A Dictionary of the Sunda language/J

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Ja-at, a vegetable, a runner which produces a longish pod, with four sharp edges, and contains a very hard pea or bean.

Jaba, outside, beyond, without. Jaba imah, outside the house. Ka jaba, go out, get outside, outwards. Jaba saking lafal, outside the text, not to be found in the text; said of any thing which is not exactly allowed, especially by the Koran.

Jaběrjér, marks of signs on writing, on letters to indicate their sound. Diacritical marks.

Jabrug, a short casting net to take fish, heavily loaded with leaden rings, so as to be used where the stream is shallow and rapid.

Jadah, child, offspring; Persian Zadah. Haram jadah, an illegitimate child, a bastard. A great word of reproach.

Jadi, to be, become, come to pass, happen; be produced; to suit, to answer, to succeed; to be born, to come into existence; to come up as seed out of the ground, to sprout. Jadi édan, to become foolish. Jadi lĕumpang? does the setting out take place. Do you go? Batu iyo jadi. this stone will answer. Bibit na gĕus jadi, the seed has come up- is growing. (Jav. Dadi, which seems to be a reduplication of di [den, di-pun]. Jadi to Dadi as Ujan to Udan.

Jadi, the zodiacal sign Capricorn. Arabic. (جدي)

Jadikěn, to make, to create, to produce, to bring forth, to cause. To confirm any transactions.

Jaga, to watch, to guard, to be awake, be vigilant. To attend upon. This word is no doubt Sanscrit, and is marked as such by Marsden. In Clough the simple word Jaga does not occur, but he gives Jāgara, P. 208, wakefulness, vigilance, waking. The word often occurs in the formation of proper names[1].

Jaga Baya, a proper name. It occurs as the name of a village and surrounding lands, on the Estate Parungpanjang in the district of Jasinga, and was formerly attached to the court of Bantam. Jaga vide supra. Baya vide voce. Thus, the watcher for fear, alarm or mischief.

Jaga Bita, a proper name. It occurs as the name of a village and surrounding lands on the Estate Parungpanjang, formerly attached to the court of Bantam. Jaga vide Supra. Bita vide voce, thus the watcher of delight, pleasure; anticipating the wishes. Jaga Baya and Jaga Bita were, under the former government of Bantam's Sultans, villages called Abdi, or slaves, and were the dependents of some of the functionaries about the court.

Jagal, to slaughter animals for food and and for sale. Pajagalan, a butcher's shop, or rather the place where he kills the animals.

Jagat, land, country, district Jagat Bantan, the country of Bantam. Jagat, C. 203, the world, the universe, the earth.

Jagjag, to tread water; to go up to the neck in deep water and maintain oneself upright therein. To survey a country by going into it and examining it. To investigate. To Kajagjag, said of water of which the bottom cannot be felt by a man upright in it.

Jago, a daring man, a bully, a fellow always ready to fight; a Hector. Hayam jago, a fighting cock.

Jagong, Zea Mais, Maize, Indian Corn.

Jah, an exclamation of disbelief or of contempt.

Jahal, arabic, the planet Saturn. (زحل, Zuhal.)

Jahar, to sell a slave or bondsman.

Jahara, arabic, the planet Venus, (زهرة, Zahrat.)

Jahé, ginger, zingiber officinale.

Jahil, arabic, malicious, mischievous, disposed to do harm. See Maringkil. Jahil maringkil, maliciously disposed. (جَاهِلٌ, Jâhil, ignorant, stupid. Cf. mûdah Skr. and Bal. stupid. Jav. Mal. Young and foolish.

Jahir, unreasonable, unjust.

Jahudi, arabic, a Jew. Jewish. (يَهُوِي)

Jajadén, derived from Jadi which see. Persons or things which have become metamorphosised, a metamorphosis or transformation. As men who have been turned into Tigers or other wild beasts. In a certain degree, spectres, ghosts. The reincarnation of a dead person.

Jajah, to go about and examine, as a chief does his district, to inspect a country.(ꦗꦗꦃ꧈​ Jajah, Jav. to tread on the ground; to go over and through something, to go about to seek for something. Gericke.)

