Translation:Shulchan Aruch/Yoreh Deah/92

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Shulchan Aruch by Yosef Karo, translated from Hebrew by Wikisource
Yoreh Deah 92

Seif 1:

An olive-worth of meat that falls into a pot of boiling milk: let a non-Jew taste the dish. If he says that there is a taste of meat in it, it is forbidden. If not, it [the milk] is permitted, even in less than sixty, and that piece [the meat] is forbidden. When is this true? When one quickly removes the piece before it exudes the milk that it absorbed, meaning before the pot rests from its boiling. But if he didn't remove it before it was able to exude the milk it absorbed, even if a non Jew tastes it and it has no taste at all, (Rama) it's forbidden unless there is sixty. See chapter 98 (Shulchan Arukh, Yoreh De'ah 98) that we aren't accustomed to rely on the tasting of a non-Jew and we need sixty every time.

Seif 2:

Milk falls into a pot of meat: [let a non-Jew] taste the piece that the milk fell on. If it does not taste of milk, everything is permitted. If the piece does taste of milk, then that piece is forbidden. For us who don't rely on a non-Jew, we need sixty in the piece, and if there's not sixty then it's all forbidden. And we measure it [the original piece of meat] against the whole [pot]. If there was in all that is in the pot, the pieces, the vegetables, the soup, and the spices, enough that this piece is one in sixty [or less] of the whole, the piece is forbidden and the rest is permitted. In what situation are we speaking? When the pot was not stirred at the beginning when the milk fell in, but only at the end, and the pot wasn't covered. But if it was stirred from beginning until end or was covered from the time of [milk] falling in until the end, everything joins together to nullify the taste of milk. Therefore, if it wasn't stirred at all, not at the beginning and not at the end, and wasn't covered at all, if there is sixty in the pot compared to the drop of milk that fell in, it only prohibits the piece alone, and the rest of the pot is permitted (Bet Yosef in the name of the Ra'avid and Magid Mishnah in the name of the Rambam.) And also if it was stirred at the beginning or covered immediately even though it wasn't stirred or covered at the end, all of the pot joins together, if it was stirred or covered immediately when the prohibited matter fell in (Tur and Bet Yosef in the name of the Ri N Haviv.) Therefore, if [the milk] fell into the soup or onto a piece and we don't know onto which piece it fell, stir the whole pot until it's all mixed. If in the whole pot there is a taste of milk, it's prohibited, and if not, it's permitted. And if there is no non-Jew to taste and be relied on, we measure with sixty (until now, the language of the Rambam.) There are those who disagree and reason that stirring the pot isn't effective unless it's stirred immediately after the prohibited matter fell in, and this is our practice.

Seif 3:

When a piece of meat becomes forbidden due to milk it is prohibited completely. If it was cooked with others, sixty is needed to negate it all. If you recognize it, take it out and the others are acceptable. If you don't recognize it, the sauce is permitted but all the pieces of meat are forbidden if the initial piece was roeeya latchabel (too important to be considered part of a mixture)

Seif 4:

