Translation:Shulchan Aruch/Orach Chaim/272

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The Wine Over Which Kiddush Is Recited, 10 Seifim: 1. Wine with an unpleasant fragrance may not be used for Kiddush even though its smell and taste is like wine, nor on uncovered wine, in the present era, we are not careful about [eating or drinking food and beverages that] were left uncovered. RAMA: We do not make kiddush over wine who's fragrance is like wine but who's taste is like vinegar. (Tur)

2. [Unfermented] wine [directly] from the wine press may be used for Kiddush. [Indeed,] a person may squeeze a cluster of grapes and recite Kiddush over [its juice].

3. Kiddush may be recited over wine from the top of the barrel even though there are white flecks in it. RAMA: And there are those who forbid this; rather we filter it initially to remove the flecks (Hagahos Mordechai; Beis Yosef in the name of Orach Chayim; Tosefos). Kiddush may be recited over wine from the bottom of the barrel even though it has dregs. [so, too,] over black wine, and over sweet wine. So too on wine whose smell is like vinegar but whose taste is like wine. Even though [such wines are acceptable,] the optimal manner of fulfilling the mitzvah is to choose superior wine over which to recite Kiddush.

4. Kiddush may be recited over white wine, but the Rambam disqualifies it, even after the fact. But we may recite havdalah on it. The custom of the world is like the first opinion.

5. Undiluted wine, even if it is so strong that it is fit to be diluted to the extent that three parts of water are added to one part of wine may be used for Kiddush. Nevertheless, it is preferable to dilute it, provided it is blended in the appropriate manner. RAMA: Our wines are not so strong and they are preferably drunk without dilution. (Tur)

6. Kiddush may be recited over raisin wine (provided some moisture can be squeezed from them before they are steeped in water) (Tur).

7. Kiddush may be recited over wine made by steeping grape dregs and pits in water if it is fit to recite the blessing Borei pri hagafen over it (And see above Siman 204 Seif 5).

8. We say Kiddush over cooked wine and over wine that has honey in it. There are those who so we do not say Kiddush over them. RAMA: The custom is to make Kiddush over them even if one has other wine, but it is not as good as the cooked wine or wine with honey. (Agur)

9. Wherever wine is uncommon, there are those who say we may say Kiddush over liquor and other beverages, except for water. And there are those who say we cannot say Kiddush over these. According to the Rosh, on Friday night, one should say Kiddush over bread and not liquor; and on Saturday, it is better to say Kiddush over liquor, so that they will bless "SheHaKol" before "HaMotzi", because if one said Kiddush over bread initialy, there would be no change here (from the Friday night blessing), and these are the reasons. RAMA: And the simple custom is according to the words of the Rosh. And if there is wine in the town, one should not say Kiddush over bread. And someone who doesn't drink wine on account of a vow, they should bless over the wine and the others sitting with them should drink; but if there are not others with them, they should say Kiddush over bread and not wine; or that person can listen to others say Kiddush (and answer Amen). (Hagahos Maimoni; Teshuvos Maimoni).

10. The blessing of the wine during Kiddush exempts wine (from a blessing) during the meal. We do not require a blessing after it because Birkat Hamazon exempts it, whether it is over a cup or not. (And see above Siman 174 Seif 6).