The Cambridge History of American Literature/Book II/Chapter IX

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The Cambridge History of American Literature by Paul Elmer More
Book II, Chapter IX: Emerson

§ 1. The High Place of Emerson in American Letters.[edit]

It becomes more and more apparent that Emerson, judged by an international or even by a broad national standard, is the outstanding figure of American letters. Others may have surpassed him in artistic sensitiveness, or, to a criticism averse to the stricter canons of form and taste, may seem to be more original or more broadly national than he, but as a steady force in the transmutation of life into ideas and as an authority in the direction of life itself he has obtained a recognition such as no other of his countrymen can claim. And he owes this pre-eminence not only to his personal endowment of genius, but to the fact also that, as the most perfect exponent of a transient experiment in civilization, he stands for something that the world is not likely to let die.

§ 2. His Youth and Training.[edit]

Ralph Waldo Emerson, born in Boston, 25 May, 1803, gathered into himself the very quintessence of what has been called the Brahminism of New England, as transmitted through the Bulkeleys, the Blisses, the Moodys, and the direct paternal line. Peter Bulkeley, preferring the wilderness of Satan to Laudian conformity, founded Concord in 1636; William Emerson, his descendant in the fifth generation, was builder of the Old Manse in the same town and a sturdy preacher to the minute-men at the beginning of the Revolution; and of many other ministerial ancestors stories abound which show how deeply implanted in this stock was the pride of rebellion against traditional forms and institutions, united with a determination to force all mankind to worship God in the spirit. With William, son of him of Concord and father of our poet, the fires of zeal began to wane. Though the faithful pastor of the First Church (Unitarian) of Boston, it is recorded of him that he entered the ministry against his will. Yet he too had his un-fulfilled dream of “coming out” by establishing a church in Washington which should require no sort of profession of faith. He died when the future philosopher was a boy of ten, leaving the family to shift for itself as best it could. Mrs. Emerson cared for the material welfare of the household by taking in boarders. The chief intellectual guidance fell to the Aunt Mary Moody Emerson, of whom her nephew drew a portrait in his Lectures and Biographies. “She gave high counsels,” he says. Indubitably she did, but a perusal of her letters and of the extracts from her journals leaves the impression that the pure but dislocated enthusiasms of her mind served rather to push Emerson in the direction of his weaker inclination than to fortify him against himself. When a balloon is tugging at its moorings there may be need of low counsels.

In 1817, Emerson entered Harvard College, and in due course of time graduated. Then, after teaching for a while in his brother’s school in Boston, he returned to Cambridge to study for the ministry, and was in the autumn of 1826 licensed to preach. Three years later he was called, first as assistant to Henry Ware, to the Second Church of Boston. His ministration there was quietly successful, but brief. In 1832, he gave up his charge on the ground that he could not conscientiously celebrate the Communion, even in the symbolic form customary among the Unitarians. He was for the moment much adrift, his occupation gone, his health broken, his wife lost after a short period of happiness. In this state he went abroad to travel in Italy, France, and England. One memorable incident of the journey must be recorded, his visit to Carlyle at Craigenput tock, with all that it entailed of friendship and influence; but beyond that he returned with little more baggage that he took with him. He now made his residence in Concord, living first with his mother and then with his second wife. Thenceforth there was to be no radical change in his life, but only the gradual widening of the circle. The house that he now bought he continued to inhabit until it was burned down in 1872; and then his friends, in a manner showing exemplary tact, subscribed money for rebuilding it on the same lines. For a number of years he preached in various pulpits, and once even considered the call to a settled charge in New Bedford, but he could not overcome his aversion to the ritual of the Lord’s Supper and to regular prayers.

§ 3. His Journals.[edit]

Meanwhile, by the medium of lectures delivered here and there and by printed essays, he was making of himself a kind of lay preacher to the world. His method of working out the more characteristic of these discourses has long been known: he would commonly select a theme, and then ransack his notebooks for pertinent passages which could be strung together with the addition of such developing and connecting material as was necessary. But since the publication of his Journals it has been possible to follow him more precisely in this procedure and to see more clearly how it conforms with the inmost structure of his mind. These remarkable records were begun in early youth and continued, though at the close in the form of brief memoranda, to the end of his life. The first entry preserved (not the first written, for it is from Blotting Book No. XVII) dates from his junior year at college and contains notes for a prize dissertation on the Character of Socrates. Among the sentences is this:

What is God? said the disciples, and Plato replied, It is hard to learn and impossible to divulge.

And the last page of the record, in the twelfth volume, repeats what is really the same thought:

The best part of truth is certainly that which hovers in gleams and suggestions unpossessed before man. His recorded knowledge is dead and cold. But this chorus of thoughts and hopes, these dawning truths, like great stars just lifting themselves into his horizon, they are his future, and console him for the ridiculous brevity and meanness of his civic life.

There is of course much variety of matter in the Journals—shrewd observations on men and books, chronicles of the day’s events, etc.—but through it all runs this thread of self-communion, the poetry, it might be called, of the New England conscience deprived of its concrete deity and buoying itself on gleams and suggestions of eternal beauty and holiness. Of the same stuff, not seldom indeed of the same words, are those essays of his that have deeply counted; they are but a repetition to the world of fragments of this long inner conversation. Where they fail to reach the reader’s heart, it is not because they are fundamentally disjointed, as if made up of sentences jostled together like so many mutually repellent particles; but because from the manner of his composition Emerson often missed what he might have learned from Plato’s Phaedrus was the essence of good rhetoric, that is to say, the consciousness of his hearer’s mind as well as of his own. We hear him, as it were, talking to himself, with no attempt to convince by argument or enlighten by analysis. If our dormant intuition answers to his, we are profoundly kindled and confirmed; otherwise his sentences may rattle ineffectually about our ears.

§ 4. Nature; Essays.[edit]

Emerson’s first published work was Nature (1836), which contains the gist of his transcendental attitude towards the phenomenal world, as a kind of beautiful symbol of the inner spiritual life, floating dreamlike before the eye, yet, it is to be noted, having discipline as one of its lessons for the attentive soul. The most characteristic and influential of his books are the two volumes of Essays, issued respectively in 1841 and 1844. In the former of these are those great discourses on Self-Reliance, Compensation, and The Over-Soul, into which was distilled the very quintessence of the volatile and heady liquid known as Emersonianism. Other volumes followed in due course. The latter publications, however, beginning with Letters and Social Aims (1875), are made up mainly of gleanings from the field already harvested, and were even gathered by hands not his own.

§ 5. The American Scholar; The Divinity School Address.[edit]

Two of his addresses (now both included in the volume with Nature) deserve special notice for the attention they attracted at the time. The first of these is the oration before the Phi Beta Kappa Society of Harvard, in 1837, a high but scarcely practical appeal to the American scholar to raise himself above the dust of pedantries, even out of the routine of what is “decent, indolent, complaisant,” and to reach after the inspiration of “the Divine Soul which also inspires all men.” The other lecture was delivered the next year before the senior class in Divinity College, Cambridge, and held up to the prospective preacher about the same ideal as was presented to the scholar. Historical Christianity is condemned because “it is not the doctrine of the soul, but an exaggeration of the personal, the positive, the ritual. It has dwelt, it dwells, with noxious exaggeration about the person of Jesus.” The founder of Christianity saw, indeed, “with open eye the mystery of the soul,” but what as a man he saw and knew of man’s divinity cannot be given to man to-day by instruction, but only on the terms of a like intuition. The Unitarians of Massachusetts had travelled far from the Calvinistic creed of the Pilgrim Fathers, but Emerson’s suave displacement of the person of Jesus for the “chorus of thoughts and hopes” in any human soul perhaps even more his implicit rejection of all rites and institutions, raised loud protest among the worshippers of the day. For the most part he answered the criticism by silence, but in a letter replying to one of the more courteous of his opponents he used these significant words:

I could not give an account of myself if challenged. I could not possibly give you one of the “arguments” you cruelly hint at, on which any doctrine of mine stands; for I do not know what arguments are in reference to any expression of a thought.

