1 After the death of Moses servant of Yahweh, Yahweh spoke to Joshua, son of Nun and attendant to Moses, saying:
2 "My servant Moses is dead. Now prepare yourself and all this people to cross the Jordan, into the land which I am giving unto the Israelites. 3 Every spot upon which your foot shall tread I give unto you, as I promised to Moses.
4 Your lands shall extend from the wilderness and the Lebanon to the Great River (Euphrates) on the east - the whole of the Hittite lands - and up to the (Mediterranean) Sea on the west. 5 No man shall be able to resist you as long as you live. As I was with Moses, so shall I be with you; I will not fail nor forsake you.
6 Be strong and resolute, for you must apportion unto this people all the lands which I swore unto their fathers to give unto them.
7 But you must remain very strong and resolute to observe faithfully all the teachings that My servant Moses gave unto you. Do not deviate from it, neither to the right nor to the left, that you may find success wherever you go. 8 Let not this Book of the Teaching (Torah) cease from your lips, but recite it day and night, that you may observe faithfully all that is written in it. Only then will you prosper and be successful in your undertakings. 9 I charge you: Be not fearful nor dismayed, for Yahweh your God is with you wherever you go".
10 Joshua therefore gave orders unto the leaders of the people, saying:
11 "Go through all the camp and charge the people thusly: Get provisions ready, for in three days' time you shall cross over the Jordan in order to enter and occupy the land which Yahweh your God is giving you for a possession".
12 Then said Joshua unto the Reubenites, the Gadites, and the half-tribe of Manasseh,
13 "Remember what Moses the servant of Yahweh said unto you: 'Yahweh your God is granting you a haven, this territory, which He is assigning unto you'. 14 Let your wives, your children, and your livestock remain in this land which Moses assigned to you on this side of the Jordan, but every one of your fighting men shall go across armed with your kinsmen, and you shall assist them 15 until Yahweh has given unto your kinsmen a haven such as you have, and they have gained the possession of the lands which Yahweh your God has assigned to them. Then you may return to the land on the east side of the Jordan, which Moses the servant of Yahweh assigned to you as your possession, and you shall occupy it".
16 Then they answered unto Joshua, saying "We will do every thing you have commanded, and we will go wherever you send us. 17 We will obey you just as we obeyed Moses; let only Yahweh your God be with you as He was with Moses! 18 Any man who disregards your commands and does not obey every order you give him shall be put to death. Only be strong and resolute!"
1 From Shittim, Joshua son of Nun sent two men to spy, telling them, "Go see the land, and Jericho." They went and came to the house of a prostitute, whose name was Rahab, and slept there.
2 And the king of Jericho was told, "There are men who came here in the night, Israelites, to survey all this land."
3 The king of Jericho sent word to Rahab: "Bring out the men who came to you, who came to your house, because they have come to survey all this land."
4 But the woman took the two men and hid them, and said, "Two men came to me, but I did not know where they were from. 5 Then, about the time [in the evening] when the [city] gates were closed, the men went out. I do not know where they went. Pursue them quickly and you may overtake them."
6 She had brought them up to the roof, and covered them up with cotton which she had laid out on the roof. 7 And the men hunted for them along the route to the Jordan, toward the fords. Then the gates were shut just after the pursuers had gone out [from the city]. 8 Before they had fallen asleep, she came up to them on the roof. 9 And she said to the men, "I know that Yahweh has given you this land, and that we are terrified of you, and that all the inhabitants of this land are petrified because of you; 10 because we have heard how Yahweh dried of the water of the Red Sea for you when you came out from Egypt, and what you did to the two kings of the Amorites in Transjordan: Sihon and Og, whom you exterminated. 11 When we heard things things our hearts melted, and every man was breathless because of you, because Yahweh your god is God in the sky above and on the earth beneath. 12 Now, please swear to me by Yahweh that because I treated you well, that you will also treat my father's household well, and give me a sign of [your] faithfulness. 13 [Swear that] you will save my father, my mother, my brothers sisters, and all that they have, and rescue our lives from death."