Jajahan, in the of, in the environs of. District, province, territory. Jajahan Bogor, in the neighbourhood of Buitenzorg. The district of Buitenzorg.

Jajal, to try, to test anything or weapon; to take a trial to see if anything answers its object. To make an attempt, test, trial or experiment. Gobang na di jajal ka na daging maung he tried his gobang on the flesh of a tiger; of course on a dead one, to see if the gobang would cut, as the natives believe that iron is like some men, afraid, and you cannot be sure till you try, whether it would cut such a fierce thing as a tiger. So also they are fond of trying their Krisses. (Jav. id.)

Jajantung, the heart (anatomically); the heart of a vegetable, the core. (Mal. Jav. id.)

Jajar, a row, rank, arrangement. Di jajar, to set in a row, to arrange. See Pajajaran.

Jajar, to put together to see if they fit; said of carpentry or other work in hand.

Jajaruman, to sprout, to begin to come up, as fresh planted paddy. To show like a Jarum or needle.

Jajawarikěn, extraordinary, surprising. (From ꦗꦸꦮꦫ꧈​ or ꦗꦮꦫ꧈​ Juwara, Jawara Jav. جوار Mal!)

Jaka, an unmarried youth, a name for a young man of good family. In little use now adays. Derived from Ja, birth. See Jata C. 209 born, produced; a child, offspring. Jataka, C. 209, born, produced; of which our Jaka appears to be a contraction.

Jakatra, a town in the island of Java, on the site of which the city Batavia was founded about the year AD. 1619. The district bore the name of Sunda Kalapa. Marsden Page 103. A part of the present old town of Batavia still retains this name.
Jakatra is compounded of Jaya, C. 206, victory, conquest, and Karta, which on Java usually means peace, but is a past participle of Karanawa, to do, and means thus accomplished, fulfilled. Or it may be from Gatra, C. 172 the body, a limb or member. It also in Sunda appears sometimes to mean, family, relationship, and will thus imply either the triumphant peace or triumphant and accomplished or the triumphant family. (It is yet sometimes pronounced Jakarta or Jakěrta, town of victory. For the derivation of Ja from Jaya plead several Javanese names, Jasingha, Jàjuddhå etc. Fr.)

Jaksa, the native fiscal at the courts of law for the natives.
Ja, C. 208, speedy, swift. Aksha, C. 5. the eye. A swift eye to detect the merits of the cases brought before him.
Jaksa, at Page 43 of 23 vol Bat: Trans: Mr. Friederich says in a note. „I write Diaksa in place of Jaksa (as the judges are usually called in Bali and Java) on the authority of a manuscript where the writing with the second D points to the origin of the word. Diaksa, which is also found in M. S. S. as Adiaksa is Sanscrit: Adhi, chief, Aksha, eye.”

Jakun, only heard in the expression Haram Jakun, accursed Jakun, wich is an expression of contempt for any man. Some wild heathen tribes in the Malay peninsula are called Jakun, and probably it may have had once the same import in Java, though now adays the only non- Mohammedan Sundanese are the Badui of South Bantam [2].

Jala, a hand-net, a casting net to take fish. Jala, C. 210, a net. See Hěurap. (Skr. Jâla.)

Jalabriah, a variety of Kuéh or native pastry. This childish stuft admits of a grandiose Sanscrit interpretation. Jala, C. 207. water, a kind of perfume. Abhriya, C. 41, belonging to the clouds, or produced from the clouds- and thus the water or perfume of the clouds.

Jalak, name of a bird, much seen about buffaloes, called also Kérak. Tapak jalak, literally the mark of a jalak's foot: it means- a rude cross cut on a tree, especially in forests, in order to be able to recognize the tree or place again, or for a guide in travelling.

Jalan, a road, a way, a path. This word is evidently compounded of the first part of the following word Jal, with the constructive an placed after it. It is very probably of the same root as Yanawa, C. 569 to go, to walk, of wich ya is the root[3].

Jalanan, to walk through. To walk about on or in.

Jal-jol, an idiomatic expression of frequently coming; coming again and again.

Jaling'er, active, nimble.

Jaliti, name of a tree, Wrightia Pubescens.