There may be some guile in this pretence to complete intellectual innocence, but it is nevertheless a fair statement of a literary method which seeks, and obtains, its effect by throwing a direct light into the soul of the hearer and bidding him look there and acknowledge what he sees.

§ 6. Representative Men; English Traits.[edit]

Of the events of these years there is not much to relate. A journey to Europe, in 1847, resulted in the only two of his books which may be said to have been composed as units: Representative Men (published in 1850, from a series of lectures delivered in London), which displays Emerson’s great powers as an ethical critic, in the larger use of that phrase, and English Traits (1856), which proves that his eyes were observing the world about him with Yankee shrewdness all the while that he seemed to be gazing into transcendental clouds. Into the question of slavery and disunion which was now agitating the country, he entered slowly. It was natural that one to whom the power and meaning of institutions had little appeal and to whom liberty was the all-including virtue, should have been drawn to the side of the Abolitionists, but at first there was a philosophical aloofness in his attitude. Only after the passing of the Fugitive Slave Law and Webster’s defection were his passions deeply engaged. Then he spoke ringing words:

There is infamy in the air. I have a new experience. I awake in the mornign with a painful sensation, which I carry about all day, and which, when traced home, is the odious remembrance of that ignominy which has fallen on Massachusetts, which robs the landscape of beauty, and takes the sunshine out of every hour.

And the war came to him as a welcome relief from a situation which had grown intolerable.

§ 7. Emerson’s Optimism.[edit]

A third trip to Europe was made in 1872, when his central will was already loosening and his faculties were losing their edge. It was at this time that Charles Eliot Norton talked with Carlyle, and heard the old man, eight years older than Emerson, expatiate on the fundamental difference in their tempers. And on the voyage home in the same boat, Norton, who so fully represents the judgment of New England, had much conversation with Emerson, and recorded his opinion in words that, whether welcome or not, should not be forgotten:

Emerson was the greatest talker in the ship’s company. He talked with all men, and yet was fresh and zealous for talk at night. His serene sweetness, the pure whiteness of his soul, the reflection of his soul in his face, were never more apparent to me; but never before in intercourse with him had I been so impressed with the limits of his mind. His optimistic philosophy has hardened into a creed, with the usual effects of a creed in closing the avenues of truth. He can accept nothing as fact that tells against his dogma. His optimism becomes a bigotry, and, though of a nobler typethan the common American conceit of the preeminent excellence of American things as they are, has hardly less of the quality of fatalism. To him this is the best of all possible worlds, and the best of all possible times. He refuses to believe in disorder or evil…. But such inveterate and persistent optimism, though it may show only its pleasant side in such a character as Emerson’s, is dangerous doctrine for a people. It degenerates into fatalistic indifference to moral considerations, and to personal responsibilities; it is at the root of much of the irrational sentimentalism in our American politics, of much of our national disregard of honour in our public men, of much of our unwillingness to accept hard truths, and of much of the common tendency to disregard the distinctions between right and wrong, and to excuse guilt on the plea of good intentions or good nature.[1]

For some time there had been a gradual relaxation of Emerson’s hold on life. Though always an approachable man and fond of conversation, there was in him a certain lack of human warmth, of “bottom,” to use his own word, which he recognized and deplored. Commenting in his Journal (24 May, 1864) on the burial of Hawthorne, he notes the statement of James Freeman Clarke that the novelist had “shown a sympathy with the crime in our nature,” and adds: “I thought there was a tragic element in the event, that might be more fully rendered,—in the painful solitude of the man, which, I suppose, could not longer be endured, and he died of it.” A touch of this romantic isolation, though never morose or “painful,” there was in himself, a failure to knit himself strongly into the bonds of society. “I have felt sure of him,” he says of Hawthorne in the same passage, “in his neighbourhood, and in his necessities of sympathy and intelligence,—that I could well wait his time,—his unwillingness and caprice,—and might one day conquer a friendship…. Now it appears that I waited too long.” Eighteen years later, standing by the body of Longfellow, he was heard to say: “That gentleman was a sweet, beautiful soul, but I have entirely forgotten his name.” Such forgetfulness, like a serene and hazy cloud, hovered over Emerson’s brain in his closing years. A month afterwards, on 27 April, 1882, he himself faded away peacefully.

§ 8. Emerson’s Resignation from the Ministry.[edit]

To one who examines the events of Emerson’s quiet life with a view to their spiritual bearing it will appear that his most decisive act was the surrender of his pulpit in 1832. Nearly a century earlier, in 1750, the greatest of American theologians had suffered what now befell the purest of American seers; and though the manner of their parting was different (Jonathan Edwards had been unwillingly ejected, whereas Emerson left with good will on both sides), yet there is significance in the fact that the cause of separation in both cases was the administration of the Lord’s Supper. Nor is there less significance in the altered attitude of the later man towards this vital question. Both in a way turned from the ritualistic and traditional use of the Communion, and in this showed themselves leaders of the spirit which had carried the New England Fathers across the ocean as rebels against the Laudian tyranny of institutions. Edwards had revolted against the practice of Communion as a mere act of acquiescence in the authority of religion; he was determined that only those should approach the Table who could give evidence of a true conversion, by conversion meaning a complete emotional realization of the dogma of divine Grace and election. The eucharist was not a rite by conforming with which in humility men were to be made participators in the larger religious experience of the race, but a jealously guarded privilege of the few who already knew themselves set apart from the world. He was attempting to push to its logical issue the Puritan notion of religion as a matter of individual and inward experience, and if he failed it was because life can never be rigidly logical and because the worshippers of his day were already beginning to lose their intellectual grasp on the Calvinistic creed.[2] By Emerson’s time, among the Unitarians of Boston, there could be no question of ritualistic grace or absolute conversion, but his act, nevertheless, like that of Edwards, was the intrusion of unyielding consistency among those who were content to rest in habit and compromise. In his old age Emerson gave this account of his conduct to Charles Eliot Norton:

He had come to the conviction that he could not administer the Lord’s Supper as a divinely appointed, sacred ordinance of religion. And, after much debate with himself, he told his people that he could henceforth conduct the service only as a memorial service, without attributing to it any deeper significance. A parish meeting was held; the parish, though most kindly affected to him, could not bring themselves to accept his view,—it would be tantamount to admitting that they were no longer Christians. He resigned his charge, but an effort was made to induce him to remain, he administering the Lord’s Supper in his sense, the people receiving it in theirs. But he saw that such an arrangement was impossible, and held to his resignation.[3]

§ 9. Its Significance.[edit]

Emerson had come to the inevitable conclusion of New England individualism; he had, in a word, “come out.” Edwards had denied the communal efficacy, so to speak, of rites, but had insisted on inner conformity with an established creed. Emerson disavowed even a conformity in faith, demanding in its stead the entire liberty of each soul to rise on its own spiritual impulse. He was perspicacious and honest enough to acknowledge to himself the danger of such a stand. “I know very well,” he wrote in his journal at the time of his decision, “that it is a bad sign in a man to be too conscientious, and stick at gnats. The most desperate scoundrels have been the over-refiners. Without accommodation society is impracticable.” But, he adds, he could “not go habitually to an institution which they esteem holiest with indifference and dislike”; and again, looking deeper into his heart, “This is the end of my opposition, that I am not interested in it.”

