Treaty of Trianon/Part III

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Treaty of Trianon
by the Allied and Associated Powers and Hungary
Part III. Political Clauses for Europe
This version compiled from the version published by the Brigham Young University Library.
Part III—Political Clauses for Europe

Section I. Italy[edit]

Article 36[edit]

Hungary renounces so far as she is concerned in favour of Italy all rights and title which she could claim over the territories of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy recognized as forming part of Italy in accordance with the first paragraph of Article 36 of the Treaty of Peace concluded on 10 September 1919, between the Allied and Associated Powers and Austria.

Article 37[edit]

No sum shall be due by Italy on the ground of her entry into possession of the Palazzo Venezia at Rome.

Article 38[edit]

Hungary shall restore to Italy within a period of three months all the wagons belonging to the Italian railways which before the outbreak of war had passed into Austria and are now in Hungary.

Article 39[edit]

Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 252, Part X (Economic Clauses), persons having their usual residence in the territories of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy transferred to Italy in accordance with the first paragraph of Article 36 of the Treaty of Peace with Austria who, during the war, have been outside the territories of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy or have been imprisoned, interned or evacuated, shall enjoy the full benefit of the provisions of Articles 235 and 236, Part X (Economic Clauses) of the present Treaty.

Article 40[edit]

Judgments rendered since 4 August 1914, by the courts in the territory transferred to Italy in accordance with the first paragraph of Article 36 of the Treaty of Peace with Austria, in civil and commercial cases between the inhabitants of such territory and other nationals of the former Kingdom of Hungary, shall not be carried into effect until after endorsement by the corresponding new court in such territory.

All decisions rendered for political crimes or offences since 4 August 1914, by the judicial authorities of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy against Italian nationals, or against persons who acquire Italian nationality in accordance with the Treaty of Peace with Austria, shall be annulled.

Section II. Serb-Croat-Slovene State[edit]

Article 41[edit]

Hungary, in conformity with the action already taken by the Allied and Associated Powers, recognises the complete independence of the Serb-Croat-Slovene State.

Article 42[edit]

Hungary renounces so far as she is concerned in favour of the Serb-Croat-Slovene State all rights and title over the territories of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy situated outside the frontiers of Hungary as laid down in Article 27, Part II (Frontiers of Hungary) and recognised by the present Treaty, or by any Treaties concluded for the purpose of completing the present settlement, as forming part of the Serb-Croat-Slovene State.

Article 43[edit]

A Commission consisting of seven members, five nominated by the Principal Allied and Associated Powers, one by the Serb-Croat-Slovene State, and one by Hungary, shall be constituted within fifteen days from the coming into force of the present Treaty to trace on the spot the frontier line described in Article 27.2, Part II (Frontiers of Hungary).

Article 44[edit]

The Serb-Croat Slovene State recognises and confirms in relation to Hungary its obligation to accept the embodiment in a Treaty with the Principal Allied and Associated Powers such provisions as may be deemed necessary by these Powers to protect the interests of inhabitants of that State who differ from the majority of the population in race, language or religion, as well as to protect freedom of transit and equitable treatment of the commerce of other nations.

The proportion and nature of the financial obligations of Hungary which the Serb-Croat-Slovene State will have to assume on account of the territory placed under its sovereignty will be determined in accordance with Article 186, Part IX (Financial Clauses) of the present Treaty.

Subsequent agreements will decide all questions which are not decided by the present Treaty and which may arise in consequence of the cession of the said territory.

Section III. Roumania[edit]

Article 45[edit]

Hungary renounces, so far as she is concerned, in favour of Roumania all rights and title over the territories of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy situated outside the frontiers of Hungary as laid down in Article 27, Part II (Frontiers of Hungary) and recognised by the present Treaty, or by any Treaties concluded for the purpose of completing the present settlement, as forming part of Roumania.

Article 46[edit]

A Commission composed of seven members, five nominated by the Principal Allied and Associated Powers, one by Roumania, and one by Hungary, will be appointed within fifteen days from the coming into force of the present Treaty to trace on the spot the frontier line provided for in Article 27.3, Part II (Frontiers of Hungary).

Article 47[edit]

Roumania recognises and confirms in relation to Hungary her obligation to accept the embodiment in a Treaty with the Principal Allied and Associated Powers such provisions as may be deemed necessary by these Powers to protect the interests of inhabitants of that State who differ from the majority of the population in race, language or religion, as well as to protect freedom of transit and equitable treatment for the commerce of other nations.

The proportion and nature of the financial obligations of Hungary which Roumania will have to assume on account of the territory placed under her sovereignty will be determined in accordance with Article 186, Part IX (Financial Clauses) of the present Treaty.

