Travels and Discoveries in the Levant/Volume 1

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TRAVELS

AND

DISCOVERIES IN THE LEVANT.

Travels & discoveries in the Levant Vol-1-Map of Rhodes.jpg

TRAVELS & DISCOVERIES

IN THE LEVANT.



BY

C. T. NEWTON, M.A.

KEEPER OF THE GREEK AND ROMAN ANTIQUITIES, BRITISH MUSEUM.



WITH NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS.



IN TWO VOLUMES.— VOL. I.



DAY & SON, LIMITED,

G, GATE STREET, LONDON, W.C.

1865.


[All rights reserved.]

PREFACE.


IN the second volume of the present work will be found a popular account of my discoveries in Asia Minor, abridged from the larger work, entitled "A History of Discoveries at Halicarnassus, Cnidus, and Branchidæ." London, 1862.

The plans and architectural plates which accompany this abridgment have, in like manner, been reduced from the plates in Vol. I. of the larger work.

The sculptures from the Mausoleum are illustrated by three engraved plates repeated from Vol. II. of the former work, and by eleven photographs from drawings now for the first time published. The plate of the Map of Caria, engraved for my former work under the supervision of the late Admiral Washington, has been used in the present work by the kind permission of Captain Richards, R.N., Hydrographer to the Admiralty.

The position of Lagina, as noted by Lieut. Smith, R.E., has been added to this Map.

C. T. NEWTON.

CONTENTS.

PAGE

Introduction....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1

Departure from England—Malta—Ruins at Krendi—Roman Tombs near Bengemma—Patras—Sarcophagus—Vostitza—Roman Statues—Arrival at Athens.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

II.

Athens—Acropolis—Archaic Athene—Sculptures in the Theseium—Warrior from Marathon—Sepulchral Stelæ—Coins of Alexander the Great—The Amphiaraïon—Inscriptions there—Mycenæ—The Lions at the Gateway.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 15

Constantinople—First Impressions—The Walls—Depopulation of the City since the Byzantine Empire—Ancient Mosaics in Mosque of Kachreie—St. Sophia—Museum of St. Irene—Fragment from Frieze of Mausoleum—Jaw from Bronze Serpent—Silver Plate with Figure of Diana—Collections of Coins—Smyrna—M. Ivanoff's Coins—Arrival at Mytilene—The Pasha.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 37

IV.

Description of Mytilene—Its ancient Features—The Environs—Character of the Inhabitants—Roman Aqueduct at Morea—A Greek Pyrgos—Thermæ—Paphila—Ancient Remains at Achlea—Cape Zeitin, the ancient Malea .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 49

V.

The Archbishop of Mytilene—A Greek Baptism—The Marble Chair of Potamo, son of Lesbonax—Anecdote respecting him—Inscription relating to Theophanes—The Greek School—Inscription in Church of St. Therapon.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 63

VI.

A Turkish Mejlis—British Consular Protection—System of Agriculture in Asia Minor—Cultivation of the Olive—Process of Making Oil—Amount Exported from Mytilene.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 73

A Levantine Steamer—Tour with Mr. Hughes—Ayasso—Greek Hospitality—Ascent of Mount Olympus—Pyrrha—Gulf of Kalloni—Ancient Remains at Temenos.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 84

Eresos—Acropolis—Greek Inscription, containing a letter from King Antigonos—Scenery about Eresos—Costume of the Women—Ancient Remains near Mesotopo—Makra—Marine Products in Gulf of Kalloni noticed by Aristotle.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 93

IX.

Arrival of Mr. J. E. Blunt—My New House—Style of Building in Mytilene—Servants and Food in the Levant—Tour with two Travellers—Mandamatha—Custom of offering embroidered work in the Greek Churches, derived from antiquity—Inscription near Palaio Liman—Ancient Remains at Anoiktò—Position of Ægiros—Molivo, the ancient Methymna—Petra—Agia Paraskeue—Early Christian Chapel cut in the rock.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 102

X.

Arrival of Ali Nehad Effendi—Tijaret Mejlis—Castle of Mytilene—The Gatelusio Family—Their Coins—Mosques in the Castle—Robbers in Smyrna—Installation of the Archbishop of Mytilene as Member of the Synod at Constantinople .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 113

XI.