§ 10. His Place in the Romantic Movement.[edit]

Emerson’s act of renunciation was not only important as determining the nature of his career, but significant also of the transition of New England from theological dogmatism to romantic liberty. Much has been written about the influences that shaped his thoughts and about the relation of his transcendentalism to German metaphysics. In his later years it is clear that the speculations of Kant and Schelling and Fichte were known to him and occasionally coloured his language, but his Journals prove conclusively enough that the whole stamp of his mind was taken before these sources were open to him. Indirectly, no doubt, something of the German spirit came to him pretty early through Carlyle, and a passage in his Journal for 13 December, 1829, shows that he was at that time already deeply engaged in the Teutonized rhapsodies of Coleridge. But it would be easy to lay too much stress even on this indirect affiliation. Long before that date, as early as his senior year in college, he is yearning “to separate the soul for sublime contemplation till it has lost the sense of circumstances,” and otherwise giving implicit expression to the full circle of transcendental faith. He was in fact a product of the great romantic movement that was sweeping over the world as it listed; his ideas, so far as they came to him from books, go back mainly to the Greek philosophers and the poets and preachers of seventeenth-century England, as these were interpreted under the light of the new movement. When he declared, in Nature, that “the vision of genius comes by renouncing the too officious activity of the understanding, and giving leave and amplest privilege to the spontaneous sentiment,” he was stating in precise terms an idea familiar to Blake and to the romanticists of every land—the elevation of enthusiasm above judgment, of emotion above reason, of spontaneity above discipline, and of unlimited expansion above centripetal control. But there was another element as strongly formative of Emerson’s disposition as was the current of romanticism, and that was his ancestral inheritance. Romantic spontaneity moved in various directions in accordance with the field in which it worked; in an Emerson, with all the divinity of Massachusetts in his veins, it might move to repudiate theological dogma and deny Jehovah, but it could not get out of hearing of the question “What is God?” It could not fall into the too common confusion of spiritual aspiration with the sicklier lusts of the flesh; it could never, for all its centrifugal wandering, overstep the bounds of character. Emersonianism may be defined as romanticism rooted in Puritan divinity.

§ 11. Form and Style.[edit]

In literary form and style the privilege of spontaneous sentiment showed itself with Emerson not in that fluency which in many of his contemporaries meant mere longwindedness, but in the habit of waiting for the momentary inspiration to the neglect of meditated construction and regularity. He has indeed succeeded in sustaining himself to the end in three or four poems of some compass, but his noblest work in verse must be sought in those quatrains which need no context for their comprehension and might be called spiritual ejaculations. Matthew Arnold has quoted for approval the two familiar stanzas,

So nigh is grandeur to our dust,
    So near is God to man,
When Duty whispers low, Thou must,
    The youth replies, I can.

and,

Though love repine and reason chafe,
    There came a voice without reply:
“’Tis man’s perdition to be safe,
    When for the truth he ought to die.”

These quatrains are, he says, “exceptional“ in Emerson. They are that, and something more: they are exceptional in literature. One would have to search far to find anything in English equal to them in their own kind. They have the cleanness and radiance of the couplets of Simonides. They may look easy, but as a matter of fact the ethical epigram is an extremely difficult genre, and to attain this union of gravity and simplicity requires the nicest art. Less epigrammatic in tone but even more exquisitely finished are the lines entitled Days, pre-eminent in his works for what may truly be called a haunting beauty:

Daughters of Time, the hypocritic Days,
Muffled and dumb like barefoot dervishes,
And marching single in an endless file,
Bring diadems and faggots in their hands.
To each they offer gifts after his will,
Bread, kingdoms, stars, and sky that holds them all.
I, in my pleachèd garden, watched the pomp,
Forgot my morning wishes, hastily
Took a few herbs and apples, and the Day
Turned and departed silent. I, too late,
Under her solemn fillet saw the scorn.

§ 12. Ideas.[edit]

And as his verse, so is his prose. Though in one sense, so far as he writes always with two or three dominant ideas in his mind, he is one of the most consistent and persistent of expositors, yet he is really himself only in those moments of inspiration when his words strike with almost irresistible force on the heart, and awake an echoing response: “This is true; this I have myself dimly felt.” Sometimes the memorable paragraph or sentence is purely didactic; sometimes it is highly metaphorical, as is the case with the closing paragraph of the Conduct of Life:

There is no chance, and no anarchy, in the universe. All is system and gradation. Every god is there sitting in his sphere. The young mortal enters the hall of the firmament; there is he alone with them alone, they pouring on him benedictions and gifts, and beckoning him up to their thrones. On the instant, and incessantly, fall snowstorms of illusions. He fancies himself in a vast crowd which sways this way and that, and whose movement and doings he must obey: he fancies himself poor, orphaned, insignificant. The mad crowd drives hither and thither, now furiously commanding this thing to be done, now that. What is he that he should resist their will, and think or act for himself? Every moment, new changes, and new showers of deceptions, to baffle and distract him. And when, by and by, for an instant, the air clears, and the cloud lifts a little, there are the gods still sitting around him on their thrones,–they alone with him alone.

There is, it need scarcely be said, a good deal in the works of Emerson—literary criticism, characterization of men and movements, reflection on the state of society—which lies outside of this ethical category; but even in such essays his guiding ideas are felt in the background. Nor are these ideas hard to discover. The whole circle of them, ever revolving upon itself, is likely to be present, explicit or implicit, in any one of his great passages, as it is in the paragraph just cited—the clear call to self-reliance, announcing that “a man should learn to detect and watch that gleam of light which flashes across his mind from within”; the firm assurance that, through all the balanced play of circumstance, “there is a deeper fact in the soul than compensation, to wit, its own nature”; the intuition, despite all the mists of illusion, of the Over-Soul which is above us and still ourselves: “We live in succession, in division, in parts, in particles; meanwhile within man is the soul of the whole; the wise silence; the universal beauty … the eternal One.”

Emerson’s philosophy is thus a kind of reconciled dualism, and a man’s attitude towards it in the end will be determined by his sense of its sufficiency or insufficiency to meet the facts of experience. One of Emerson’s biographers has attempted to set forth this philosophy as “a synthesis and an anticipation.” It is a synthesis because in it we fund, as Emerson had already found in Plato and Plotinus, a reconciliation of “the many and the one,” the everlasting flux and the motionless calm at the heart of things:

An ample and generous recognition of this transiency and slipperiness both in the nature of things and in man’s soul seems more and more a necessary ingredient in any estimate of the universe which shall satisfy the intellect of the coming man. But it seems equally true that the coming man who shall resolve our will never content himself with a universe a-tilt, a universe in cascade, so to speak; the craving for permanence in some form cannot be jauntily evaded. Is there any known mind which foreshadows the desired combination so clearly as Emerson’s? Who has felt profoundly the evanescence and evasiveness of things?… Yet Emerson was quite as firm in his insistence on a single unalterable reality as in his refusal to believe that any aspect or estimate of that reality could be final.[4]

§ 13. His Failure to Perceive the Meaning of Evil; The Rarity and Beauty of his Accomplishment.[edit]