14 The men said to her, "Our lives for yours, so long as you do not report this business of ours. Then, when Yahweh gives us this land, we will be loyal and true to you." 15 Then she let them down with a rope through her window, because her house was on the town wall — she lived by the wall. 16 She said to them, "Go to the hills, or the posse will catch you, and hide there three days, till the posse gives up. Then go on your way."
17 The men told her, "We will not renege on this oath we swore. 18 When we come to this land, tie this scarlet cord in the window where you let us down. Bring your father, mother, brothers, and all your father's family home with you. 19 Then, whoever walks outside the doors of your house, his death is on him: it is not our fault. But whoever is in the house, his death is our responsibility if anyone harms him. 20 If you tell anyone about this, we are free of this oath you made us swear."
21 She said, "As you have said, so be it." She sent them off. They left, and she tied the scarlet cord in the window. 22 The went, and arrived in the hills, and stayed there three days, tll the posse turned back. The posse looked for them all the way, but did not five them. 23 Both men went back down from the mountain, and crossed over to Joshua ben Nun, and told him what happened to them. 24 They said to Joshua, "Surely Yahweh has handed all the land to us, and the people of that land are afraid of us."
1 Joshua rose early in the morning, and they left Shittim and came to the Jordan, he and all the Israelites, and they stayed the night there before they crossed over.
2 After three days had passed, the officers passed through the encampment 3 and commanded the people, "When you see the ark of the covenant of Yahweh your god, and the priests and Levites carrying it, you are to leave your place and follow it. 4 But make sure to leave a space between you and it, a distance of about two thousand cubits. Do not come near to it. This is how you will know the path where you must go, because you have not passed this way before."
5 And Joshua said to the people, "Consecrate yourselves, because tomorrow Yahweh will do wonders among you."
6 And Joshua spoke to the priests, and said, "Take up the ark of the covenant, and cross over in front of the people." So they took up the ark of the covenant and went ahead of the people.
7 And Yahweh said to Joshua, "Today I will make you great in the sight of all Israel, so that they will know that just as I was with Moses, so I am with you. 8 Command the priests who carry the Ark of the Covenant, 'When you come to the edge of the waters of the Jordan, stand still at the Jordan.'"
9Joshua said to the Israelites, "Approach here, and listen to what Yahweh your god says."
10 And Joshua said, "This is how you will know that the Living God is among you, and that he will drive out before you the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Hivites, the Perizzites, the Girgashites, the Amorites, and the Jebusites. 11 See, the Ark of the Covenant of the master of all the earth is about to pass over ahead of you through the Jordan. 12 And now, take yourself twelve men from the tribes of Israel, one man for each tribe. 13 It will happen, that as soon as the feet of the priests who carry the Ark of Yahweh, the master of all the earth, rest in the waters of the Jordan, the waters of the Jordan will be cut off, the waters that come down from above, and they will stand in one pile."
14 And so it was, that when the people left their tents to cross the Jordan, with the priests carrying the Ark of the Covenant before the people, 15 and as those who carried the Ark came to the Jordan, and the feet of the priests who carried the ark were dipped in the edge of the water (now the Jordan overflows all its banks all through the harvest season), 16 that the waters which came down from above stood. They rose in a single heap very far off, at the city of Adam, which is beside Zarethan. The [waters] flowing downward towards the Sea of Arabah, the Salt Sea, ceased and were cut off, and the people crossed over opposite Jericho. 17 And the priests who carried the Ark of the Covenant of Yahweh stood on dry ground in the middle of the Jordan, and all Israel crossed over on dry ground, until the whole nation had finished crossing the Jordan.
1And then, when all the people had finished crossing the Jordan, Yahweh spoke to Joshua, saying,, 2"Take yourself twelve men from the people, one man from each tribe 3And command them, 'Pick up twelve stones from here in the middle of the Jordan, where the priests' feet stood firm, and carry them across with you, and set them in the where you stay to spend the night.'"