Jalu, the male of animals, said especially of buffaloes. Kěbo jalu, a male buffaloe, not castrated. (Kawi id.; Jav. Krámå, Jalér.)

Jalujur: to darn, to sew by running a needle in and out through the middle part of cloth, and then pulling the thread through. This is what is called technically — "to herring- bone."

Jam, an hour, a portion of time. Marsden says it is Persian for a bell, a clock, an hour. Jäma, C. 210, a period of time, a watch, four hours.

Jamak, fit, proper, usual, customary; middling or middle rate. Jamak na, what is usual. To jamak těuyn, that will never do, that can never be the case, (Jav. id. T. Roorda derives it from Arab. حَمّعٌ, pluralis numerus. But only the first of the significations given is certainly derived from the Arabic word. The others given by him and the Sundanese point to a word of Polynesian origin. Fr.)

Jaman, time, period. This is properly the Arabic word Zěman. Jaman harita, at that former period. Jaman kiwari, at this present time.

Jamang, a jacket, a native's coat. Jamang panghulu, a Priest's jacket or robe, which is long and hangs down nearly to the heels.

Jambaka, a plant the roots of which are burnt as incense, and plentiful in some mountain districts.

Jamban, a necessary, a place to ease yourself. (Jav. Mal. idem.)

Jambangan, the wooden frame work in which the Sangku or metal pot with holes is fixed in making laksa. See Sangku.

Jambangan, an iron plate with holes in it, to draw out wire.

Jambangan, a large water jar; a large earthenware jar for holding water.

Jambatan, a stone bridge; a pear, a quay projecting into the water. It is a pure Sunda word derived from Nambat, to reach to both sides, to span. See Chukang. (Mal. id.)

Jambé, a Pinang nut or tree; the Areka nut. Areca Catechu. (Jav. Balin. idem.) Jambia, arabic, a sort of knife or dagger wórn in the belt.

Jamblang, a cloth with large square pattern. A variety of cloth with large pattern worn by the Sunda people.

Jamblang, a tree called Syzygia Jambolana.

Jambu, name of a common fruit of which there are several genera and species. They are generally called in English the Rose-apple. Jambu, C. 206, the Rose apple. Jambosa of the family of Myrtaceæ.

Jambu ayěr, the water Jambu, Jambosa Javanica. Very poor and insipid.

Jambu ayěr mawar, the Rosewater Jambu. Jambosa Vulgaris, a fragrant variety and good eating.

Jambu bol, has large red fruits like apples. It is the Jambosa Macrophylla, from its large leaves and is the best of the whole tribe.

Jambu Dipa, a name given to India in ancient lore or tradition, but the natives now adays cannot tell to where it originally belonged. A place in the Priangěr Regencies is still so called. Clough at page 206 gives- Jambu Dwipaya, from Jambu the Rose apple, and Dwipaya an island or country. According to the geography of the Hindus, the name of the Central division of the universe or the known world; but according to the Buddhists it is the continent of India, or more strictly India proper, or India within the Ganges, it being generally reckoned by them as the scene of the labours of Buddha. (Dwipa not Dwipaya is the Scr. name for island.)

Jambu Médé, Anacardium Occidentale, of the family of Terebintaceæ. The Cashew apple. Also called Kaju.

Jambu Siki, the seedy Jambu; the guava. Psidium pomiferum, of the family of Myrtaceæ.

Jambul, a tuft of hair, a topping; a tuft of feathers. In shaving a lad's head, a tuft is often left on the back part of the head, and this is called Jambul. (Mal. Jav. id.)

Jami, the Paddy straw after the grain has been beaten off. See Jërami. Rumpak jami, harvest home, literally treading the straw under foot, as natives do when reaping. Crop time.

Jami, a humah made a second year consecutively. When a piece of aboriginal forest is cut down, a second year's crop can mostly be taken from it. Probably called Jamí from the paddy straw of the former crop, which has to be cleared away, before a second planting can take place.

Jampang, a district near the Palabuan Ratu in the Priangěr Regencies, derives its name from Si Jampang, a character in ancient Javanese history, See Raffles vol 2. P. 103.

Jampang, name of a variety of grass.

