Translation:Shulchan Aruch/Orach Chaim/254

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1. The Laws of Food Prepared Erev Shabbos in order to complete on Shabbos, containing 9 Seifim: Although it is permitted to do She’hiya [leaving a pot on the stove over Shabbos] with raw meat, this refers to {meat cooked} in a pot, but placing meat for roasting next to a fire close to Shabbos is forbidden, since it it roasts quickly and one might stir the coals. However, this is only for beef or goat meat; but kid or fowl, cut up into sections, are permitted (to be placed next to a fire for roasting). We do not fear that the coals might be stirred, since such meat will burn (i.e., go beyond the stage of roast and become burned meat) if the coals are stirred, for they require no more than the heat of the fire. However, (if roasting is done) in an oven whose mouth is sealed with clay, then even a whole kid or fowl, as well as beef or goat meat are permitted. We need not fear that anyone will stir up the coals, for if the stove will be opened for stirring air will enter, cooling the stove and causing the meat to harden and spoil. RAMA: There is no difference here whether it is completely raw or somewhat cooked. [Beis Yosef]. As long as the body (of the animal) is whole, even if its head or feet are not attached to it, it is considered whole (Hagahos Mordechai). There are some who are stringent and hold that everything is permitted in a stove that is sealed with clay, and, (on the other hand) everything is forbidden over an open fire. The distinction made between a kid and fowl and other meat, exists only where the mouth of the oven is closed but not sealed with clay. Common practice is in accordance with this opinion (Tur, Hagahos Ashiri, Beis Yosef in the name of Rashi, the Smag, the Smak).

2. It is forbidden to roast onions, eggs, or meat on coals unless there is enough time in the day for them to be roasted on both sides, to the degree of Ma’achal ben Derusa’i, which means half-cooked, even if it is kid meat. The reason is that since one placed them on coals, one’s principal concern is that the roasting be done quickly – even if the meat gets scorched, and we therefore fear that the coals will be stirred. However when it is already roasted to the degree of Ma’achal ben Derusa’i, then even in the case of beef, we do not fear that the coals might be stirred, for since it is already edible, there is no reason that anyone would want to stir the coals and ruin it.

3. When roasting is done on Shabbos in a prohibited manner, whether through intentional transgressing or after forgetting (that it is forbidden), it (the food) is forbidden.

4. Fruit that is usually eaten raw is permitted to be place around the pot, even though there is not sufficient time for them to roast [completely] before dark. However it is necessary to be careful not to return the cover if it is close to dark and not to add to it because one will be hastening [the fruit’s] cooking on Shabbos.

5. Before nightfall [on Friday], it is forbidden to place bread in an oven unless there is enough time during the day for a crust to form on the side of the loaf that sticks to the oven, and one may not place a loaf to be baked on [or over] coals unless there is enough time during the day for a crust to form on the side of the loaf facing the fire. RAMA: And any that is sliced and the pieces stick are called קרימת פנים, crusted on the face/top (Hagahos Maimoni). Pashtida and פלאדי"ן require a crust on the surface on top and bottom, and what is inside it must be cooked to Ma'achal Ben D'rusai (Beis Yosef in the name of the Sma"g...) If one placed them (on the coals/fire), close to nightfall and their surface did not crust, if one did so intentionally it is forbidden until Motzei Shabbat for the one who made it; and if unintentionally, if one did not have anything else to eat one is permitted to remove it for the Third Meal. One may tell others who do not have anything else to eat to come and remove the food for the Third Meal; and when removing the bread, he should not remove it with a baker’s peel, but rather with a knife or something similar so that he doesn't do it the same way he does during the weekdays. If one cannot remove the bread in a different way, he may remove it with a baker's peel. And if one waited the amount of time it takes for it to crust, so that he will not perform a forbidden task and it is a Shabbat need, he may remove it like he normally does; if not for a Shabbat need, he may not do so even in a different way. RAMA: All of this applies regarding an oven that is not sealed with clay (Hagahos Ashiri). However if it is sealed with clay, or he is not baking it for the needs of Shabbat, but rather for Motzei Shabbat where it has time to bake, it is permitted because we do not make a Gezeirah in this situation due to (worrying) he might rake the coals (Kol Bo)

6. If one placed it (on the fire) on Shabbos, even intentionally, one may remove it before it bakes so one will not come to an Issur who's punishment is stoning.

7. In our ovens, which do not have the removal of bread, it is permitted to take it out prior to the Third Meal with a knife or with something that it will stick to. Nevertheless, one should not remove [a loaf] with a baker’s shovel so that he not follow his ordinary weekday practice.

8. A person may not fill a pot with beans, vetch [A type of bean usually used for animal fodder, but edible for humans after extensive cooking], or other kitniyos, and place it on a range on Erev Shabbos close to nightfall because these things do not require much cooking and the common practice is to eat them immediately. Because of this, even if they are not cooked like they should be, they are considered as if fully cooked when the begin to cook and we do not cook them like this because it is forbidden to delay it. This is the law as well for a Kirah and a Kupach (types of ovens). RAMA: when they are not Garuf v'Katum and it is possible to stir the coals (Beis Yosef). If one does this, even unintentionally, it is forbidden to the person until the time it takes to make it.

9. Likewise, one may not fill a cask of water and put it in the oven lest he forget; and if he does so it is forbidden to be used by the person who did this.