4Then Joshua called the twelve men he had chosen from the Israelites, one man from each tribe. 5 And Joshua said to them, "Cross over in front of the ark of Yahweh your god into the middle of the Jordan, and each of you lift one stone on his shoulder, for the number of Israelite tribes, 6 so that this will be a sign among you, when your children ask you in the future, 'What are these stones to you?' 7 Then you will say to them that the waters of the Jordan wer cut off for the ark of Yahweh's covenant; when it passed across the Jordan, the waters of the Jordan were cut off. And these stones will be for a memorial to the Israelites forever." 8 And the Israelites did just as Joshua commanded, and picked up twelve stones from the middle of the Jordan, as Yahweh said to Joshua, for the number of the Israelite tribes. And they carried them with them to the place where they stayed the night and set them down there. 9 And Joshua set up twelve stones in the middle of the Jordan, where the feet of the priests carrying the ark stood, and they are there to this day. 10 And the priests carrying the ark stood in the middle of the Jordan until everything was finished that Yahweh commanded Joshua to tell the people, according to everything Moses had commanded Joshua, and the people hurried across. 11 And then, when all the people had finished crossing, the ark of Yahweh and the priests passed over in front of the people. 12And the Reubenites and the Gadites, and half the tribe of Manasseh crossed over armed in front of the Israelites, just as Moses told them. 13 About forty thousand crossed over prepared for battle before Yahweh, to the plains of Jericho. 14 On that day Yahweh exalted Joshua in the eyes of all Israel, and they feared him, as they had feared Moses, all the days of his life.
15 And Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying, 16 "Command the priests carrying the ark of the testimonty to come up out of the Jordan."
17 And Joshua commanded the priests, "Come up out of the Jordan." 18 And then, when the priest carrying the ark of Yahweh's covenant came up from the midlle of the Jordan, the priest's soles touches the dry land, and the waters of the Jordan returned to their place, and went up to their former level. 19 And the people came up out of the Jordan on the tenth [day] of the first month, and stayed at Gilgal, along the eastern border of Jericho.
20 And those twelve stones, which they took out of the Jordan, Joshua set up at Gilgal. 21 And he said to the Israelites, "When your sons ask their fathers one day, 'What are these stones?', 22 then tell you children, 'Israel crossed this Jordan on dry land,' 23 when Yahweh your god dried up the waters of the Jordan for you until you had crossed over, just as Yahweh your god did to the Red Sea, which he dried up for us until we crossed over, 24 so that all the peoples of the earth will know that Yahweh's hand is strong, so that you may fear Yahweh your god forever.
1 Now when all the Amorite kings who were across the Jordan westward, and all the Canaanite kings who were by the sea, heard that Yahweh had dried up the water of the Jordan in front of the Israelites until we crossed over, their hearts melted, and there was no spirit in them any more because of the Israelites. 2 At that time Yahweh said to Joshua, "Make yourself flint knives and, once again, circumcise the Israelites." 3 And Joshua made himself flint knives and circumcised the Israelites at the Foreskin Hill. 4 And this is the reason Joshua circumcised: all the people who left Egypt, the males, all the men of war, died in the wilderness along the way after they left Egypt. 5 While all the people who left were circumcised, all the people born in the widlerness along the way after they left Egypt were not circumcised. 6 For the Israelites went forty years in the wilderness until all whole nation, the men of war who left Egypt, had died, because they did not listen to Yahweh's voice, and Yahweh swore to them that he would not show them the land which Yahweh swore to their fathers to give us, a land flowing with milk and honey. 7 And their children he raised up in their place -- Joshua circumcised them, because they were uncircumcised, because they had not circumcised them along the way.