Subsequent agreements will decide all questions which are not decided by the present Treaty and which may arise in consequence of the cession of the said territory.

Section IV. Czecho-Slovak State[edit]

Article 48[edit]

Hungary, in conformity with the action already taken by the Allied and Associated Powers, recognises the complete independence of the Czecho-Slovak State, which will include the autonomous territory of the Ruthenians to the south of the Carpathians.

Article 49[edit]

Hungary renounces, so far as she is concerned, in favour of the Czecho-Slovak State all rights and title over the territories of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy situated outside the frontiers of Hungary as laid down in Article 27, Part II (Frontiers of Hungary) and recognised by the present Treaty, or by any Treaties concluded for the purpose of completing the present settlement, as forming part of the Czecho-Slovak State.

Article 50[edit]

A Commission composed of seven members, five nominated by the Principal Allied and Associated Powers, one by the Czecho-Slovak State, and one by Hungary, will be appointed within fifteen days from the coming into force of the present Treaty to trace on the spot the frontier line provided for in Article 27.4, Part II (Frontiers of Hungary).

Article 51[edit]

The Czecho-Slovak State undertakes not to erect any military works in that portion of its territory which lies on the right bank of the Danube to the south of Bratislava (Pressburg).

Article 52[edit]

The proportion and nature of the financial obligations of Hungary which the Czecho-Slovak State will have to assume on account of the territory placed under its sovereignty will be determined in accordance with Article 186, Part IX (Financial Clauses) of the present Treaty.

Subsequent agreements will decide all questions w-hich are not decided by the present Treaty and which may arise in consequence of the cession of the said territory.

Section V. Fiume[edit]

Article 53[edit]

Hungary renounces all rights and title over Fiume and the adjoining territories which belonged to the former Kingdom of Hungary and which lie within the boundaries which may subsequently be fixed.

Hungary undertakes to accept the dispositions made in regard to these territories, particularly in so far as concerns the nationality of the inhabitants, in the treaties concluded for the purpose of completing the present settlement.

Section VI. Protection of Minorities[edit]

Article 54[edit]

Hungary undertakes that the stipulations contained in this Section shall be recognised as fundamental laws, and that no law, regulation or official action shall connict or interfere with these stipulations, nor shall any law, regulation or official action prevail over them.

Article 55[edit]

Hungary undertakes to assure full and complete protection of life and liberty to all inhabitants of Hungary without distinction of birth, nationality, language, race or religion.

All inhabitants of Hungary shall be entitled to the free exercise, whether public or private, of any creed, religion or belief whose practices are not inconsistent with public order or public morals.

Article 56[edit]

Hungary admits and declares to be Hungarian nationals ipso facto and without the requirement of any formality all persons possessing at the date of the coming into force of the present Treaty rights of citizenship (pertinenza) within Hungarian territory who are not nationals of any other State.

Article 57[edit]

All persons born in Hungarian territory who are not born nationals of another State shall ipso facto become Hungarian nationals.

Article 58[edit]

All Hungarian nationals shall be equal before the law and shall enjoy the same civil and political rights without distinction as to race, language or religion.

Difference of religion, creed or confession shall not prejudice any Hungarian national in matters relating to the enjoyment of civil or political rights, as for instance admission to public employments, functions and honours, or the exercise of professions and industries.

No restriction shall be imposed on the free use by any Hungarian national of any language in private intercourse, in commerce, in religion, in the press or in publications of any kind, or at public meetings.

Notwithstanding any establishment by the Hungarian Government of an official language, adequate facilities shall be given to Hungarian nationals of non-Magyar speech for the use of their language, either orally or in writing before the Courts.

Hungarian nationals who belong to racial, religious or linguistic minorities shall enjoy the same treatment and security in law and in fact as the other Hungarian nationals. In particular they shall have an equal right to establish, manage and control at their own expense charitable, religious and social institutions, schools and other educational establishments, with the right to use their own language and to exercise their religion freely therein.

Article 59[edit]

Hungary will provide in the public educational system in towns and districts in which a considerable proportion of Hungarian nationals of other than Magyar speech are resident adequate facilities for ensuring that in the primary schools the instruction shall be given to the children of such Hungarian nationals through the medium of their own language. This provision shall not prevent the Hungarian Government from making the teaching of the Magyar language obligatory in the said schools.

In towns and districts where there is a considerable proportion of Hungarian nationals belonging to racial, religious or linguistic minorities, these minorities shall be assured an equitable share in the enjoyment and application of sums which may be provided out of public funds under the State, municipal or other budgets, for educational, religious or charitable purposes.