The necessity of the dualism that underlies Emerson’s philosophy could scarcely be put more neatly, and the kind of synthesis, or reconciliation, in which Emerson floated is admirably expressed. But it is not so plain that this synthesis anticipates the solution of the troublesome problems of life. There will be those who will ask whether the power of religion for mature minds does not depend finally on its feeling for evil. How otherwise, in fact, shall religion meet those harder questions of experience when its aid is most needed? And in like manner they will say that the power of philosophy as the dux vitae depends on its acquaintance with the scope and difficulties of scepticism. Both religion and philosophy would seem, in such a view, to rest not only on a statement of the dualism of good and evil, knowledge and ignorance, but on a relization of the full meaning and gravity, practical and intellectual, of this dualism. Now Emerson certainly recognizes the dualism of experience, but it is a fair question whether he realizes its full meaning and seriousness. He accepts it a trifle too jauntily, is reconciled to its existence with no apparent pang, is sometimes too ready to wave aside its consequences, as if a statement of the fact were an escape from its terrible perplexities. Carlyle meant something of the sort when he worried over Emerson’s inability to see the hand of the devil in human life. Hence it is that Emerson often loses value for his admirers in proportion to their maturity and experience. He is above all the poet of religion and philosophy for the young; whereas men, as they grow older, are inclined to turn from him, in their more serious moods, to those sages who have supplemented insight with a firm grasp of the darker facts of human nature. That is undoubtedly true; nevertheless, as time passes, the deficiencies of this brief period of New England, of which Emerson was the perfect spokesman, may well be more and more condoned for its rarity and beauty. One of the wings of the spirit is hope, and nowhere is there to be found a purer hope than in the books of our New England sage; rather, it might be said that he went beyond hope to the assurance of present happiness. The world had never before seen anything quite of this kind, and may not see its like again.

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^  Letters of Charles Eliot Norton, vol. 1, pp. 503 and 506.
  2. ^  See also Book I, Chaps. IV and V.
  3. ^  Letters of Charles Eliot Norton, vol. 1, p. 509.
  4. ^  O.W.Firkins, Ralph Waldo Emerson, p. 364.

Bibliography[edit]

George Willis Cooke's Bibliography of Ralph Waldo Emerson, Boston, 1908, is an exhaustive record of Emerson's published writings and of biographical and critical material. The present bibliography is necessarily selective, but it is believed that it includes in particular all the publications of importance which have appeared since Mr. Cooke's volume.

Unless otherwise noted, all the single essays and poems listed below appear in the Complete Works, 1903–4. Those marked * have been reprinted in Uncollected Writings, New York, [1912]. Those marked ** have not been republished, unless specially noted. A large proportion of the newspaper items listed are unauthorized reports of lectures and addresses.

The language of the translations recorded is indicated in each instance by the place of publication.

COMPLETE COLLECTIONS[edit]

Riverside Edition of Emerson's Complete Works [edited by James Elliot Cabot]. 12 v, Boston, 1884 [1883]–1893, London, 1884–93. (Standard Library Edition printed from the plates of the Riverside, with additional illustrations, 1894.)

Centenary Edition. The Complete Works of Ralph Waldo Emerson. With a biographical introduction and notes by Edward Waldo Emerson…. 12 v. Boston, 1903–4, London, 1904. (Concord Edition, 1904, and Autograph Centenary Edition, 1905, printed from plates of the Centenary Edition.)

FIRST EDITIONS OF SEPARATE WORKS[edit]

[The numbers following the dates indicate volume and page.]

Fame. The Offering, for 1829, Cambridge, 1829, 52–3.

*The Right Hand of Fellowship [Address]. A Sermon delivered at the Ordination of Hersey Bradford Goodwin &hellip by James Kendall, D.D…. Concord, 1830, 29–31.

*Letter from the Rev. R. W. Emerson to the Second Church and Society. Boston, [1832]. O. B. Frothingham, Transcendentalism in New England, New York, 1876, 232–6. J. E. Cabot, Memoir of Ralph Waldo Emerson, Boston, 1887, 685–8.

We love the Venerable House [hymn]. Sermon at Ordination of Chandler Robbins by Henry Ware. Boston, 1833, 32.

A Historical Discourse, delivered before the Citizens of Concord, 12th September, 1835, on the Second Centennial Anniversary of the Incorporation of the Town…. Concord, 1835. Boston, [1875].

Nature…. Boston, 1836. Translation: Adolf Holtermann, Hannover, 1868, 1873.

Original Hymn [By the Rude Bridge That Arched the Flood], N. p., n.d. [1837], sheet.

The American Scholar. An Oration delivered before the Phi Beta Kappa Society at Cambridge, August 31, 1837. Boston, 1837. As Man Thinking: An Oration, London, [1844].

An Address delivered before the Senior Class in Divinity College, Cambridge &hellip 15 July, 1838. Boston, 1838. Translation, E. M. Thorson, Kjobenhavn, 1856; Bremen, 1898.

[Literary Ethics]. An Oration delivered before the Literary Societies of Dartmouth College, July 24, 1838…. Boston, 1838.

Essays [First Series]. Boston, 1841. New Edition [revised], 1847. Translations: Èmile Montègut, Paris, 1851; Leon Augusto Perussia, Milano, 1886, 1889; Karl Federn, Halle, 1894; Pedro Marquez, Madrid, 1900; Wilhelm Schölermann, Leipzig, 1902, Jena, 1905; M. Spiro, Berlin, n. d.

The Method of Nature. An Oration delivered before the Society of the Adelphi, in Waterville College, in Maine, August 2, 1841. Boston, 1841.

Essays, Second Series. Boston, 1844. Eight Essays, London, 1852. Translation, W. Miessner, Jena, 1904.

[Emancipation in the British West Indies.] An Address delivered in the Court–House in Concord, Massachusetts, on 1st August, 1844, on the Anniversary of the Emancipation of the Negroes in the British West Indies &hellip Boston, 1844.

**The Garden of Plants. The Gift, Philadelphia, 1844, 143–6. An Ungarnered Emerson Item, The Nation [New York], 100, 563–4, May 20, 1915.

The Last Farewell. Our Pastor's Offering, Boston, 1845, 34–6.

*My Thoughts. Ibid., 107–8.

*The Poet [Hoard Knowledge in Thy Coffers]. The Gift, Philadelphia, 1845, 77.

The Poet's Apology. Ibid., 77.

Dirge. Ibid., 94–6.

Loss and Gain. The Diadem for 1846 &hellip Philadelphia, 1846, 9.

—— Fable, ibid., 38.

—— Forerunners, ibid., 95.

Poems. Boston, 1847 [1846], London, 1847.

The World–Soul. The Diadem &hellip Philadelphia, 1847, 76–8.

Nature, Addresses and Lectures. Boston, 1849. Miscellanies, embracing Nature, Addresses, and Lectures, Boston, 1855. Nature, an Essay, and Lectures on the Times, London, 1844. Nature, an Essay, and Orations, London, 1844. Orations, Lectures, and Addresses, London, 1845. Essays, Orations, and Lectures, London, 1848. Essays, Lectures, and Orations, London, 1848. Orations, Lectures, and Addresses, London, 1849. Translations: Xavier Eyma, Paris, 1865; Edmundo Gonsàlez Blanco, Madrid, n.d.

Representative Men, Seven Lectures. Boston, 1850 [1849]. Translations: E. M. Thorson, Kjobenhavn, 1857; P. de Boulogne, Bruxelles, 1863; V. Pfeiff, Upsala, 1875; Jean Izoulet avec la collaboration de Adrien Baret et Firmin Roz, Paris, 1895; Oskar Dähnert, Leipzig, [1895]; Karl Federn, Halle, 1896; Heinrich Conrad, Leipzig, 1903, 1905; Maria Pastore–Mucchi, Torino, 1904.

Essays, First and Second Series. 2 v., Boston, 1850. The Twenty Essays of

Ralph Waldo Emerson, London, 1870. Translations: G. Fabricius, Hannover, 1858; Fanny Zampini Salazar, Milano, 1904.

