Translation:Shulchan Aruch/Orach Chaim/244

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1. A person agrees with a non-Jew about work to be done and sets a price, and the non-Jew does the work by himself, even if he works on Shabbat, it is permissible. This law is discussed when the work is done in private since most people won’t recognize that this work is being done on Shabbat for the Jew, but if it was well known and publicized, then it is prohibited because when others look at the non-Jew work, they don’t know that the Jew and the non-Jew set a price and they will say that the Jew is hiring the non-Jew to do work for him on Shabbat. Therefore, one who establishes work with a non-Jew to build a house, a courtyard, a wall, or to harvest his field: if the work is in the same state, and in the t’chum, it is forbidden to allow the non-Jew to work on Shabbat because those who see him will not know a price has been set. RAMA: And even if the Jew lives among non-Jews, there is still what to be concerned regarding guests or members of his own household who will suspect him. [END RAMA] And if the work was outside the t’chum and also no other city is within the t’chum where work is being done then it is permissible, and the non-Jews that herd sheep belonging to Jews into a pen of his field.

2. To cut stones or to fix roofs, even in the house of the non-Jew, is forbidden since the work is for the need of something connected to the ground. And if he did so, you should not sink the house. RAMA: Some say that if the Jew’s ownership isn’t publicized, then it’s permissible.

3. If a non-Jew built a house on Shabbat for a Jew in a forbidden manner, it is proper to be stringent by not entering it. RAMA: However, if the Jew stipulated with the non-Jew to not do work for him on Shabbat and the non-Jew did it against his will to finish the work faster, you have nothing to be concerned about.

4. Public work even to movable objects such as a boat that is known to be a Jew’s is treated with the laws of work to objects connected to the ground.

5. If he hired a non-Jew for a year or two to write for him or sew him clothes, behold the non-Jew can write and sew on Shabbat. It is as if he arranged with him that he will write him a book or that he will sew him clothes any time he desires, and that day-by-day was not a consideration. He should not do the work in the Jew’s house. Some forbid hiring a non-Jew for a period of time. RAMA: This was said specifically regarding when he was hired to work for a specific task, such as sewing clothes or writing a book. But when he is hired for any work that he needs in that timeframe, then everyone agrees that is forbidden.

6. If a Jew bought the rights to collect taxes and hired a non-Jew to collect on Shabbat, it is permissible if he arranged it with him according to kablanut, that is he says, “when you extract 100 dinarim, I will give you such and such.” RAMA: He is able to hire a non-Jew to collect taxes for any Shabbat, and the non-Jew will take the profits earned on Shabbat for himself. We are not concerned that people will say the non-Jew is working for the sake of the Jew because in situations of loss like this we’re not concerned. And a Jew who oversees money of a king has the same rules applied as one who oversees money of tax, even though his voice is heard on Shabbat, see below simon 252. The Jew should be careful to not sit next the non-Jew on Shabbat when he’s involved with his money or receiving taxes.