8 Now when they were finished circumcising all the people, they stayed in their places in the camp until they were healed. 9 And Yahweh said to Joshua, "Today I have rolled the reproach of Egypt off of you." And the name of that place was called Gilgal to this day. 10 And the Israelites camped in Gilgal and kept the passover on the fourteenth day of the month, at evening, on the plains of Jericho. 11 And they ate from the produce of the land the next day after the passover, that very day, unleavened bread and parched grain that very day. 12 And the manna ceased on the next day when they had eaten the produce of the land, and the Israelites no longer had manna. They ate from the crops of the land of Canaan that year.
13 Now, when Joshua was at Jericho, he lifted his eyes and saw, and there was a man standing across from him, with his sword drawn in his hand. And Joshua went over to him and said to him, "Are you with us or with our enemies?"
14 And he said, "No, but rather as the leader of Yahweh's army I have now come." And Joshua fell, his face to the earth, and did homage, and said to him, "What does my lord say to his servant?"
15 And the leader of Yahweh's army said to Joshua, "Take your sandal from your foot, because this place where you stand is holy." And Joshua did so.
1 Now Jericho was securely shut because of the Israelites: no one went out or came in. 2 And Yahweh said to Joshua, "Look -- I will deliver Jericho into your hand, and its king, its soldiers. 3 You will encircle the city, all the warriors. Go around the city one time: do this for six days. 4 And seven priests will carry seven rams-horn trumpets in front of the ark, and on the seventh day you will encircle the city seven times, and the priest will sound the trumpets. 5 Then, when they give a long blast on the trumpet-horn, when you hear the sound of the rams-horn, all the people will shout a great shout, and the city wall will fall down flat, and the people will go up by ranks."
6 And Joshua bin Nun called the priests and said to them, "Take up the ark of the covenant, and let seven priests carry seven rams-horn trumpets in front of Yahweh's ark."
7 And they said to the people, "Cross over and encircle the city, and let whoever is armed cross over in front of Yahweh's ark."
8 Now when Joshua told the people, seven priests carrying seven rams-horn trumpets in front of Yahweh crossed over and blew on the trumpets, and the ark of Yahweh's covenant followed them. 9 And the armed men went in front of the priests blowing the trumpets, and the rear guard followed the ark, going and blowing on the trumpets. 10 And Joshua had commanded the people, "Do not shout, or make any sound with your voice, and let no word come out of your mouth, until the day I tell you to shout; then shout."
11 And Yahweh's ark encircled the city, going around one time. And they came into the camp, and stayed the night in the camp.
12 And Joshua rose early at dawn, and the priests carried Yahweh's ark. 13 And seven priests carrying seven rams-horn trumpets in front of Yahweh's ark went along, blowing on the trumpets, and the armed men went in front of them, and the rear guard followed Yahweh's ark, blowing on the trumpets as they went. 14 And the second day they encircled the city one time, and returned to camp. They did so for six days.
15 Then on the seventh day they got up early, around daybreak, and encircled the city in the same manner seven times; only on that day did they encircle the city seven times. 16 Then, the seventh time, the priests blew with the trumpets. And Joshua said to the people, "Shout, because Yahweh has given you the city." 17 And the city will be devoted for destruction, it and everything in it, for Yahweh. Only Rahab the prostitute will live, she and all who are with her in the house, because she hid the messengers that we sent. 18 Make sure to keep yourselves away from the devoted things, or else you will be cursed, when you take the devoted things, and cause the camp of Israel to be devoted, and trouble it. 19 And all the silver and gold, and objects of brass and iron, will be consecrated to Yahweh. They will come into Yahweh's treasury." 20 And the people shouted and they blew on the trumpets, and then when the people heard the sound of the trumpet, the people shouted a great shout, and the wall fell flat, and the people went up to the city in ranks, and captured the city. 21 And they totally destroyed everything in the city: from men to women, from young to old, to oxen and sheep and goats and donkeys, with the edge of the sword.