*Faith, *The Phoenix, *To Himself [translations from the Persian of Hafiz]; *Word and Deed, translation from the Persian of Nisami. The Liberty Bell, by Friends of Freedom, Boston, 1851, 78–81.

Address to Kossuth. Kossuth in New England, Boston, 1852.

Memoirs of Margaret Fuller Ossoli [by Emerson, W. H. Channing, and J. F. Clarke] &hellip 2 v., Boston, 1852 [1851].

On Freedom [Freedom]. Autographs for Freedom, ed. by Julia Griffiths, Auburn, 1854, 235–6.

English Traits. Boston, 1856, London, 1856. Translations: Friedrich Spielhagen, Hannover, 1857; A. F. Akerberg, Upsala, 1875; Rafael Cansinos, Madrid, [1906].

Farming. Transactions of the Middlesex Agricultural Society, 1858, 45–52.

*Amos Bronson Alcott. New American Cyclopaedia &hellip edited by George Ripley and Charles A. Dana, New York, 1859, 1, 301–2.

[Robert Burns]. Celebration by the Burns Club, Boston, 1859, 35–7.

The Conduct of Life. Boston, 1860. London, 1861. Translations: E. S. von Mühlberg [E. Sartorius], Leipzig, 1862, 1885; Xavier Eyma, Paris, n. d., Bruxelles, 1864, 1888; Benedicto Vèlez, Madrid, [1900]; Karl Federn, Minden, 1901; Heinrich Conrad, Leipzig, 1903, 1905; P. H. Hugenholtz, Jr., Amsterdam, 1903; Friedrich Kwest, Hamburg, n. d.; M. Dugard, Paris, 1909.

John Brown [Speech at Boston, November 18, 1859]. The John Brown Invasion, an authentic history of the Harper's Ferry tragedy, Boston, 1860, 103–5. Echoes of Harper's Ferry, Boston, 1860, 67–70.

John Brown [Speech at Salem, January 26, 1860]. Echoes of Harper's Ferry, Boston, 1860, 119–22.

[Theodore Parker]. Tributes to Theodore Parker at the Music Hall, June 17, 1860 &hellip Boston, 1860, 14–19.

**The Lover's Petition. Over–Songs. Taunton, Privately printed [only five copies], 1864. May–Day and other Pieces, Boston, 1867, 90–1.

Sea–Shore. The Boatswain's Whistle. Boston, Nov. 18, 1864.

*[William Cullen Bryant]. The Bryant Festival at “The Century,“ November 5, 1864, New York, 1865, 16–19.

The Gulistan or Rose Garden, by Musle–Hudden Sheik Saadi, of Shiraz. Translated by Francis Gladwin, with an essay &hellip by James Ross, and a preface by R. W. Emerson. Boston, 1865. (Preface, iii–xv).

May–Day and Other Pieces. Boston, 1867. London, 1867.

Address at the Dedication of the Soldiers' Monument in Concord. Ceremonies at the Dedication &hellip Concord, 1867, 29–52.

[Remarks at Organization of the Free Religious Association]. Report of a Meeting to consider Free Religion. Boston, 1867. 52–4.

[Speech in Honor of the Chinese Embassy]. Reception of the Chinese Embassy, Boston, 1868, 52–5.

Humboldt. Address at Centennial Anniversary of Birth of Humboldt. Boston Society of Natural History, 1869, 71–2.

[Speech on Free Religion]. Proceedings at Second Annual Meeting of the Free Religious Association, Boston, 1869, 42–4.

Society and Solitude, Twelve Chapters. Boston, 1870, London, 1870. Translations: Selma Mohnicke, Bremen, 1871, 1875; Norden, 1885; Sophie von Harbou, Halle, 1902; Heinrich Conrad, Leipzig, 1903.

Plutarch's Morals, translated from the Greek &hellip Revised by William W.

Goodwin, &hellip with an introduction by Ralph Waldo Emerson. Boston, 1870. (Introduction, I, ix–xxiv.)

Sir Walter Scott. Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, Aug., 1871. 12, 145–7, 1873.

[Address at the Opening of the Concord Free Public Library]. Dedication of the New Building for the Free Public Library of Concord, Mass. Boston, 1873, 37–45.

Parnassus [a Collection of Poetry], edited by Ralph Waldo Emerson &hellip Boston, 1875.

Letters and Social Aims. Boston, 1876 [1875], London, 1876. Translations: Julian Schmidt, Stuttgart, 1876; Haarlem, 1881; J. Và&ncirc;a, Praha, 1883.

Selected Poems. New and Revised Edition. Boston, 1876. (Volume IX. of the 1876 collected edition of Emerson's works.)

The Sermon on the Lord's Supper. Octavius Brooks Frothingham, Transcendentalism in New England, New York, 1876, 363–380.

**Speech on the Concord Fight. Proceedings at the Centennial Celebration of Concord Fight, Concord, 1876, 79–81. G. W. Cooke, Ralph Waldo Emerson, His Life, Writings, and Philosophy, Boston, 1881, 182–3.

Fortune of the Republic. Lecture delivered at the Old South Church, March 30, 1878 &hellip Boston, 1878.

**[Speech at Bedford]. Bedford Sesqui–Centennial Celebration, Boston, 1879, 79.

**Religion. Sketches and Reminiscences of the Radical Club, edited by Mrs. John T. Sargent, Boston, 1880, 3–6. The Senses and the Soul, and Moral Sentiment in Religion, Two Essays. London, 1884, 21–4.

The Beggar Begs by God's Command. Ibid., 398.

The Correspondence of Thomas Carlyle and Ralph Waldo Emerson, 1834–1872. 2 v., Boston, 1883. Supplementary Letters, Boston, 1886. Revised edition [containing supplementary letters], 2 v., Boston, 1888.

Lectures and Biographical Sketches. Boston, 1884 [1883]. (Vol. X of the Riverside Edition).

Miscellanies. Boston, 1884 [1883]. (Vol. XI of the Riverside Edition.)

Natural History of Intellect and other Papers. With a General Index to Emerson's Collected Works. Boston, 1893. (Volume XII of the Riverside Edition.)

**Two Unpublished Essays. The Character of Socrates. The Present State of Ethical Philosophy…. With an introduction by Edward Everett Hale. Boston, 1896. Ralph Waldo Emerson. By Edward Everett Hale. Together with Two Early Essays of Emerson. Boston, 1899.

A Correspondence between John Sterling and Ralph Waldo Emerson. With a Sketch of Sterling's Life by Edward Waldo Emerson &hellip Boston, 1897.

Letters from Ralph Waldo Emerson to a Friend [Samuel Gray Ward], 1838–1853.

Edited by Charles Eliot Norton. Boston, 1899.

**Oration [before the New England Society in the City of New York], 1870. The New England Society Orations &hellip 1820–1885, collected and edited by Cephas Brainerd and Eveline Warner Brainerd &hellip 2 v., 1901, 2, 371–96. (An incomplete and incorrect report of this address appeared in the New York Tribune of December 24, 1870.)

Correspondence between Ralph Waldo Emerson and Herman Grimm. Edited by Frederick William Holls. Boston, 1903. (Reprinted from the Atlantic Monthly, 91, 467–479, 1903, with the addition of the original German letters.)

**Sermon on the Death of George Adams Sampson, 1834. Boston, 1903. (Privately printed; 30 copies.)

Journals of Ralph Waldo Emerson, with Annotations. Edited by Edward Waldo Emerson and Waldo Emerson Forbes. 10 v., Boston, 1909–14.