Article 60[edit]

Hungary agrees that the stipulations in the foregoing Articles of this Section, so far as they affect persons belonging to racial, religious or linguistic minorities, constitute obligations of international concern and shall be placed under the guarantee of the League of Nations. They shall not be modified without the assent of a majority of the Council of the League of Nations. The Allied and Associated Powers represented on the Council severally agree not to withhold their assent from any modification in these Articles which is in due form assented to by a majority of the Council of the League of Nations.

Hungary agrees that any Member of the Council of the League of Nations shall have the right to bring to the attention of the Council any infraction, or any danger of infraction, of any of these obligations, and that the Council may thereupon take such action and give such direction as it may deem proper and effective in the circumstances.

Hungary further agrees that any difference of opinion as to questions of law or fact arising out of these Articles between the Hungarian Government and any one of the Allied and Associated Powers or any other Power, a Member of the Council of the League of Nations, shall be held to be a dispute of an international character under Article 14 of the Covenant of the League of Nations. The Hungarian Government hereby consents that any such dispute shall, if the other party thereto demands, be referred to the Permanent Court of International Justice. The decision of the Permanent Court shall be final and shall have the same force and effect as an award under Article 13 of the Covenant.

Section VII. Clauses Relating to Nationality[edit]

Article 61[edit]

Every person possessing rights of citizenship (pertinenza) in territory which formed part of the territories of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy shall obtain ipso facto to the exclusion of Hungarian nationality the nationality of the State exercising sovereignty over such territory.

Article 62[edit]

Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 61, persons who acquired rights of citizenship after 1 January 1910, in territory transferred under the present Treaty to the Serb-Croat-Slovene State, or to the Czecho-Slovak State, will not acquire Serb-Croat-Slovene or Czecho-Slovak nationality without a permit from the Serb-Croat-Slovene State or the Czecho-Slovak State respectively. If the permit referred to in the preceding paragraph is not applied for, or is refused, the persons concerned will obtain ipso facto the nationality of the State exercising sovereignty over the territory in which they previously possessed rights of citizenship.

Article 63[edit]

Persons over 18 years of age losing their Hungarian nationality and obtaining ipso facto a new nationality under Article 61 shall be entitled within a period of one year from the coming into force of the present Treaty to opt for the nationality of the State in which they possessed rights of citizenship before acquiring such rights in the territory transferred.

Option by a husband will cover his wife and option by parents will cover their children under 18 years of age.

Persons who have exercised the above right to opt must within the succeeding twelve months transfer their place of residence to the State for which they have opted.

They will be entitled to retain their immovable property in the territory of the other State where they had their place of residence before exercising their right to opt.

They may carry with them their movable property of every description. No export or import duties may be imposed upon them in connection with the removal of such property.

Article 64[edit]

Persons possessing rights of citizenship in territory forming part of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, and differing in race and language from the majority of the population of such territory, shall within six months from the coming into force of the present Treaty severally be entitled to opt for Austria, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Roumania, the Serb-Croat-Slovene State, or the Czecho-Slovak State, if the majority of the population of the State selected is of the same race and language as the person exercising the right to opt. The provisions of Article 63 as to the exercise of the right of option shall apply to the right of option given by this Article.

Article 65[edit]

The High Contracting Parties undertake to put no hindrance in the way of the exercise of the right which the persons concerned have under the present Treaty, or under treaties concluded by the Allied and Associated Powers with Germany, Austria or Russia, or between any of the Allied and Associated Powers themselves, to choose any other nationality which may be open to them.

Article 66[edit]

For the purposes of the provisions of this Section, the status of a married woman will be governed by that of her husband, and the status of children under 18 years of age by that of their parents.

Section VIII. Political Clauses Relating to Certain European States[edit]

1. Belgium[edit]

Article 67[edit]

Hungary, recognising that the Treaties of 19 April 1839, which established the status of Belgium before the war, no longer conform to the requirements of the situation, consents, so far as she is concerned, to the abrogation of the said treaties and undertakes immediately to recognise and to observe whatever conventions may be entered into by the Principal Allied and Associated Powers, or by any of them, in concert with the Governments of Belgium and of the Netherlands, to replace the said Treaties of 1839. If her formal adhesion should be required to such conventions or to any of their stipulations, Hungary undertakes immediately to give it.

2. Luxemburg[edit]

Article 68[edit]

Hungary agrees, so far as she is concerned, to the termination of the régime of neutrality of the Grand Duchy of Luxemburg, and accepts in advance all international arrangements which may be concluded by the Allied and Associated Powers relating to the Grand Duchy.

3. Schieswig[edit]

Article 69[edit]

Hungary hereby accepts, so far as she is concerned, all arrangements made by the Allied and Associated Powers with Germany concerning the territories whose abandonment was imposed upon Denmark by the Treaty of 30 October 1864.

