Translation:Shulchan Aruch/Orach Chaim/271

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1. When he arrives at his home, he should hurry to eat the meal immediately.

2. Women are obligated in Kiddush, even though it is a positive commandment that time causes (meaning, a positive commandment dependent on time), because Remember is compared to Guard. And these women, since they are included in watching, they are include in remembering. And they can discharge men (from their obligation) since they are obligated biblically, like them.

3. If he has not the means (finances) at hand to purchase wine for Kiddush and to prepare the needs of the meal for both the meal at night, the meal on Shabbat day and Kiddush for Shabbat day, it is better to purchase wine for the night Kiddush rather than to purchase needs for meals or wine for Kiddush on Shabbat day. For as it is taught: "The honor of the day precedes the honor of the night, this is only with regards to other needs of the meal. However if he does not have more than one cup for Kiddush, then the honor of the night is prioritized over the honor of the day.

4. It is forbidden to taste anything before one makes Kiddush [at night], even water. And even if one began eating while it was still day, he needs to stop eating, spread out a tablecloth [to set up the meal] and make Kiddush. And if they were drinking wine first, they only need to say the Bracha of Kiddush and not a Bracha on the wine. Afterward they will make a Bracha on the bread. And if he does not have wine, he can make Kiddush on bread, he need not make a Bracha on bread [because he has already been part of a meal where bread was eaten]. There are those who say that even if he makes a Bracha on wine, he also need not make a Bracha on the bread.

5. Two people who were drinking and then said "Come, let us make Kiddush", they are forbidden from drinking more until they make Kiddush. If they want to return and drink before they make Kiddush, even if they are required, need to again make the Bracha on the wine and then they can drink. RAMA: A person who forgot to make Kiddush and realized only after he make the Bracha on the bread, and yet remembered before he ate; should make Kiddush on the bread and then eat it. But, if it was Havdalah, he should first eat the bread - for we do not make Havdalah on bread. (Hagahos Alfasi; Mordechai).

6. If one finishes his meal and says the kiddush of the day before he says Birkat Hamazon, he should say Birkat Hamazon and afterwards say the kiddush of the day over a second cup. One must mention Shabbat during Birkat Hamazon even though he says it prior to Kiddush. RAMA: There are those who say that we do not mention Shabbat before the beginning of the meal, and such is the essence as is brought at the end of Siman 188. And there is a disagreement if we taste from the cup of Birkat Hamazon before we say kiddush and if we need to eat a little bit after the kiddush so that the kiddush will be at the place of the meal. There are those who say that if at the end of one's meal one did not say Birkat Hamazon, he spreads out a tablecloth, makes kiddush, says Hamotzi and eats a little and then afterwards says Birkat Hamazon. RAMA: And such is our custom to take out from the spirit of the disagreement the first opinion.7. Even if it is forbidden for one to taste food before Kiddush, if they did taste food, they should still make Kiddush.

7. Even though it is forbidden to taste before kiddush, if he does taste he still makes kiddush.

8. If one did not make Kiddush at night - whether it was unintentional or intentional, he must make up for it the next day. RAMA: And he should say all of the text of Kiddush of the night (Beis Yosef) except for "Vayechulu" (Orach Chayim in the name of Tosefos)

9. There needs to be a tablecloth on the table underneath the bread and another cloth spread out on top of the bread.

10. One should make Kiddush on a full cup of wine that is not blemished, and to require all that us required for a cup for Birkat Hamazon, and to say 'Vayechulu' while standing and afterwards one says 'boreh pri hagafen' and afterwards one says kiddush. RAMA: One may stand during the time of Kiddush but it is better to sit (Kol Bo). Our custom is to sit even while saying 'Vayechulu', except when we begin we stand a bit to honor Hashem, because we begin 'Yom Hashishi, Vayechulu Hashamayim' and it hints to Hashem in the first letters of this phrase. When one begins he should look at the candles (Mahar"il; Sechel Tov) during kiddush with the cup of blessing. And so it seems to me, see above Siman 173 Seif 4.

11. If he only has one cup, he uses it at night for kiddush and does not taste from it so he will not blemish it. Rather he pours it into another cup and tastes the kiddush wine from the second cup. The next day, he blesses over what remains in the first cup. If one has but an exact reviis of undiluted wine and he decreased from it at night, he blends it with water to make the reviis. This is specifically if he has another cup for Havdalah. For if he has this, it is best that he uses it for Havdalah, for he cannot say it over the bread that he said kiddush over, and he does not have wine for Havdalah. If he has two cups after diluting with water he makes kiddush with one at night and makes havdalah over the second and he does not make kiddush during the day, because the kiddush at night is preferable.

12. After he blesses over the cup, one washes his hands and says 'Al Netilat Yadayim'. If he washed his hands prior to Kiddush, גלי דעתיה דריפתא חביבא ליה, and he does not make kiddush over the wine, rather over the bread. RAMA: There are those who say that initially, one should wash his hands before kiddush and then make kiddush over wine (the Rosh; Mordechai; Rashba; Hagahos Maimoni; Tur) and such is the simple custom in our lands and it is not to be changed except on erev Pesach, as explained in Siman 473

13. One must drink a cheekful from the Kiddush cup, i.e. if one moves all the wine to one side of their mouth and their cheek appears full, and this is the majority of a Revi'it.

14. If the one who makes kiddush does not taste the wine, and another person who is dining there tastes the wine with a mouthful, he has fulfilled his obligation. Two people cannot combine to equal a mouthful. In all cases it is preferable for the mitzvah if everyone tastes the wine. There are those who say that if everyone tastes a mouthful they have fulfilled their obligation, because everyone's drinking combines to equal the measurement. The Gaonim hold that if the person making kiddush does not taste the wine he has not fulfilled his obligation and it is appropriate to concern ourselves over their words. Specifically regarding kiddush; but regarding other things that require a cup the Gaonim acknowledge that it is sufficient for another to taste it.

15. If one makes kiddush and before he tastes it he pauses to talk, he must go back and say 'boreh pri hagafen' but is not required to go back and say kiddush. This is the law if the cup spills prior to tasting from it. One brings another cup and says 'boreh pri hagafen' over it and he does not have to go back and say kiddush.

16. The others dining should not taste [their wine] before the one who recites Kiddush tastes [his wine] if they need [the wine] in his cup to be poured into their empty or blemished cups. If, however, they have unblemished cups of wine, they may partake of the wine before the one who recited Kiddush drinks.

17. One does not need to pour from the cup of the one who makes kiddush into the cups in front of the other diners unless they are blemished. For then one must pour into each and every cup so everyone can drink from a cup that is unblemished.