22 And Joshua said to the two young men who spied out the land, "Go into the house of the prostitute, and bring out the woman and all who are hers from there, as you swore to her." 23 And the young men who were spies went it and brought out Rahab, and her father, and her mother, and her brothers, and all she had, and they brought out all her family and left them outside the Israelite camp. 24 As for the city, they burnt it with fire, and everything in it, except for the silver and the gold, and the objects of brass and iron, which they brought to the treasure of Yahweh's house. 25 But as for Rahab the prostitute, and her father's household, and all her relatives, Joshua kept them alive, and they live among the Israelites to the present day, because she hid the messengers whom Joshua sent to spy out Jericho. 26 And Joshua placed them under oath at that time, saying, "Cursed is the man before Yahweh who rises and builds this city, Jericho. With his firstborn he will lay the foundation, and with his youngest he will set up the gates." 27 And Yahweh was with Joshua, and he was renowned throughout the land.
1 But the Israelites were unfaithful concerning the devoted thing: Achan ben Carmi ben Zebdi ben Zerah, of the tribe of Judah, took from the devoted things, and Yahweh's wrath flared up against the Israelites. 2 And Joshua sent men from Jericho to the Ai, which is by Beth-aven, east of Beth-el, and said to them, "Go up and spy out the land." And the men went up and spied out the Ai.
3 And they returned to Joshua and said to him, "Not all the people need to go up. Let two or three thousand men go up and attack the Ai. Do not make all the people bother with it, because they are few." 4 So about three thousand of the people went up there, but they fled before the men of the Ai. 5 And the men of the Ai killed about thirty-six men, and they pursued them out in front of the city gate as far as Shebarim, and killed them on the way down. So the heart of the people melted and turned to water.
6 And Joshua tore his mantle and fell on his face to the ground before Yahweh's ark until evening, he and the elders of Israel, and they put dust on their heads. 7 And Joshua said, "Oh Lord Yahweh, why have you brought this people across the Jordan? To hand us over to the Amorites? To destroy us? If only we had been willing to settle on the other side of the Jordan! 8 O Yahweh, what can I say after Israel turns their back before their enemies? 9 And the Canaanites and all the inhabitants of the land will hear, and they will surround us and cut off our name from the earth, and what will you do for your great name?"
10 And Yahweh said to Joshua, "Get up. Why are you lying face down? 11 Israel has sinned. Indeed, they have broken my covenant which I commanded them. Indeed, they have taken from the devoted things. Indeed, they have stolen. Indeed, they have lied. Indeed, they have put it among their own things. 12 So the Israelites could not stand against their enemies, turning their back before their enemies, because they were under the ban. And I will not be with you anymore, unless you destroy the banned thing from among you. 13 Get up. Consecrate the people, and say, Consecrate yourselves tomorrow, because this is what Yahweh, the god of Israel, says, A banned thing is among you, Israel. You are not able to stand against your enemies till you purge the banned thing from among you. 14 And you will be brought near in the morning by your tribes, and then the tribe which Yahweh selects will approach by its clans, and the clan which Yahweh selects will approach by its families, and the family which Yahweh selects will approach man by man. 15 And then the one who is selected with the banned thing will be burned with fire, him and all that belong to him, because he has broken the covenant of Yahweh, and because he has acted recklessly in Israel."
16 And Joshua got up early in the morning and brought Israel by its tribes, and the tribe of Judah was selected. 17 And he brought the family of Judah, and he selected the Zarhite clan. And he brought the Zarhite clan man by man, and Zabdi was selected. 18 And he brought his family man by man, and Achan ben Zabdi ben Zerah, of the tribe of Judah, was selected. 19 And Joshua said to Achan, "My son, please, give glory to Yahweh the god of Israel, and make a confession to him. Now tell me what you have done. Do not hide it from me."
20 And Achan replied to Joshua, "It is true. I have sinned against Yahweh the god of Israel, and I have done such and such. 21 I saw among the spoil a fine Babylonian garment, and two hundred shekels of silver, and a bar of gold weighing fifty shekels, and I wanted them, and I took them, and now they are hidden in the ground within my tent, and the silver is under it."