Records of a Lifelong Friendship, 1807–1882. [Correspondence of] Ralph Waldo Emerson and William Henry Furness. Edited by H[enry] H[oward] F[urness] Boston, 1910.

Uncollected Writings. Essays, Addresses, Poems, Reviews and Letters by Ralph Waldo Emerson. [Edited by Charles C. Bigelow.] [1912.]

(The essay, Nature, in this volume, is not, as the Introduction states, “an individual essay, distinct from all others of the same title,” but simply a reprint, published by Emerson in The Boston Book, 1850, of the first four paragraphs of Nature in Essays, Second Series, with a very trifling verbal change in the third paragraph.)

Emerson also contributed prefaces or introductions to the following volumes:

Carlyle, Sartor Resartus, Boston, 1836, iii–v.

—— Critical and Miscellaneous Essays, Boston, 1838, I., iii.

—— Past and Present, Boston, 1843, iii.

Thoreau, Excursions, Boston, 1863: Biographical Sketch, 7–33 (This article is the same as that in Altantic Monthly, 10, 239–49).

—— Letters to Various Persons, Boston, 1865, iii.

Channing, The Wanderer, a colloquial poem, Boston, 1879, I, i–iii.

The Hundred Greatest Men, 4 v., London, 1879, I, i–iii.

G. W. Cooke's Bibliography of Emerson, pp. 32–4, contains a large number of personal and occasional letters which have not been republished. The following volumes, which have appeared since the publication of Mr. Cooke's Bibliography, contain additional letters by Emerson.

Uncollected Writings, &hellip New York, 1912, 193–208.

Letters of Charles Eliot Norton, &hellip Boston, 1913, 1, 340–1; 2, 137–8.

CONTRIBUTIONS TO PERIODICALS AND NEWSPAPERS: PROSE[edit]

Michael Angelo; North American Review, 44, 1–16, Jan., 1837.

*[Carlye's] French Revolution; Christian Examiner, 23, 380–5, Jan., 1838.

Letter to Martin Van Buren. Yeoman's Gazette (Concord), May 19, 1838.

Milton; North American Review, 47, 56–73, July, 1838.

Contributions to The Dial, a Magazine for Literature, Philosophy, and Religion, 4 v., Boston, July, 1840–April, 1844 (v. 3 and 4 edited by Emerson): [A number of the following entries are of questionable accuracy. See J. E. Cabot's Memoir of Ralph Waldo Emerson, 2, 695–6, and G. W. Cooke's The Dial, an Historical and Biographical Introduction, Journal of Speculative Philosophy, 19, 225–65, 1885.]

*The Editors to the Reader; I, 1–14, July, 1840.

Thoughts on Modern Literature; I, 137–58, Oct., 1840.

*New Poetry [with extracts from W. E. Channing]; I, 220–32, Oct., 1840.

*[R. H. Dana, Jr.'s] Two Years before the Mast, [Fourier's] Social Destiny of Man [Reviews], I, 264–6, Oct., 1840.

*Thoughts on Art, I, 367–78, Jan., 1841.

*[J. E. Taylor's] Michael Angelo; [S. D. Robbins's] The Worship of the Soul [Reviews]; I, 401–4, Jan., 1841.

Man the Reformer; I, 523–38, Apr., 1841.

*Essays and Poems by Jones Very [Review]; 2, 430–1, July, 1841.

Walter Savage Landor; 2, 262–71, Oct., 1841.

*The Senses and the Soul; 2, 374–9, Jan., 1842.

*Transcendentalism (Editor's Table); 2, 382–4, Jan., 1842.

*The Ideal Man [Book Note]; 2, 408, Jan., 1842.

Lectures on the Times: [I] Introductory Lecture; II, The Conservative; III, The Transcendentalist; 3, I–18, 181–97, 297–313, July, 1842–Jan., 1843.

Prayers; 3, 77–81, July, 1842.

*Veeshnoo Sarma … Extracts from the Heetopades of Veeshnoo Sarma; 3, 82–5, July, 1842.

*Fourierism and the Socialists; 3, 86–96, July, 1842.

Chardon of Street and Bible Conventions; 3, 100–12, July, 1842.

Agriculture of Massachusetts; 3, 123–6, July, 1842.

*[George Borrow's] The Zincali; [Lockhart's] Ancient Spanish Ballads; [G. H. Colton's] Tecumseh, a Poem; 3, 127–9, July, 1842.

*Intelligence: [Charles Wilkes's] Exploring Expedition; Association of State Geologists; Harvard University; [Wordsworth's New Poems]; Alfred Tennyson; Henry Taylor; [Schelling in] Berlin; New Jerusalem Church; 3, 132–6, July, 1842.

*English Reformers; 3, 227–47, Oct., 1842.

*Poems by Alfred Tennyson; [O. A. Brownson's] A Letter to Rev. Wm. E. Channing [Reviews]; 3, 273–7, Oct., 1842.

*Literary Intelligence [The death of Channing]; 3, 387, Jan., 1843.

*Confessions of St. Agustin [Review]; 3, 414–5, Jan., 1843.

Europe and European Books; 3, 511–21, Apr., 1843.

*[Borrow's] The Bible in Spain; [Browning's] *Paracelsus [Reviews]; 3, 534–5, Apr., 1843.

Gifts; 4, 93–5, July, 1843.

[Carlyle's] Past and Present; 4, 96–102, July, 1843.

*Anti–Slavery Poems by John Pierpont; Sonnets and other Poems by William Lloyd Garrison; [N. W. Coffin's] America, an Ode … Poems by William Ellery Channing [Reviews]; 4, 134–5, July, 1843.

*To Correspondents [note]; 4, 136, July., 1843.

The Comic; 4, 247–56, Oct., 1843.

A Letter; 4, 262–70, Oct., 1843.

*The Huguenots in France and America; [Longfellow's] The Spanish Student; [J. G. Percival's] The Dream of a Day [Reviews]; 4, 270–2, Oct., 1843.

*Tantalus; 4, 357–63, Jan., 1844.

The Young American; 4, 484–507, Apr., 1844.

The Tragic; 4, 515–21, Apr., 1844.

*Ethnical Scriptures: Chaldean Oracles; 4, 529–36, Apr., 1844.

Ezra Ripley, D.D.; Concord Republication, Oct. I, 1841; Atlantic Monthly, 52, 592–6, Nov., 1883.

To the Public [Editor's Address]; Massachusetts Quarterly Review, I, 1–7, Dec., 1847.

**Essays and Tales by John Sterling [Review]; Ibid., I, 515–6, Sept., 1848.

*[A. H. Clough's] The Bothie of Toper–na–Fousich; [Review]; ibid., 2, 249–52, Mar., 1849.

War; The Aesthetic Papers [edited by Elizabeth P. Peabody], I [all published], 36–50, 1849.

**[Anti–Slavery Lecture against the Know–Nothings]. Boston Evening Traveller, Jan., 25, 1855.

Samuel Hoar; Putnam's Monthly Magazine, 8, 645–6, Dec., 1856.

Solitude and Society [Sic]; Atlantic Monthly, 1, 225–9, Dec., 1857.

Books; ibid., 1, 343–53, Jan., 1858.

Persian Poetry; ibid., 1, 724–34, Apr., 1858.

Eloquence; ibid., 2, 385–97, Sept., 1858.

Culture; ibid., 6, 343–53, Sept., 1860.

Domestic Life [Revision of Society and Solitude]; The Dial &hellip M. D. Conway, editor, 1 [all published], 585–602, Cincinnati, Oct., 1860.

