Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey for the one part and Russia for the other part being in accord to terminate the state of war, and to enter into peace negotiations as speedily as possible, have appointed as plenipotentiaries:
On the part of the Imperial German Government:
The Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, the Actual Imperial Privy Councillor, Herr Richard von Kahlmann;
The Imperial Envoy and Minister Plenipotentiary, Dr von Rosenberg;
Royal Prussian Major-General Hoffmann, Chief of the General Staff of the Commander-in-Chief of the East;
Naval Captain Horn.
On the part of the Imperial and Royal joint Austro-Hungarian Government:
The Minister of the Imperial and Royal House and for Foreign Affairs, the Privy Councillor of His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty, Ottokar Count Czernin von und zu Chudenitz;
The Envoy Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty, the Privy Councillor, Kajetan Mercy von Kapos-Mere;
General of Infantry, His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty's Privy Councillor, Maximilian Csicserics von Bacsany.
On the part of the Royal Bulgarian Government:
The Royal Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary in Vienna, Andrea Tosheff;
Colonel Peter Gantcheff of the General Staff, Royal Bulgarian Military Envoy Plenipotentiary to His Majesty the German Emperor and Aide-de-Camp of His Majesty the King of the Bulgarians;
The Royal Bulgarian First Legation Secretary, Dr Theodor Anastassof.
On the part of the Imperial Ottoman Government:
His Highness Ibrahim Hakki Pasha, former Grand-Vizier, Member of the Ottoman Senate, Envoy Plenipotentiary of His Majesty the Sultan to Berlin;
His Excellency, Zeki Pasha, General of Cavalry, Adjutant General of His Majesty the Sultan, and Military Envoy Plenipotentiary to His Majesty the German Emperor.
On the part of the Russian Federal Soviet Republic:
Grigory Yakovlevich Sokolnikov, Member of the Central Executive Committee of the Soviets of Workers', Soldiers', and Peasants' Deputies;
Lev Mikhailovich Karakhan, Member of the Central Executive Committee of the Soviets of Workers', Soldiers', and Peasants' Deputies;
Georgy Vasilievich Chicherin, Assistant to the People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs;
Grigory Ivanovich Petrovsky, People's Commissar for Internal Affairs.
The Plenipotentiaries met in Brest-Litovsk to enter into peace negotiations, and after presentation of their credentials, and finding them in good and proper form, have agreed upon the following stipulations:
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey for the one part and Russia for the other part, declare that the state of war between them has ceased. They are resolved to live henceforth in peace and amity with one another.
The contracting parties will refrain from any agitation or propaganda against the Government or the public and military institutions of the other party. In so far as this obligation devolves upon Russia, it holds good also for the territories occupied by the Powers of the Quadruple Alliance.
The territories lying to the west of the line agreed upon by the contracting parties, which formerly belonged to Russia, will no longer be subject to Russian sovereignty; the line agreed upon is traced on the map submitted as an essential part of this treaty of peace (Annex 1). The exact fixation of the line will be established by a Russo-German commission.
No obligation whatever toward Russia shall devolve upon the territories referred to arising from the fact that they formerly belonged to Russia.
Russia refrains from all interference in the internal relations of these territories. Germany and Austria-Hungary purpose to determine the future status of these territories in agreement with their population.
As soon as a general peace is concluded and Russian demobilization is carried out completely, Germany will evacuate the territory lying to the east of the line designated in paragraph I of Article III, in so far as Article VI does not determine otherwise.
Russia will do all within her power to insure the immediate evacuation of the provinces of eastern Anatolia and their lawful return to Turkey.
The districts of Ardahan, Kars, and Batum. will likewise and without delay be cleared of Russian troops. Russia will not interfere in the reorganization of the national and international relations of these districts, but leave it to the population of these districts to carry out this reorganization in agreement with the neighbouring States, especially with Turkey.
Russia will, without delay, carry out the full demobilization of her army inclusive of those units recently organized by the present Government.
Furthermore Russia will either bring her warships into Russian ports and there detain them until the day of the conclusion of a general peace, or disarm them forthwith. Warships of the States which continue in a state of war with the Powers of the Quadruple Alliance, in so far as they are within Russian sovereignty, will be treated as Russian warships.