Jampang pahit, name of a variety of bitter grass.

Jampé, an invocation; a prayer muttered over any person, being or thing in order to produce some beneficial result. An incantation. The native method of administering medicine which is always done by, at the same time, muttering a prayer or incantation either over the medicine or over the person who is ill.

Mr. Friederich considers that Jampé is derived from Japya, in Sanscrit, what is to be muttered, from the root Jap to mutter prayers.
Japa, Clough 205 an offering to a demon, the muttering of prayers at offerings to demons; repeating in audibly charms, the names of gods and demons, on certain religious occasions: the practice of Hindu religious mendicants to count in silence the beads of a rosary.
The original word is thus much corrupted on Java, an m having been inserted in the middle, and final a transformed into é. The m inserted in the middle is not, however, without precedent and gives to the word or verb a somewhat modified meaning, and may also be traced in a similar way in the word Kampung, derived in all probability from Kapung, or as it is pronounced Kěpung, to surround, to enclose. See Sumihung, Jumarum, Tumumbak, Kumisi, Kamayangan, Kěmbang, Kěmbung, Kěmbu and the like: also uměusi from ěusi. Mr. Friederich, however, does not feel quite satisfied, with this interpretation, as he has written me — „Jampé might have been erroneously explained by me. After all, this is not yet certain, In Javanese there is Jamu, Ngoko , Jampé, Krama, medicament, medicine. Gericke's Dictionary Page 561. I add besides Tajap (ta + jap, the Sanscrit root I told you of (above referred to) from which are derived Japa and Japya.) A prayer which is immediately listened to; et contra, a poison which soon takes effect, this is rather in favour of my explanation.” (The alteration of ya into é is very common.)

Jamplěng, entirely, quite gone. Sapoi jamplěng, an entire day, as if the day had been thrown away. Jamplěng bai di juwal, and he slapped it off in a sale.

Jamrud, Persian, the Emerald, (زمرد Zumurrud and زمرد Zumurud. Freytag.)

Jamu, and Jamuan, medicine given inwardly, to doctor by giving a drink.

Jamuga, stupid, silly; unable to take any work in hand. Jélěma jamuga, a helpless foolish fellow.

Jandéla, Portuguese Janella, a window, especially in a European's house.

Janela, slippers. A shoe with the upper leather cut away at the heer.

Jang'ěn, only, nothing but. Jang'ěn Siji, there is only one. Jang'ěn karung na, there is nothing but the bag.

Jang'ět, buffaloe hide cut in strips and used as rope.

Janggala, some of the districts adjoining the town of Sourabaya are so called under the Javanese pronunciation of Janggolo. The country so called forms the delta of the Kediri river, and is flat and alluvial. Jangala, C. 204, a place, a firm spot, a waste, a desert, a Jungle. The place originally probably consisted of Swamp with firm land interspersed and hence the appropriate designation.

Janggot, the beard, a man's beard. Name of a variety of grass.

Jangjang, a wing, wing of a bird. A cant name for a man's arm.

Jangji, promise, to promise, to make an agreement. To stipulate, to engage.

Jangjian, agreement, promise, engagement, bargain, contract, treaty.

Jangka, a pair of compasses. In Malay Jangka is a step, a pace; to step, to pace, to stride—compasses. Hence the name of an instrument which opens and strides.

Jangkar, an anchor. The large roots of a tree which grow out at right angles. Hence probably by analogy the name of an anchor.

Jangkěp, complete in number, full up. Jangkrik, name of an orthopterous insect, a kind of cricket or gryllus, about an inch long with serrated legs, and with wings. The wings, however, are often seen in the embryo state. These Jangkriks are often made to fight for the amusement of the beholders. It is found in shallow holes and does not burrow deep like its congener the Kasir which see.

Jangkung, tall, high in stature, Jélĕma na jangkung, the person is tall. Si jangkung, the middle finger.

Jang-'o-jang'o, a pick-axe, an iron instrument for grubbing up roots and stones.

Jantra, a spinning wheel: more commonly called Kinchir. Any wheel or machine which revolves. Chi Jantrā name of a rivulet on Lengkong Estate. Yantra, C. 569 a machine in general, any implement or apparatus: a diagram of a mystical nature or astrological character.