22 And Joshua sent messengers, and they ran to the tent, and there it was, hidden in his tent, with the silver under it. 23 And they took them from the tent, and brought them to Joshua and to all the Israelites, and laid them out before Yahweh.
24 And Joshua took Achan ben Zerah, and the silver, and the garment, and the bar of gold, and his sons, and his daughters, and his oxen, and his donkeys, and his flocks, and his tent, and all that he had, along with all of Israel with him, and brought them up to the valley of Achor. 25 And Joshua said, "Why have you troubled us? Yahweh will trouble you today." And all Israel stoned him with stones, and burned them with fire after they had stoned them with stones. 26 And they raised over him a great heap of stones to this day. And Yahweh turned from his fierce anger. That is why the place is called the valley of Achor to this day.
1Then God told Joshua: "Don't dread or be fearful; take with you all the multitude of fighters and go to the town of Ai: Look! I have given into your hand the king and the people and the city and land. 2And do to the city of Ai and to its king as you did to Jericho and to its king; take loot and its livestock. Build a trap: ambush bivouacs behind the city."
3Joshua rose and all the fighting men gathered, and went into Ai, and thirty thousand chosen men went there by night.
4And he said, "build a trap: ambush bivouacs behind the city, don't retreat far away, and you should all be ready. 5I will go with the others, and approach the city from the opposite side; we shall come into the city opposite you, and when they come against us, we will flee, and turn our backs, 6until they pursue us far away from their city. 7Them pursuing and us fleeing, you should rise up from your ambush bivouacs and shall take the city: the Lord God will take it in your hands. 8When you have taken it, I command you to set it on fire."
9The ambush bivouacs were set between Bethel and Ai, on the west side of the city of Ai. That night, Joshua dwelt there in the middle of the fighters. 10Rising early, he inspected the fighters and, with the elders, went in the front of the army. 11With all the fighters, they neared the city, coming from the city's north side, and between the army and the city was a valley. 12He chose five thousand men, and sent them to the ambush bivouacs on the city's west side between Bethel and Ai. 13He positioned the people that were on the north side of the city, and the rear on the west side of the city. Then Joshua went at night and stood in the valley between his army and the city.
14Then the king of Ai saw him, and, in the morning, he, in haste, went with the city's army, against Joshua, ignorant of the Jews' trap: the ambush bivouacs. 15Joshua, however, and all the Jews with him fled by way of the wilderness, pretending to be afraid. 16And all the people of Ai rallied, and pursued the Jews far away from Ai. 17And nobody remained in Ai and Bethel that didn't pursue the Jews. They left, leaving the towns empty.
18And God said to Joshua, "Raise up your shield towards Ai, and I will give it to you." 19And when Joshua raised his shield towards Ai, the men in the ambush bivouacs rose up, took Ai, and set it on fire. 20The people of Ai that pursued the Jews saw the smoke rising up to heaven, saw that they could not retreat toward or away from their city anymore from the Jews that feigned flight into the desert, and couldn't fight against the Jews, who withstood their pursuers mightily. 21And Joshua and all the Jews, seeing the city taken and the flames rising toward heaven, turned and beat the people of Ai. 22And they that took Ai and set it on fire left the city and went in the midst of their enemies and beat them. They slew the men of Ai, so many that no man of the multitude was spared. 23But they took the king alive and brought him to Joshua. 24Then the Jews killed all that pursued them into the desert, killed them by the sword where they were. They turned again and beat the city. 25There were of woman and men that fell on that same day, twelve thousand men of all the city of Ai. 26Joshua didn't lower his hand that held the shield high until all the men of Ai had been killed 27The livestock, however, the Jews took as loot, as God commanded Moses. 28They burnt the city, and made it an everlasting tomb. 29The king of Ai they hung in the gallows and put on display until evening when the sun was going down. The people did as Joshua commanded and disposed of the king's body. They threw it in one of the entrances to Ai, and piled upon it a permanent heap of stone that is there to this day.
