Translation:Shulchan Aruch/Orach Chaim/307

From Wikisource
Jump to navigation Jump to search

1. Which things are permitted to say on Shabbat. And following, 14 subsections It is forbidden to pursue your concerns (i.e. tend to mundane matters), even in a matter that does not involve any work, for example, someone enters to see what is necessary for the next day, or one goes to the edge of his town so he can quickly leave to go to the bathhouse as soon as it becomes night, and also when he needs to go beyond the techum in order to hire workers. One may, however, wait until nightfall at the end of his Shabbos limits so that on Saturday night, he can bring back his animal that [wandered] outside the Shabbos limits. And there are those that say if an animal cannot walk using its legs, for example if it is a small lamb [that must be carried on one’s shoulders], it is not permitted to go close to the techum because it is not permitted to bring something that is forbidden to carry [on Shabbos] if it is muktzeh. RAMA: This is the same law that applies to someone who goes out to find a horse or a ship or wagon to depart with. (Mordechai end of Perek 'Mi She'hashchich')

2. If one's animal stood outside the Shabbat limits, one is able to call to it so that it re-enters.

3. We allow it to get dark on the Shabbat limits for the needs of a bride or a corpse, to bring it a coffin and shrouds. And it's possible to say to one's fellow that it is darkening, in order that they will bring to one and one will be able to say "Go to this place tomorrow - if you do not find in this place, go to that - if you do not find such a good at such a price, buy at higher than the price" - as long as one does not mention the sum of the purchase. That is to say, one should not say to them a known sum that they should not add to, and so too if they buy eight one should not say to them "Get me two more and I will owe you for ten". Note: and if it is not possible to do this without mentioning the sum, it's permitted in every matter which is for the needs of a mitzvah (Hagahot Mordechai Chapter 5). And there are those who prohibit in every case, and so is the ikar [?] (Beit Yosef in the name of the Ra"n and the Maggid and the Mordechai, chapter "Kira" [the stove?], and the Gaha"m [?] chapter 1, and the Pacha"v [?])

4. A worker who is hired to watch over seeds or anything else may not be paid for Shabbos and therefore he is not liable for any losses incurred on Shabbos. If he is hired for the week, the month, the year or for a seven year stretch, he may be paid for the Shabbos and thus he is liable for losses incurred on Shabbos. He must not say “pay me for Shabbos”, rather he must say “pay me for the week or for the month” (and if he was hired for a month but the agreement was that he will be paid per day’s work, he is called a day worker) (R"an) or he should say “pay me for ten days work”.

5. It is prohibited to hire Chazanim to pray on Shabbos and there are those who permit it. RAMA: If he is hired for the year or for the month everyone permits it.

6. One may discuss Mitzvah matters such as estimating the costs of a Mitzvah, pledge money to charity, supervise the needs of the community, discuss matchmaking for children, (hiring a teacher to) teach them books and a trade. One may only ask if he is willing to be hired but it is prohibited to hire him or discuss a price. RAMA: Some say that in places where the one who reads the Torah offers a Mi She’beirach and pledges charity, it is forbidden to state the amount he intends to give, (Or Zaruah) but the custom is to be lenient because one may pledge charity.

7. One may measure for a Mitzvah such as calculating whether a Mikvah has forty Se’ah, and to measure the belt of an ill person and chant over it, as is the women’s custom, because it is measuring for a Mitzvah.

8. One may think about one’s business matters, however out of respect for Oneg Shabbos it is a Mitzvah not to ponder over them at all, and it should be in one’s mind as if one has completed one’s work.

9. It is forbidden to say to a non-Jew that they should go outside the Shabbat limits to find the relatives of a dead person, so that the relatives could come and eulogise them. But for a sick person for whom the world is harsh [?], and they say to send for the sick person's relatives, this is certainly permitted.

10. To exchange collateral to a non-Jew on Shabbat is permitted, if it is clothing, and the non-Jew will take the collateral by wearing it.

11. It is permitted to buy a house in Eretz Yisrael from a non-Jew on Shabbat, and seal, and go to the non-Jewish courts. Note: in their script, since [writing in] their script is only forbidden rabbinically, and in a case of settling Eretz Yisrael they did not decree (Or Zarua)

12. It is permitted on Shabbat to publicise the finding of a lost object, even if the lost object must not be moved on Shabbat. Note: and it is permitted to release forbidden items of the community (charmei tzibur) on Shabbat, even though one does not need those items for Shabbat, since it is a day of public assembly for the masses and [this release] is like the business of the masses, which is permitted to speak about. However, we do not render items forbidden (ein machrimin) on Shabbat unless it is something which is necessary for Shabbat.

13. To publicise on Shabbat land that is to be sold, [saying] "All who have rights over this land, come and tell, or if not they will lose their rights" - this is forbidden. Note: and so too it is forbidden to publicise wine on Shabbat, since it is like buying and selling (Mahari"l)

14. One whom they send to him that they have taken his daughter out on Shabbat in order to take her out of the Jewish people ("klal yisrael") - it is a mitzvah to journey immediately to spend much effort to save her, and he goes even outside of three parasangs. And if he does not want to, they force him.