and woodland; 55% other; includes 3% irrigated

Environment: deforestation

Note: almost an enclave of Senegal; smallest country on the continent of Africa


People


Population: 848,147 (July 1990), growth rate 3.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 48 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 18 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 140 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 46 years male, 50 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.5 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Gambian(s); adjective—Gambian

Ethnic divisions: 99% African (42% Mandinka, 18% Fula, 16% Wolof, 10% Jola, 9% Serahuli, 4% other); 1% non-Gambian

Religion: 90% Muslim, 9% Christian, 1% indigenous beliefs

Language: English (official); Mandinka, Wolof, Fula, other indigenous vernaculars

Literacy: 25.1%

Labor force: 400,000 (1986 est.); 75.0% agriculture, 18.9% industry, commerce, and services, 6.1% government; 55% population of working age (1983)

Organized labor: 25-30% of wage labor force


Government


Long-form name: Republic of The Gambia

Type: republic

Capital: Banjul

Administrative divisions: 5 divisions and 1 city*; Banjul*, Lower River, MacCarthy Island, North Bank, Upper River, Western

Independence: 18 February 1965 (from UK); The Gambia and Senegal signed an agreement on 12 December 1981 (effective 1 February 1982) that called for the creation of a loose confederation to be known as Senegambia, but the agreement was dissolved on 30 September 1989

Constitution: 24 April 1970

Legal system: based on a composite of English common law, Koranic law, and customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Independence Day, 18 February (1965)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government—President Alhaji Sir Dawda Kairaba JAWARA (since 24 April 1970); Vice President Bakary Bunja DARBO (since 12 May 1982)

Political parties and leaders: People's Progressive Party (PPP), Dawda K. Jawara, secretary general; National Convention Party (NCP), Sheriff Dibba; Gambian People's Party (GPP), Assan Musa Camara; United Party (UP); People's Democratic Organization of Independence and Socialism (PDOIS)

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections: President—last held on 11 March 1987 (next to be held March 1992); results—Sir Dawda Jawara (PPP) 61.1%, Sherif Mustapha Dibba (NCP) 25.2%, Assan Musa Camara (GPP) 13.7%;

House of Representatives—last held on 1 1 March 1987 (next to be held by March 1992); results—PPP 56.6%, NCP 27.6%, GPP 14.7%, PDOIS 1%; seats—(43 total, 36 elected) PPP 31, NCP 5

Communists: no Communist party

Member of: ACP, AfDB, APC, Commonwealth, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB—Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, IMF, IMO, IRC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Ousman A. SALLAH; Chancery at Suite 720, 1030 15th Street NW, Washington DC 20005; telephone (202) 842-1356 or 842-1359; US—Ambassador (vacant); Embassy at Pipeline Road (Kairaba Avenue), Fajara, Banjul (mailing address is P. M. B. No. 19, Banjul); telephone Serrekunda [220] 92856 or 92858, 91970, 91971

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue with white edges, and green


Economy


Overview: The Gambia has no important mineral or other natural resources and has a limited agricultural base. It is one of the world's poorest countries with a per capita income of about $250. About 75% of the population is engaged in crop production and livestock raising, which contributes about 30% to GDP. Small-scale manufacturing activity—processing peanuts, fish, and hides—accounts for less than 10% of GDP. Tourism is a growing industry. The Gambia imports about 33% of its food, all fuel, and most manufactured goods. Exports are concentrated on peanut products (over 75% of total value).

GDP: $195 million, per capita $250; real growth rate 4.6% (FY89 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.0% (FY89 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $75 million; expenditures $67 million, including capital expenditures of $21 million (FY89)

Exports: $133 million (f.o.b., FY89); commodities—peanuts and peanut products, fish, cotton lint, palm kernels; partners—Ghana 49%, Europe 27%, Japan 12%, US 1% (1986)

Imports: $105 million (c.i.f., FY89); commodities—foodstuffs, manufactures, raw materials, fuel, machinery and transport equipment; partners—Europe 55% (EC 39%, other 16%), Asia 20%, US 11%, Senegal 4% (1986)

External debt: $330 million (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 7.3% (FY88)

Electricity: 29,000 kW capacity; 64 million kWh produced, 80 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: peanut processing, tourism, beverages, agricultural machinery assembly, woodworking, metalworking, clothing

Agriculture: accounts for 30% of GDP and employs about 75% of the population; imports one-third of food requirements; major export crop is peanuts; the principal crops—millet, sorghum, rice, corn, cassava, palm kernels; livestock—cattle, sheep, and goats; forestry and fishing resources not fully exploited

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $84 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $422 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $39 million

Currency: dalasi (plural—dalasi); 1 dalasi (D) = 100 bututs

Exchange rates: dalasi (D) per US$1—8.3232 (December 1989), 7.5846 (1989), 6.7086 (1988), 7.0744 (1987), 6.9380 (1986), 3.8939 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June


Communications


Highways: 3,083 km total; 431 km paved, 501 km gravel/laterite, and 2,151 km unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 400 km

Ports: Banjul

Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runway 2,440-3,659 m

Telecommunications: adequate network of radio relay and wire; 3,500 telephones; stations—3 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station


Defense Forces


Branches: Army, paramilitary Gendarmerie

Military manpower: males 15-49, 182,308; 92,001 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: NA