Twentieth Century Impressions of Hongkong, Shanghai, and other Treaty Ports of China

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TWENTIETH CENTURY IMPRESSIONS

OF

HONGKONG, SHANGHAI, AND

OTHER TREATY PORTS

OF CHINA.

 

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Printed and Bound,
and the Illustration Blocks Produced
by

Jas. Truscott & Son, Ltd.,

London, E.C.

 

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HIS EXCELLENCY SIR FREDERICK JOHN DEALTRY LUGARD. K.C.M.G.. C.B. D.S.O.
(Governor of Hongkong, Commander-in-Chief, and Vice- Admiral), and
LADY LUGARD.

 

 

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HIS EXCELLENCY SIR JOHN N. JORDAN. K.C.M.G.
(British Minister at Peking)

 

 
Railway Map of China (completed and under construction; circa 1908)
 

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PREFACE.


THIS work is the outcome of an enterprise designed to give in an attractive form full and reliable information with reference to the outlying parts of the Empire. The value of a fuller knowledge of the "Britains beyond the Sea" and the great dependencies of the Crown as a means of tightening the bonds which unite the component parts of the King's dominions was insisted upon by Mr. Chamberlain in a memorable speech, and the same note ran through the Prince of Wales's impressive Mansion House address in which His Royal Highness summed up the lessons of his tour through the Empire, from which he had then just returned. In some instances, notably the case of Canada, the local Governments have done much to diffuse in a popular form information relative to the territory which they administer. But there are other centres in which official enterprise in this direction has not been possible, or, at all events, in which action has not been taken, and it is in this prolific field that the publishers are working. So far they have found ample justification for their labours in the widespread public interest taken in their operations in the colonies which have been the scene of their work, and in the extremely cordial reception given by the Press, both home and colonial, to the completed results.

Briefly, the aim which the publishers keep steadily before them is to give a perfect microcosm of the colony or dependency treated. As old Stow, with patient application and scrupulous regard for accuracy, set himself to survey the London of his day, so the workers employed in the production of this series endeavour to give a picture, complete in every particular, of the distant possessions of the Crown. But topography is only one of the features treated. Responding to modern needs and tastes, the literary investigators devote their attention to every important phase of life, bringing to the elucidation of the subjects treated the powerful aid of the latest and best methods of pictorial illustration. Thus a work is compiled which is not only of solid and enduring value for purposes of reference and for practical business objects, but is of unique interest to all who are interested in the development of the Empire.

In all essential features the present volume follows closely upon the lines of the earlier works on Western Australia, Natal, Ceylon, and British Malaya, and deals fully with the history, administration, population, commerce, industries, and potentialities of the territories to which it relates. In one respect, however, it differs from its predecessors, for, while they have been devoted exclusively to British Colonies, this book, as its title indicates, deals also with settlements which are only partially British. But there is ample excuse, if excuse be needed, for this departure from precedent. More than one half the imports and exports of China passes through the various Treaty Ports, and it would have been a negation of one of the avowed objects of these publications if no attempt had been made to show the present-day tendency of this trade and how the proportion borne by the British Empire compares with that of its competitors. Nor must it be forgotten that Canton, Amoy, Foochow, Ningpo, and Shanghai, the first five ports in China to which foreign merchandise was admitted without hindrance or interference, were thrown open in 1842 as the direct result of British influence, which was also responsible in 1858 for the extension of this privilege to New'chu'ang, Chefoo, Taiwan (Formosa), Swatow, Hainan, and three ports on the Yangtsze-Kiang. Though the British Consuls have long ceased to be the only mediums of communication between foreigners and the local Chinese authorities, British interests are still very powerful, and in some cases the British communities are self-governing.

Although the whole of the Treaty Ports, numbering upwards of forty, hare not been dealt with separately, the most important have been selected, and they are sufficient for our purpose since they receive the bulk of the trade of the minor ports. This is especially true of Canton in its relation to the other Treaty Ports on the West River, and of Shanghai in relation to some of the smaller ports lying along the banks of the Yangtsze-Kiang.

The wide distances which divide the ports, and the peculiar conditions which prevail in them have rendered the task of the compilers one of no little difficulty. The foreign settlements are occupied by representatives of different nationalities answerable to their own Consuls, subject to the laws of their own countries, and, in many instances, organised into independent local governing communities, so that, though they form collectively one homogeneous whole, they are, in actual fact, a congeries of separate and distinct units. But neither trouble nor expense has been spared in the attempt to cover the ground adequately and secure full and trustworthy information in every direction. As in previous works, the services of acknowledged experts have been enlisted wherever possible. The historical sections have been written from original materials preserved at the India Office, the British Museum, and other national institutions. In Hongkong much valued assistance has been freely rendered by the heads of the various Government departments, and the Editor is especially indebted to H.E. Sir F. J. D. Lugard, K.C.M.G., C.B., D.S.O., the Governor, and the Hon. Mr. F. H. May, C.M.G., the Colonial Secretary, who have given all the encouragement that lay in their power to the enterprise. In Shanghai the Municipal Authorities have shown every courtesy, and in the various Treaty Ports the British Consular Officers, the Customs Officers, and the Municipal Secretaries, have placed the compilers under an obligation which is gratefully acknowledged.