The Story of West–Indian Emancipation [Emancipation in the British West Indies]; ibid., I, 649–60. Dec., 1860.

Old Age; Atlantic Monthly, 9, 134–40, Jan., 1862.

American Civilization. Ibid., 9, 502–11, Apr., 1862.

**Henry D. Thoreau [obituary notice]; Boston Daily Advertiser, May 8, 1862. G. W. Cooke, Bibliography of Ralph Waldo Emerson, Boston, 1908, 120–2.

Thoreau; Atlantic Monthly, 10, 239–49, Aug., 1862.

The President's Proclamation [The Emancipation Proclamation]. Ibid., 10, 638–42, Nov., 1862.

Saadi. Ibid., 14, 33–7, July, 1864.

**[Reports of Lectures on American Life]; Boston Commonwealth, Dec. 10, 17, 24, 31, 1864, Jan. 7, 1865.

Abraham Lincoln [Remarks at the Memorial Services in Concord, April 19, 1865]. Boston Commonwealth, April 29, 1865.

Character [distinct essay from that in Essays, Second Series]; North American Review, 102, 356–73, Apr., 1866.

George L. Stearns; Boston Commonwealth, Apr. 20, 1867.

Mrs. Sarah A. Ripley; Boston Daily Advertiser, July 31, 1867.

Aspects of Culture; Atlantic Monthly, 21, 87–95, Jan., 1868.

Quotation and Originality; North American Review, 106, 543–57, Apr., 1868.

**Natural Religion [Horticultural Hall Address]; Boston Commonwealth, May 8, 1869.

**What Books to Read [Address at Howard University]; Boston Evening Transcript, Jan. 22, 1872.

*Address at the Japanese Banquet, August 2, 1872; Boston Commonwealth, Aug. 10, 1872.

*Address at the Complimentary Dinner to James Anthony Froude &hellip New York, October 15, 1872. New York Daily Tribune, Oct. 16, 1872.

The Assault upon Mr. [Charles] Sumner. Boston Evening Transcript, April 29, 1874.

**Remarks at Centennial Celebration, Boston Latin School; November 8, 1876; Boston Daily Advertiser, Nov. 9, 1876.

Demonology; North American Review, 124, 179–90, Mar., 1877.

Perpetual Forces. Ibid., 125, 271–82, Sept., 1877.

Sovereignty of Ethics. Ibid., 126, 404–20, May–June, 1878.

The Preacher; Unitarian Review, 13, 1–13, Jan., 1880.

Mr. Emerson on Woman Suffrage [Woman], Woman's Journal. 12, 100, Mar. 26, 1881.

Impressions of Thomas Carlyle in 1848; Scribner's Monthly [afterwards the Century], 22, 89–92, May, 1881.

The Superlative; Century Magazine, 23, 534–47, Feb., 1882.

Early Letters of Emerson [comment by Mary S. Withington]. Ibid., 26, 454–8, June, 1883.

Historic Notes of Life and Letters in Massachusetts [ &hellip in New England]; Atlantic Monthly, 52, 529–43, Oct., 1883.

Mary Moody Emerson. Ibid., 52, 733–43, Dec., 1883.

Boston. Ibid., 69, 26–35, Jan., 1892.

The Emerson–Thoreau Correspondence [with explanatory text by F. B. Sanborn]. Ibid., 69, 577–96, 736–53, May, June, 1892.

John Sterling, and a Correspondence between Sterling and Emerson [with explanatory text by Edward Waldo Emerson]. Ibid., 80, 14–35, July, 1897.

Walks with Ellery Channing [extracts from diaries]. Ibid., 90, 27–34, July, 1902.

Emerson's Correspondence with Herman Grimm [with introductory note by Frederic W. Holls]. Ibid., 91, 467–79, Apr., 1903.

Washington in Wartime, from a Journal of Ralph Waldo Emerson. Ibid., 94, 1–8, July, 1904.

Shakespeare. Ibid., 94, 365–7, Sept., 1904.

Country Life. Ibid., 94, 594–604, Nov., 1904.

**Father Taylor [introductory note by Edward W. Emerson]. Ibid., 98, 177–81, Aug., 1906.

CONTRIBUTIONS TO PERIODICALS: VERSE[edit]

Each and All. Western Messenger, 6, 229–230, February, 1839.

To the Humble-Bee. Ibid, 6, 239–241, February, 1839.

Good–By, Proud World. Ibid., 6, 402, April, 1839.

The Rhodora. Ibid., 7, 166, July, 1839.

To &hellip [To Eva]. The Dial, A Magazine for Literature, Philosophy, and Religion, 1., 84, July, 1840.

The Problem. Ibid., 1, 122–3, July, 1840.

Silence [Eros]. Ibid., 1, 158, Oct., 1840.

Woodnotes. Ibid., 1, 242–5, Oct., 1840.

The Snow–Storm. Ibid., 1, 339, Jan., 1841.

Suum Cuique [The rain has spoiled &hellip]. Ibid., 1, 347, Jan., 1841.

The Sphinx. Ibid., 1, 348–350, Jan., 1841.

Painting and Sculpture. Ibid., 2, 205, Oct., 1841.

Fate. [That you are fair &hellip] Ibid., 2, 205–6, Oct., 1841.

Woodnotes, Number II. Ibid., 2, 207–214, Oct., 1841.

The Park. Ibid., 2, 373, Jan., 1842.

Forbearance. Ibid., 2, 373, Jan., 1842.

Grace. Ibid., 2, 373, Jan., 1842.

Tact. Ibid., 3, 72–3, July, 1842.

Holidays. Ibid., 3, 73, July, 1842.

The Amulet. Ibid., 3, 73–4, July, 1842.

Saadi. Ibid., 3, 265–9, Oct., 1842.

To Eva at the South. Ibid., 3, 327–8, Jan., 1843.

To Rhea. Ibid., 4, 104–6, July, 1843.

Ode to Beauty. Ibid., 4, 257–9, Oct., 1843.

Eros. Ibid., 4, 101, Jan., 1844,

The Times, a Fragment [Blight.] Ibid., 4, 405–6, Jan., 1844.

The Visit. Ibid., 4, 528, Apr., 1844.

The Romany Girl, The Chartist's Complaint, Days, Brahma; Atlantic Monthy,

1, 46–8, Nov., 1857.

Illusions. Ibid., 58–62, Nov., 1857.

Two Rivers. Ibid., 1, 311, Jan., 1858.

Waldeinsamkeit. Ibid., 2, 550–1, Oct., 1858.

Song of Nature. Ibid., 5, 18–20, Jan., 1860.

The Sacred Dance. The Dial, M. D. Conway, Editor, Cincinnati, 1, 37, Jan., 1860.

Cras, Heri, Hodie [Heri, Cras, Hodie], Climacteric, The Botanist, The Forester. Ibid., 1, 131, Feb., 1860.

From Alcuin, The Gardener, Nature [Boon Nature yields], Nature in Leasts [In Minimis], The Northman, The Orator, The Poet [Ever the Poet from the land], The Artist. Ibid., 1, 195, Mar., 1860.

The Test: Musa Loquitur; Atlantic Monthly, 7, 85, Jan., 1861.

The Titmouse. Ibid., 9, 585–7, May, 1862.

Boston Hymn. Ibid., 11, 227–8, Feb., 1863. Also in Dwight's Journal of Music, Jan. 24, 1863.

Voluntaries. Ibid., 12, 504–6, Oct., 1863.

My Garden. Ibid., 18, 665–6, Dec., 1866.

Terminus. Ibid., 19, 111–12, Jan., 1867.