Jantung, the heart (anatomically).

Jantur, a large but young cock, often devoid of feathers about the rump. A young but full-grown fighting cock.

Japara, name of a Residency in Java, of which the chief place is now Pati, as the old town of Japara on the sea coast in the bay of Samarang was found inconvenient. Japara was the seat of a great trade before the arrival of Europeans in the East. It will be derived from Ja contracted from Jaya, C. 206, victory, conquest, triumph, and Para, C. 387 a way, a road, a path; forming Japara, the triumphant way or road, as it may have been the seat of the Spice and other valuable trade, where the people of the continent of India came to meet the traders of the Archipelago, who brought their rich wares so far, as to a common emporium. It was probably the Ye-pho-thi, Yawadwipa of the Chinese voyager and Buddhist priest, called Fu Hian who visited it in AD 415 on his return from India to China. The Portuguese immediately erected a fort at Japara which of itself bespeaks the importance of the place in a commercial view. This fort is now in ruins, but traces of it still remain. It was visited by the Gov. Genl. D. van Twist in 1853 , see Java Courant 10 August 1853. (54)[4].

Japati, a pigeon, a dove; such doves as are kept in cots. Columba, Called in Malay Marapati Marsden 322. , C. 208, speedy, swift; victorious, triumphant. Pati, C. 355, a lord, a master, an owner, a husband. At the burning of widows upon the funeral pile of their husbands, it is still usual in Bali and no doubt was also the custom on Java in Hindu times to let fly a dove before the widow throws herself into the flames, and the dove may be the emblem of their „Triumphant husbands” who have preceded them to bliss.

In Malay they say Marapati, for a dove, Marsden 322 which name answers to the same office of the Dove being let fly at the funeral burning. Mara, C. 519, Māra, C. 1538. Death, dying. Pati, C. 355, Lord, master; and thus Mara-pati- Death's Lord, still emblematic of the sacrifice of herself which the widow is about to commit. Both the Malay and Sunda people appear thus to have given the Dove its name, from the fact of its being used at the Suttee or self-sacrifice of a widow on the death of her husband. The words have evidently been received from the Hindus. In the case of the Malays they adopted the word Marapati, Death’s Lord, and of the Sundas, they adopted Japati, the „Triumphant Lord.”

In Malay also the Dove is called „Burung Dara”, and in Javanese „Manuk Doro.” Dara, C. 266 is a wife, and thus the Malay and Javanese words mean „the wifes bird” — which still applies to the wife sacrificing herself at the funeral pile of her husband. The word Dara is still preserved in Sunda , and as can be seen means — „a young woman who has just got her first child” In Malay — Marsden 128 — it means — „a virgin, a maiden” — and Dara-dang, a damsel, so that in Malay the original meaning has been somewhat modified.

It is not a little remarkable that Indian and Sanscrit names should, in the Eastern Archipelago, have superseded Polynesian names, for neither in Malay, Sunda nor Javanese, does there now thus exist a pure Polynesian name for so common an object as the domestic Dove.

The name thus applied to the Dove is not in all probability, the common colloquial name in Sanscrit. Clough gives for Dove Parawiya, Paréyiya; wild pigeon Kobo, Kobéyiya. Lambricks Singhalese vocabulary gives Kobéyiya the small Dove, Parawiya, the Pigeon; Babagoya, the Dove; Mayilagova, the large Dove. So that the names which have been transplanted into the Polynesian languages from the Sanscrit, are the mystic names applied to the Dove when used at the Suttee of widows. In the Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde, 1853 Page 2 of Berigten, Mr. Friederich explains the word Marapati for dove as the „Lord of Death” in reference to the custom still in use on Bali of letting fly a dove from the head of the widow at the moment she plunges into the gulf of fire, and explains that on Bali this bird is called Titiran, wich is the same as the Perkutut of Batavia and of the Sunda districts, and thus not the common domestic dove. Whatever may now be the case as to the bird so let loose, there can, from what has been said above, exist no doubt that that bird was originally the common domestic dove.