Obviously a work of this magnitude cannot be produced except at very considerable cost. As the publishers do not ask for any Government subsidy, because of the restrictions which it might impose upon them, this cost has to be met in part by receipts from the sale of copies and in part by revenue from the insertion of commercial photographs. The publishers venture to think that this fact furnishes no ground for adverse criticism. The principle is that adopted by the highest class of newspapers and magazines all over the world. Moreover, it is claimed that these photographs add to, rather than detract from, the value of the book. They serve to show the manifold interests of the country, and, with the accompanying descriptive letterpress, which is independently written by members of the staff from personal observation, they constitute a picturesque and useful feature that is not without interest to the general reader and student of economics, while it is of undoubted value to business men throughout the British Empire.

August, 1908.

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CONTENTS.
 

 
HONGKONG, SHANGHAI, AND OTHER TREATY PORTS   page
Early History and Development. By Arnold Wright 13
HONGKONG
Constitution and Law
The Local Legislature 99
The Courts 101
The Laws. By C. D. Wilkinson 102
Executive and Legislative Councils 105
Finance. By The Hon. Mr. A. M. Thomson, Colonial Treasurer 113
Education. By G. H. Bateson Wright, D.D. (Oxon.), Headmaster of Queen's College, Hongkong 121
Public Works. By The Hon. Mr. W. Chatham, C.M.G., Director of Public Works 129
Posts, Cables, and Telephones 133
Flora. By S. T. Dunn, B.A., F.L.S., J.P., Superintendent of the Botanical and Forestry Department, Hongkong 135
Fauna
General. By J. C. Kershaw, Author of "Butterflies of Hongkong" 138
Butterflies. By J. C. Kershaw 139
Birds. By Staff-Surgeon Kenneth H. Jones, R.N. 141
Hongkong (Descriptive). By H. A. Cartwright 145
The Sanitary Board. By A. Shelton Hooper 157
Harbour and Shipping. By Commander Basil Taylor, R.N., Harbour Master 188
Hongkong Industries 235
Sport, By J. W. Bains, Sports Editor of the "China Mail" 250
Health and Hospitals. By The Hon. Dr. J. M. Atkinson, Principal Civil Medical Officer 262
Police, Prisons, and Fire Brigade. By Captain F. W. Lyons, Acting Captain-Superintendent of Police, Hongkong 266
Navy, Army, and Volunteers 272
The Hongkong Volunteer Corps. By Major Chapman, Commandant 274
The Foreign Trade of China 278
The Chinese Imperial Maritime Customs 282
The Currency of China 288
The Silk Industry 290
Tea. By H. T. Wade 294
Cotton. By James Kerfoot, M.I.M.E. 302
The Flora of China 304
Ceremonies and Customs of the Chinese. By S. W. Tso 307
Chinese Characters. By James B. Wong, B.A. 319
Ecclesiastical
The Roman Catholic Church. By Father J. de Moidrey, S.J. 321
The Anglican Communion. By The Ven. Archdeacon Banister 326
Protestant Missions in China. By The Rev. J. Steele, B.A. 332
The Ancient Faiths of the Chinese. By The Rev. T. W. Pearce 337
Social Life 341
The Press. By W. H. Donald, Editor of the "China Mail" 343
SHANGHAI
Description of the Settlement. By H. A. Cartwright 368
Local Government and Law. By H. A. Cartwright 399
Police. By K. J. McEuen, Deputy Superintendent of Police 409
Volunteers 413
Shanghai Fire Brigade 429
Public Works. Supplied by the Public Works Department 432
Health and Hospitals. By Arthur Stanley, M.D., B.S.Lond., D.P.H, Health Officer 434
Finance and Banking 438
Shipping, Commerce, and Customs 452
Education 484
Posts, Cables, and Telephones 490
Sport. By W. R. Parkin 498
Meteorology
Hongkong. By K. G. Figg, Director of the Hongkong Observatory 509
Shanghai. By The Rev. Father Froc, Director of Siccawei Observatory 512
Leading Residents of Shanghai 516
Prominent Chinese Residents 525
Industries 573
The Foreign Commercial Community 602
The Oriental Commercial Community 662
The Railways of China 666
Mines and Minerals in Manchuria. By Reginald Bate, F.R.G.S. 682
Information for Tourists 683
TREATY PORTS AND OTHER FOREIGN SETTLEMENTS—
Hankow 692
Tientsin 724
Peking 755
Newchwang. By Reginald Bate, F.R.G.S. 763
Chefoo 767
Ningpo 772
Weihaiwei 773
Nanking 778
Canton. By H. A. Cartwright 782
Macao. By Pedro Nolasco da Silva 798
The Lappa Customs. By A. H. Wilzer, Commissioner of Customs 805
Tsingtau 810
Amoy. By Cecil A. V. Bowra, Commissioner of Customs 813
Swatow 829
Foochow 837
Chinese Weights, Measures, and Money 841
Concluding Note 842
Index 843
 

Detailed list of items[edit]

HONGKONG, SHANGHAI, AND OTHER TREATY PORTS