Visit to Salonica and the Troad—The Incantadas—The Arch of Constantine—Relief of Pan and the Nymphs at Gallipoli—Inscriptions on Spoons found at Lampsacus—Inscription—Dardanelles—Mr. Calvert's House—Tour in the Troad—Hill near Bounarbashi—Chimenlai—Latin Inscriptions relating to the Emperors Claudius and Nero—Seven Granite Columns near Koushibashi—Hellenic Fortress at Chigri—Hot Springs at Lisgyar—Temple of Apollo Sminthius—Alexandria Troas—Kalifatli—Roman Mosaics—Ilium Novum—Mr. Calvert's Excavations on supposed site of Ophrynium; in Khani Tepe; in Necropolis near the Kemar—Discovery of Greek Vases—Singular Ordeal for the Discovery of a Thief.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 121

First Impressions of Rhodes—A Cassiote Feud.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 137

Ancient Rhodes—Its Harbours and Arsenals—Description of the Present Town—The Fortifications—Castello—Amboise Gate—The Head of the Dragon—Church of St. John—Grand Master's Palace—Street of the Knights—Hospital—Mosques—Convents—Domestic Architecture—Jewish Quarter—Eastern Mole—Tower of De Naillac—Mole and Castle of St. Nicholas—Posts of the different Langues—Tombstone of Thomas Newport—Armoury—Ancient Acropolis—Stadium—Inscriptions—Sites of Temples—Remains of Mole on Western Shore—Probable Extension of the Ancient Harbours in this direction—Position of the Colossus—Tomb near Symbulli—Probable Extent of the Ancient City on this side.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 146

Visit to Monastery of Zambika—The Archimandrite Nikandros—Costume of the Rhodian Peasant Women—Castle at Archangelo—Koskino—A Peasant's House—Lindos Ware .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 182

XV.

My Muleteer Panga—Journey to Lindos—The Castle—The Ancient Acropolis—Inscriptions—Apolakkia—Inscription containing Decree of the People of Netteia—Monolithos—Frescoes in Chapel—Hellenic Tower—Siana—Hellenic Tombs and Eemains—Acropolis of Agios Phokas—Ancient Polygonal Masonry—Hellenic Eemains at BasHika; at Agros; at Castellos—Embonas—Meaning of this Name—Villa Nova—Character of the Rhodian Peasantry—The Priests—Popular Superstitious and Customs.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 191

A Cruise with Mr. Finlay to Scio—The Castle—Inscription on a Gun—Ismael Pasha—English Consul at Scio in time of Henry VIII.—Greek Boatmen—Patmos—My unsatisfactory Interview with the Primates—The Libraiy—The Monks—The Monastery—Calymnos—Ancient Inscriptions there—Cos—Antiquities—Coin of Termera—Fountain of Burinna.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 214

Tour in Rhodes—Aláerma—Apollona—Fundokli—Demelià—Salakko—Agios Elias—Kappi—Kalavarda—Greek Vases—Fanes—Hellenic Tombs near these Villages—Temple of Apollo Erethimios at Theologcs—Sepulchral Relief at Villa Nova—Kremastò.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 232

Visit to Cos in the Sampson—A Turkish Trial—Pyli—Tomb of Charmylos—Antimachia—Inscriptions—Kephalas—Greek Acropolis—Ancient Remains—Inscription containing Letter from Emperor Tiberius.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 240

Arrival of Lord Carlisle in the Firebrand—Lord C.'s Illness—Dr. McCraith—Diseases Prevalent in Rhodes—Second Visit to Calymnos.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 248

XX.

Preparations for War with Russia—A Country Sermon—Anecdote of a former Pasha of Rhodes.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 253

Trianda—Phileremo, the Acropolis of lalysos—Gothic Buildings—Frescoes—Remains of Hellenic Fortifications—Probable Site of the Town of ialysos— Arrival of M. Berg—Superstition of the Rhodians respecting Portraits—Departure for England.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 257

Return to Turkey vid Athens—Second Visit to the Amphiaraïon—The Ecole Française at Athens—A Cruise in the Leander—Syra—Hostility of the Greeks to the Latin Population—Pirates—Return to Mytilene—Comparison of the Condition of Society there and at Rhodes—My Turkish Schoolmaster.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 261

A Cruise to Tenedos with Ismael Pasha—His Character—Tenedos—The Wine Trade—Imports and Exports of the Island .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 267

The Courban Bairam—A Greek Funeral.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 274

Departure for Calymnos—Smyrna—Discovery of Roman Remains near Caravan Bridge—The British Hospital.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 280

Rhodes—Calymnos—Necropolis—Excavations in Tombs.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 283

Calymniote Divers—The Sponge Trade—Character of the Population of Calymnnos .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 291

Excavations on an Acropolis; on the Site of the Temple of Apollo—Inscription relating to a Trial—Buildings near the Temple—Summary of Inscriptions found in Calymnos—Argos—Linari—Telendos—Vathy.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 299

Manoli the Cassiote—Discovery of Bronze Relief—Departure from Calymnos—Budrum—Discovery of Lions from Mausoleum in the Walls of the Castle.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 320


̣Tour in Lycia by Mr D. E. Colnaghi....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................337

̣Tour in Mytilene by the same....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................347


̣Notes....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................351