30Then Joshua commanded an alter to be built to the Lord God of Israel on mount Ebal,31as Moses, the servant of God, commanded, and it was written in the volume of the law of Moses: make an alter of unworked stone that iron never touched, and offer a sacrifice to the Lord, and peace offerings. 32And it was written on the stones a restatement of the law of Moses, and Joshua told it to the Jews. 33All the people, increased through births, dukes, and judges stood on either side of the ark, in clear sight of the priests and Levites, and the people who carried the ark of the covenant; foreigners and natives; half of them by mount Garizim, and the other half by mount Ebal, as Moses, the servant of the Lord, commanded. First, Joshua blessed the Jews. 34After that, he read the words of blessing and cursing, and everything in the volume of the law of Moses. Nothing that Moses commanded was left out; everything was declared to the multitude of Israel, men, women, children, and foreigners that lived in Israel.
1 And the lot of the children of Joseph fell from the Jordan Jericho, to the waters of Jericho on the east, to the wilderness going up from Jericho in the hill-country of Bethel, 2 and went out from Bethel to Luz, and passed over to the border of the Archites Ataroth, 3 and went down westward to the border of the Japhletites, to the border of Lower Beth Horon, and to Gezer, and its end was at the sea. 4 And the children of Joseph: Manasseh and Ephraim, took their inheritance.
5 And the border of the children of Ephraim was according to their families; the border of their inheritance eastwards was Ataroth Addar as far as the upper Beth Horon. 6 And the border went out westward the Michmethath on the north, and the border turned around eastward to Taanath Shiloh, and passed along it on the east to Janoah. 7 And it went down from Janoah to Ataroth, and to Naarah, and reached to Jericho, and went out at the Jordan. 8 From Tappuah the border went along westward to the brook of Kanah. And the goings out of it were at the sea. This is the inheritance of the tribe of the sons of Ephraim according to their families, 9 together with the cities which were set apart for the sons of Ephraim in the midst of the inheritance of the sons of Manasseh, all the cities with their villages. 10 And they did not drive out the Canaanites who dwelt in Gezer; and the Canaanites dwell in the midst of Ephraim to this day, and are serving forced labor.
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- Our lives for yours. Literally, our lives instead of yours to die.
- Literally, his blood [is] on his head.
- (3:4) before. Literally, yesterday and the day before yesterday.
- (4:23) the Red Sea. Hebrew, Yam Suph.
- (5:9) Gilgal. The text is creating a pun between the name "Gilgal" and the similar-sounding Hebrew word "rolled."
- (7:2). Ai means ruin, and the biblical Ai generally speaking was a large ruin where a city had once been, although according to Joshua it was an inhabited city at the time of the Israelite conquest.
- (7:5) Shebarim. Some read this not as a proper noun, but as a common noun meaning "quarries" (several translations) or even "fissures" (NET).
- (7:21) two hundred shekels. About five pounds, a very large quantity of money.
- (7:21) fifty shekels. A little over a pound, and given the value of gold an even larger sum of money.
- (7:25) troubled. The text is implicitly drawing a connection between the verb trouble (akar) and the name of the valley (Hebrew, akor, English Achor).
- "(A trap:) ambush bivouac(s)"; literally trap(s), barrack(s), or ambush(es)
- "could not retreat toward or away from their city anymore"; literally, "Could no more flee hither(to here) and thither(to there)"; Hither(to here) is away from their city, towards the Jews that feigned flight, Thither(to there) is back to their city, which the Jews in the ambush bivouacs set on fire.
- "hung in the gallows and put on display"; "hung in a gibbet" would be a better translation if gibbet was a more common word (it means "gallows" or "a device for showing off executed criminals")
- Chapter 8 is translated from the Clementine Vulgate; should be checked and proofread. Remove this tag when that's done.