4. Turkey and Bulgaria[edit]

Article 70[edit]

Hungary undertakes to recognise and accept, so far as she is concerned, all arrangements which the Allied and Associated Powers may make or have made with Turkey and Bulgaria with reference to any rights, interests and privileges whatever which might be claimed by Hungary or her nationals in Turkey or Bulgaria and which are not dealt with in the provisions of the present Treaty.

5. Austria[edit]

Article 71[edit]

Hungary renounces in favour of Austria all rights and title over the territories of the former Kingdom of Hungary situated outside the frontiers of Hungary as laid down in Article 27.1, Part II (Frontiers of Hungary).

A Commission composed of seven members, five nominated by the Principal Allied and Associated Powers, one by Hungary and one by Austria, shall be constituted within fifteen days from the coming into force of the present Treaty to trace on the spot the frontier line referred to above.

The nationality of the inhabitants of the territories referred to in the present Article shall be regulated in conformity with the dispositions of Articles 61 and 63 to 66.

6. Russia and Russian States[edit]

Article 72[edit]

1. Hungary acknowledges and agrees to respect as permanent and inalienable the independence of all the territories which were part of the former Russian Empire on 1 August 1914.

In accordance with the provisions of Article 193, Part IX (Financial Clauses) and Article 227, Part X (Economic Clauses) of the present Treaty, Hungary definitively accepts, so far as she is concerned, the abrogation of the Treaties of Brest-Litovsk and of all other treaties, conventions and agreements entered into by the former Austro-Hungarian Government with the Maximalist Government in Russia.

The Allied and Associated Powers formally reserve the rights of Russia to obtain from Hungary restitution and reparation based on the principles of the present Treaty.

2. Hungary undertakes to recognise the full force of all treaties or agreements which may be entered into by the Allied and Associated Powers with States now existing or coming into existence in future in the whole or part of the former Empire of Russia as it existed on 1 August 1914, and to recognise the frontiers of any such States as determined therein.

Section IX. General Provisions[edit]

Article 73[edit]

The independence of Hungary is inalienable otherwise than with the consent of the Council of the League of Nations. Consequently, Hungary undertakes in the absence of the consent of the said Council to abstain from any act which might directly or indirectly or by any means whatever compromise her independence, particularly, and until her admission to membership of the League of Nations, by participation in the affairs of another Power.

Article 74[edit]

Hungary hereby recognises and accepts the frontiers of Austria, Bulgaria, Greece, Poland, Roumania, the Serb-Croat-Slovene State and the Czecho-Slovak State as these frontiers may be determined by the Principal Allied and Associated Powers.

Hungary undertakes to recognise the full force of the Treaties of Peace and additional conventions which have been or may be concluded by the Allied and Associated Powers with the Powers who fought on the side of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, and to recognise whatever dispositions have been or may be made concerning the territories of the former German Empire, of Austria, of the Kingdom of Bulgaria and of the Ottoman Empire, and to recognise the new States within their frontiers as there laid down.

Article 75[edit]

Hungary renounces, so far as she is concerned, in favour of the Principal Allied and Associated Powers all rights and title over the territories which previously belonged to the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy and which, being situated outside the new frontiers of Hungary as described in Article 27, Part II (Frontiers of Hungary), have not at present been otherwise disposed of.

Hungary undertakes to accept the settlement made by the Principal Allied and Associated Powers in regard to these territories, particularly in so far as concerns the nationality of the inhabitants.

Article 76[edit]

No inhabitant of the territories of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy shall be disturbed or molested on account either of his political attitude between 28 July 1914, and the definitive settlement of the sovereignty over these territories, or of the determination of his nationality effected by the present Treaty.

Article 77[edit]

Hungary will hand over without delay to the Allied and Associated Governments concerned archives, registers, plans, title-deeds and documents of every kind belonging to the civil, military, financial, judicial or other forms of administration in the ceded territories. If any one of these documents, archives, registers, title-deeds or plans is missing, it shall be restored by Hungary upon the demand of the Allied or Associated Government concerned.

In case the archives, registers, plans, title-deeds or documents referred to in the preceding paragraph, exclusive of those of a military character, concern equally the administrations in Hungary, and cannot therefore be handed over without inconvenience to such administrations, Hungary undertakes, subject to reciprocity, to give access thereto to the Allied and Associated Governments concerned.

Article 78[edit]

Separate conventions between Hungary and each of the States to which territory of the former Kingdom of Hungary is transferred, and each of the States arising from the dismemberment of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, will provide for the interests of the inhabitants, especially in connection with their civil rights, their commerce and the exercise of their professions.