Boston: Sicut Patribus, Sit Deus Nobis. Ibid., 37, 195–7, Feb., 1876.

**To Lowell, on his Thirtieth Birthday. Century, 47, 3–4, Nov., 1893. [Introductory note by Charles Eliot Norton.]

BIOGRAPHY AND CRITICISM[edit]

Agoult, Marie de Flavigny, Comtesse d'. Ètudes Contemporaines: Emerson. Revue Indèpendente, 2 Ser., 4, 195–209, July, 1846.

Albee, John. Remembrances of Emerson. New York, 1901. New edition, with additions, 1903.

Alcott, Amos Bronson. Emerson &hellip Cambridge, 1865.

—— Emerson. Concord Days, Boston, 1872, 25–40.

—— Ralph Waldo Emerson, Philosopher and Seer &hellip Boston, 1882.

Angot des Rotours, Jules. Ralph Waldo Emerson. La Morale du Coeur &hellip Paris, 1892, 179–99.

Arnold, Matthew. Emerson. Macmillan's Magazine, 50, 1–13, May, 1884. Discourses in America, London, 1885, 138–207.

Baildon, Henry Bellyse. Ralph Waldo Emerson, Man and Teacher. Edinburgh, 1887.

Basch, Victor. Individualistes Modernes: Ralph Waldo Emerson. La Grande Revue, 7, 73–102, Apr., 1903.

Beers, Henry Augustin. Emerson's Transcendentalism. Points at Issue and some other Points, New York, 1904, 89–118.

Benton, Joel. Emerson as a Poet [including W. S. Kennedy, An Emerson Concordance, 109–47; and W. F. Poole, Emerson as a Magazine Topic, 149–68]. New York, 1883.

—— Emerson's Optimism. Outlook, 68, 407–10, June 15, 1901.

Persons and Places; Reminiscent studies of Matthew Arnold, Emerson, Greeley, & c. New York, 1907, 1–7, 67–77.

Berg, Leo. Ralph Waldo Emerson [Geboren am 25 Mai, 1803]. Vossische Zeitung, Sonntagsbeilage, Nos. 21–2, May, 24–31, 1903.

Bijvanck, Willem Geertrudes Cornelis. Emerson en Walt Whitman. Pöezie en leven in de 19e eeuw, Haarlem, 1889, 263–313.

Birrell, Augustine. Emerson. Good Words, 26, 359–63, June, 1885. Obiter Dicta, 2nd Series, London, 1887, 236–53. Collected Essays, London, 1899, 1, 289–301.

—— Emerson. A lecture. London, 1903. [Not identical with the preceding.]

Boyton, Percy H. Democracy In Emerson's Journals. New Republic, 1, No. 4, 25–6, Nov. 28, 1914.

—— Emerson's Feeling toward Reform. Ibid., 1, No. 13, 16–18, Jan. 30, 1915.

—— Emerson's Solitude. Ibid., 3, 68–70, May 22, 1915.

Brasch, Moritz. Ralph Waldo Emerson, ein amerikanisches Philosophenportrait. Gesammelte Essays und Charakterkouml;pfe zur neueren Philosophie und Litteratur, Leipzig, 1887, 2te Teil, 257–66.

Brownell, William C. Emerson. Scribner's Magazine, 46, 608–24, Nov., 1909. American Prose Masters &hellip New York, 1909, 131–204.

Brownson, Orestes Augustus. American Literature [Rev. of Literary Ethics], Boston Quarterly Review, Jan., 1839; Works, Detroit, 1885, 19, 1–21.

—— R. W. Emerson's Poems. Boston Quarterly Review, N. S., 1, 262, Apr., 1847; Works, Detroit, 1885, 19, 189–202.

—— Free Religion. Catholic World, Nov., 1869. Works, Detroit, 1883, 3, 407–23.

—— Emerson's Prose Works. Catholic World, 11, 202–11, May, 1870. Works, Detroit, 1883, 3, 424–38.

Bungay, George Washington. Ralph Waldo Emerson, Poet and Essayist. Traits of Representative Men, New York, 1860, 154–72.

Burroughs, John. A word or two on Emerson; The Galaxy, 21, 254–9, Feb., 1876.

—— A final word on Emerson; The Galaxy, 21, 543–7, April, 1876.

—— Emerson. Birds and Poets, New York, 1877, 185–210. Writings, Boston, [1905], 3, 179–205.

—— Matthew Arnold on Emerson and Carlyle. Century, 27, 925–32, Apr., 1884. Arnold's view of Emerson and Carlyle, Indoor Studies, Boston, 1889, 129–62. Writings, Boston, [1905].

—— Another Word on Emerson. Literary Values, and other Papers, Boston, 1902, 191–6.

Burrows, Herbert. Emerson's Centenary: His Thought and Teaching &hellip With a Letter by Moncure D. Conway. London, 1903.

Cabot, James Elliot. A Memoir of Ralph Waldo Emerson. 2 v., Boston, 1887.

—— A glimpse of Emerson's Boyhood. Atlantic Monthly, 59, 650–67, May, 1887.

—— The Carlyle–Emerson Correspondence. Westminster Review, 119, 451–93, Apr., 1883.

Cary, Elisabeth Luther. Emerson, Poet and Thinker. New York, [1904].

Chapman, John Jay. Emerson, Sixty Years after. Atlantic Monthly, 79, 27–41, 222-40, Jan., Feb., 1897. Emerson and other Essays, New York, 1898, 3–108.

Clarke, James Freeman. R. W. Emerson and the new school. Western Messenger, 6, 37–47, Nov., 1838.

—— Memoir of Ralph Waldo Emerson, LL.D. Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 2 Ser., 2, 107–17, Boston, 1886.

Collins, John Churton. Emerson. Emerson's Writings. Posthumous Essays &hellip London, 1912, 127–70.

Concord Lectures on Philosophy. Comprising Outlines of all the Lectures at the Concord Summer School of Philosophy in 1882 &hellip Cambridge n. d., [1883].

Sixth Day, July 22: The Emerson Commemoration, 53–74. Including: Franklin B. Sanborn, Introductory Address; Cyrus Augustus Bartol, The Nature of Knowledge–Emerson's Way; Joel Benton, Emerson as a Poet; Julia Ward Howe, Reminiscences; William T. Harris, Dialectic Unity in Emerson's Prose Writings; John Albee, Reminiscence and Eulogy; Alexander Wilder, Emerson as a Philosopher; Ednah Dow Cheney, Reminiscences.

Concord School of Philosophy. The Genius and Character of Emerson. Lectures at the Concord School of Philosophy, edited by F. B. Sanborn, Boston, 1885.

Essays, etc., by Mrs. E. D. Cheney, Julian Hawthorne, Renè de Poyen Belleisle, C. A. Bartol, Miss E. P. Peabody, F. B. Sanborn, Edwin D. Mead, Julia Ward Howe, G. W. Cooke, W. T. Harris, P. C. Mozoomdar.

Conway, Moncure Daniel. Recent Lectures and Writings of Emerson. Fraser's Magazine, 75, 586–600, May, 1867.

——The Culture of Emerson. Fraser's Magazine, 78, 1–19, July, 1868.

——Emerson's Society and Solitude. Fraser's Magazine, N. S., 2 [82], 1–18, July, 1870.

——Emerson at Home and Abroad. Boston, 1882.

——Ralph Waldo Emerson. Fortnightly Review, 37, 747–70, June, 1882.

——The Ministry of Emerson. Open Court, 17, 257–264, 1903.

Cooke, George Willis. Ralph Waldo Emerson; his Life, Writings, and Philosophy. Boston, 1881.

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