We only say the rule of "the piece itself becomes just as forbidden as a neveila" by milk and meat, but not by other prohibitions, like an olive's bulk of forbidden fat that was absorbed by a piece of meat, and there isn't sixty times [the meat] to nullify [the fat], and it becomes forbidden, and afterwards it was cooked with other meat we only require [the new total] to have sixty times the olive bulk of the fat, and if so, then even the [original] piece of meat itself returns to become permitted. Rema: And there are those that say that we apply to all prohibitions the rule of "the piece becomes just as forbidden as a neveila", and this is the regular custom and it should not be changed. And this is precisely if the forbidden item is attached to the permitted piece of meat, or if the piece of meat is entirely outside of the sauce and the forbidden item fell onto it. But, if part of the piece of meat is inside the sauce and the prohibitted item is not attached to it, we do not say "the piece of meat becomes just as forbidden as a neveila" and the entire pot would combine [to sixty times the forbidden] to nullify the forbidden item. Nevertheless, there is what to be stringent about and to forbid that piece of meat. And all of this is regarding other prohibitions, but by milk and meat, even though there is no forbidden item attached and part of the piece of meat is inside the sauce, we say that "the piece becomes just as forbidden as a neveila". There are those that say that we don't say "the piece becomes just as forbidden as a neveila" if a forbidden liquid became mixed with a permitted liquid, and afterwards the entire thing became mixed with another permitted item; and we would only require sixty times against the [original] forbidden [liquid] that fell [in order to nullify the forbidden part of the mixture]. And there are those that rely on this in other prohibitions if it's needed in a case of great loss, but not by milk and meat. And if a dry item became mixed with a dry item, we don't say by any prohibition that "the piece becomes just as forbidden as a neveila". And see above in chapter 99 according to the law of "the piece becomes just as forbidden as a neveila". A vessel that became forbidden by absorbing a forbidden item, we do not say by it that "the piece becomes just as forbidden as a neveila", and we only need sixty times against the prohibitted item that was absorbed [in order to nullify it], and see above in chapter 98.

Seif 5:

A drop of milk that fell on the outside of a kettle that is on the fire – if it fell opposite the cooked dish, only 60 times the amount of the drop is necessary, for it spreads through to the inside [the pot], such that it is as if [the drop] had fallen on the cooked dish. And if it fell [opposite] an empty place [in the pot], and it spreads through the wall close to the sauce so much that there is not 60 times the amount of the drop, that place on the pot is forbidden, and if he was poured out the cooked dish over the part of the pot that was forbidden, then also the cooked dish becomes forbidden. And this is the solution: he should leave it thus, and not touch it until it is cold. {Rama: And this is true only if the pot is old, but if it is new, in any event, it is only necessary to have 60 times the amount of the drop that fell upon it [the pot], as below in Y.D. 94.}

Seif 6:

Everyone in the world has the practice of forbidding when [the drop] fell on the wall [of the pot] that is not opposite the sauce, But only when it fell on the same side that is not opposite the fire. But if it fell on the side opposite the fire, it is permitted, for the fire incinerates it and dries it up. And in such a case the pot is also permitted. [This is] only for a little thing, like a drop, but if a lot fell, one should not permit even if it fell opposite the fire, unless it is [permitted by being] against the sauce and by means of 60 times the amount. {Rama: In such a case, the pot becomes forbidden even if there is 60 times the amount of the cooked dish as compared to the drop that fell in, and one should immediately pour out the cooked dish on the other side that was not near the drop, and if one cooks another cooked dish in the pot, the rule for it is like in the first instance.}

Seif 7:

There is one who permits, at a time of stress – for example, on erev Shabbat – even when it is not against the sauce, even when it is not against the fire, through the means of bateil beshishim. Hagah: And such is the practice…. A drop that falls upon a lid of a pot – the rule for it is like the rule for a drop that falls on a vessel opposite the sauce, and this is true [only] where the pot has begun to boil, for then the steam continuously rises and reaches the lid and falls from there onto the sauce.

Seif 8:

A dairy frying pan that was placed on the stove beneath a meat pot, the steam rises and it gets absorbed into the large pot, and forbids it. Rama: If there was dairy in the frying pan, we require that there be 60 times of the cooked dish in the pot compared to the milk in the frying pan. And this all is specifically in a case where the frying pan is uncovered and the steam rises from the food itself to the pot that is on top of it and also when it is close enough that a hand reflexively pulls away from the steam at the place that [the steam] touches the pot. But if a hand does not reflexively pull away from the steam it is all permitted. And therefore, one may hang meat to dry out on top of pots of milk and we are not concerned about the rising steam. And so too if the frying pan is covered, all of it is permitted--–just as in the case of two pots that touch one another, which do not forbid one another. Nonethless, ideally, one should be stringent about all of this.

Seif 9:

A tallow candle made like a wax candle from which falls a drop [of hot, liquid tallow] on a pot, one only needs to scrape it off. However, if a drop of [hot] molten tallow fell on a pot, it requires [kashering by] immersion in boiling water.