With respect to Mr. Friederich's interpretation of Burung-Darah a bird of blood, I must submit that my meaning tells better with the whole circumstance of the case. (55)[5]

Jara, an awl, a brad-awl. Arā, C. 815, a shoemakers awl.

Jarah, running wild in jungle, at large, not nightly penned up. Kĕbo jarah, a buffaloe that is left to take care of itself in the jungle. (Jav. idem.)

Jarak, name of a class of plants, as Jarak pagĕr, Jatropha curcas, much planted in hedges about gardens or on sides of the roads. Jatropha multifida, a variety introduced from America, and called simply Jarak. Jarak jitun, the olive jarak, used for making oil, and which is vulgarly called Palma Christi, Ricinus communis. The oli of the latter plant is much used in ship building , makes good putty etc. but is unfit to eat.

Jariji, the middle finger. (Jav. The first finger; or universally the fingers.)

Jariji manis, the ring finger.

Jaring'au, name of a dark green sedgy plant; much used in Jampĕ or incantations , called in Javanese Dringo, and Crawfurd gives for Malay- Daringgu, acorus terrestris. Clough gives two words for assafoetida- Jaratian, C. 206 and Hingu, C. 792 of which two words the Sunda word appears to be compounded, coalescing into Jaring'au. The Sundas may have heard both these words from the Indians, and joined them together to be sure of the article. It is much used by women in child- birth and is supposed to charm away evil spirits. From this circumstance it may be derived from Jarā, C. 206 a noted female demon, and Hingu y the hingu of such demoness. Or it may be a corruption of Jarayu, C. 206, the womb, the uterus, a foetus. To explain what Assafoetida is I cannot do better than give the article from Wailly's French Dictionary — Plante ombellifere de Perse, ou Merde du Diable, gomme, resine rougeâtre amère et à odeur d'ail, que donne sa racine; les peuples d'Asie la recherchent et en aiment Fodeur. — At Page 258 Clough says that Dara is the Eloo form of Jara, and this may account for the word occuring as Jaringau and Daringgu which latter Crawfurd gives and calls it acorus terrestris.

Jaro, a headman in the Bantam districts. A village chief who is elsewhere called Mandor.

Jarong, a weed with numerous hairy seeds along a stiff terminal spike.

Jarum, a needle. (Mal. Jav. idem.)

Jarumat, to darn, especially a gunny or gêbang bag. (Jav. Jrumat, ꦗꦿꦸꦩꦠ꧀꧈​ id.)

Jasah, very bad, exceedingly. It mostly implies exceedingly bad, but sometimes from its use you perceive that it also implies exceeding good. Imah na jasah goréng na, his house was exceedingly bad. Jasah hadé na, exceedingly good. Jasah, used by itself implies—shocking! very- bad! or perhaps only—„in an extreme degree”, which is mostly by implication—„very bad”.

Jataké, name of a tree and its fruit called in Malay Gandaria, mangifera oppositifolia. (The word is certainly Scr., but Wilson does not mention this meaning sub voce Jâtaka. Fr.)

Jati, the Teak tree. Tectona grandis. This is the name given to the Teak tree on Java and on other islands of the Archipelago where it occurs. The word seems to be of Sanscrit origin. Jati, C. 209 birth, lineage, race; family. Jatya, C. 210, wellborn, of good family. In Ceylon Jatya is the name given to what we call caste. This would lead one to suppose that the Teak originally was introduced from India, and brought with it, not its pure and simple Indian name, but received from the Indians who brought it to Java and the Archipelago the appellation of the „High caste wood.” Jati also means in Ceylonese, great flowered Jasmine; mace, nutmegs.

Jati, divine truth; essence. In this sense, it is very likely a modified meaning of the foregoing word. (Jav. id.)

Jauh, far, far off, distant, remote. This word has also , most probably, a Sanscrit origin, and may be a modification of a part of the verb Yanawa to go, which in the imperative is Yawa, go thou. (Mal. id.)

Jauhken, to remove to a distance.