The barred zone in the Arctic Ocean continues as such until the conclusion of a general peace. In the Baltic sea, and as far as Russian power extends within the Black sea, removal of the mines will be proceeded with at once. Merchant navigation within these maritime regions is free and will be resumed at once. Mixed commissions will be organized to formulate the more detailed regulations, especially to inform merchant ships with regard to restricted lanes. The navigation lanes are always to be kept free from floating mines.
Russia obligates herself to conclude peace at once with the Ukrainian People's Republic and to recognize the treaty of peace between that State and the Powers of the Quadruple Alliance. The Ukrainian territory will, without delay, be cleared of Russian troops and the Russian Red Guard. Russia is to put an end to all agitation or propaganda against the Government or the public institutions of the Ukrainian People's Republic.
Estonia and Livonia will likewise, without delay, be cleared of Russian troops and the Russian Red Guard. The eastern boundary of Estonia runs, in general, along the river Narva. The eastern boundary of Livonia crosses, in general, lakes Peipus and Pskov, to the southwestern corner of the latter, then across Lake Luban in the direction of Livenhof on the [western] Dvina. Estonia and Livonia will be occupied by a German police force until security is ensured by proper national institutions and until public order has been established. Russia will liberate at once all arrested or deported inhabitants of Estonia and Livonia, and insures the safe return of all deported Estonians and Livonians.
Finland and the Aaland Islands will immediately be cleared of Russian troops and the Russian Red Guard, and the Finnish ports of the Russian fleet and of the Russian naval forces. So long as the ice prevents the transfer of warships into Russian ports, only limited forces will remain on board the warships. Russia is to put an end to all agitation or propaganda against the Government or the public institutions of Finland.
The fortresses built on the Aaland Islands are to be removed as soon as possible. As regards the permanent non-fortification of these islands as well as their further treatment in respect to military and technical navigation matters, a special agreement is to be concluded between Germany, Finland, Russia, and Sweden; there exists an understanding to the effect that, upon Germany's desire, still other countries bordering upon the Baltic Sea would be consulted in this matter.
In view of the fact that Persia and Afghanistan are free and independent States, the contracting parties obligate themselves to respect the political and economic independence and the territorial integrity of these States.
The prisoners of war of both parties will be released to return to their homeland. The settlement of the questions connected therewith will be effected through the special treaties provided for in Article XII.
The contracting parties mutually renounce compensation for their war expenses, i.e. of the public expenditures for the conduct of the war, as well as compensation for war losses, i.e. such losses as were caused them and their nationals within the war zones by military measures, inclusive of all requisitions effected in enemy country.
Diplomatic and consular relations between the contracting parties will be resumed immediately upon the ratification of the treaty of peace. As regards the reciprocal admission of consuls, separate agreements are reserved.
As regards the economic relations between the Powers of the Quadruple Alliance and Russia the regulations contained in Appendices II-V are determinative, namely, Appendix II for the Russo-German, Appendix III for the Russo-Austro-Hungarian, Appendix IV for the Russo-Bulgarian, and Appendix V for the Russo-Turkish relations.
The re-establishment of public and private legal relations, the exchange of war prisoners and interned civilians, the question of amnesty as well as the question anent the treatment of merchant ships which have come into the power of the opponent, will be regulated in separate treaties with Russia which form an essential part of the general treaty of peace, and, as far as possible, go into force simultaneously with the latter.
In the interpretation of this treaty, the German and Russian texts are authoritative for the relations between Germany and Russia; the German, the Hungarian, and Russian texts for the relations between Austria-Hungary and Russia; the Bulgarian and Russian texts for the relations between Bulgaria and Russia; and the Turkish and Russian texts for the relations between Turkey and Russia.
The present treaty of peace will be ratified. The documents of ratification shall, as soon as possible, be exchanged in Berlin. The Russian Government obligates itself, upon the desire of one of the Powers of the Quadruple Alliance, to execute the exchange of the documefits of ratification within a period of two weeks. Unless otherwise provided for in its articles, in its annexes, or in the additional treaties, the treaty of peace enters into force at the moment of its ratification.
In testimony whereof the plenipotentiaries have signed this treaty with their own hand.
Executed in quintuplicate at Brest-Litovsk, 3 March 1918.
R. v. Kühlmann,
Bukarest 7. März 1918.
Bukarest 7. März 1918.
Oberst P. Gantchew.
Dr. Theodor Anastassoff.
- Magnes J. L. Russia and Germany at Brest-Litovsk: A Documentary History of the Peace Negotiations. — New York: Rand School of Social Science, 1919. — 192 p.