Jawa, the Eastern portion of the island called by Europeans Java. Jawa extends from Tagal Eastward. A name, doubtless, originally given to the country by the people of India, as they appear to have called all distant countries Yawana, in the sense in which we speak of foreigners generally, or as the ancient Greeks called strange nations Barbaroi. But the name by frequent intercourse, attached itself permanently to the Eastern parts of the present island of Jawa. It very likely has its origin in the same verb Yanawa mentioned at the word Jauh. Clough at Pages 208 and 571 gives both Jawana and Jawana, as the name of a vague country distant from India, and as also meaning foreigner. The Hindus also applied Jawana to the Greeks and their Jawana Achayarya (Achârya) is supposed to be Aristotle, the Yawana teacher. Clough Page 571 gives Jawana, a country most probably Bactria, or it may be extended from that colony to Jonia or still further to Greece. By late Hindu writers it is most commonly applied to Arabia. Jawa was originally a general name for all the Eastern Archipelago generally, and chiefly for the Sumatra and Java of the present day. Marco Polo describes them as such, and Ptolemy, the Roman geographer calls them the Jabidii insulœ in the second century after Christ. In ancient times, thus, both Sumatra and Java of the present day were known as Jawa; and Marco Polo, at the close of the 13th century distinguishes them by Jawa Minor, and Java Major the Java minor being Sumatra, as nearer India, though larger in bulk than the more distant Java major or Java of the present day. At Singapore, they to this day, talk of an Angin Jawa as blowing from the Sumatra shore, and which assuredly can never be meant to come from the Java of Batavia, at a distance of eight degrees of latitude.[6]

Jawab, arabic, to answer, to reply. Answer, response, (جواب Jawâb, an answer.)

Jawél, to snap or bite at, as a dog or tiger does.

Jawér, a cock's comb. Jawér kotok, a cocks comb.

Jawér kotok, name of a plant, Plectranthus Scutellaroides of the family of Labiata. Very common in gardens- leaves red in the middle and green along the edges. Has a small blue flower. Scutellaroides- buckler shaped, perhaps from the leaves overlapping each other and presenting a dense even foliage. The leaves are sometimes entirely of a dark dull red.

Jawér kotok, name of a plant Celosia Christata of the family of Amaranthacerc. The leaves like those of the preceding plant, are also red in the center and green on the edges. It bears a handsome scarlet comb terminal to the stem, and is altogether a very ornamental plant.

Jaya, victory, victorious; successful. Jaya, C. 206, victory, conquest, triumph.

Jaya Baya, triumphant in troubles; name of an ancient King of Java, whose seat of government was at Daha in the province of Kadiri. Raffles 2 Vol Pages 80/81 assigns as the date of his accession Anno Javæ 800 = AD. 878; and Anno Javæ 701 = AD. 779. (Bhaya is fear, and frightful, horrible; so the name implies „feared by his victories.” Fr.)

Jaya Kusuma, the triumphant flower; the flower of victory, is another name in Javanese history for Panji or Ina Karta Pati.

Jaya ning Rat, a name of Arjuna in the Mahabarat, and the title with wich the sovereigns of Solo and Jugjo bedeck themselves—the triumphant in the Land.

Jayak, to accompany in procession, to escort a great man with ceremony. To support a person either walking or swimming in the water. (Cf. Ajak.)

Jayang Sěkar, the flowers of victory, a native soldiery so called kept in some parts of the interior of Java. (It is rather Jayéng sěkar, contracted from Jaya ing sëkar. Fr.)

Jayit, to take up out of water; to take out of water anything which has been put therein to soak.

Jěbléh, having the lower lip sticking out, or projecting outwards horizontally like a flat saucer. (Batav. idem.) Jĕblog, deep with mud- a soft muddy place into which man or animal sinks. (Jav. idem.)

Jěblus, the idiomatic expression of anything falling into water, and being buried in it; or of a stake or piece of wood flung with violence end- foremost into the ground. (Jav. ꦗꦼꦧ꧀ꦭꦺꦴꦱ꧀꧈​ Jĕblos, has the latter meaning.)

Jĕbod, a word expressive of striking, thwacking, thumping.

Jĕbrail, this word is the Arabic Azrail the name of the Angel of Death. The Arch- angel Gabriel. (Jav. ꦗꦧꦫꦲꦆꦭ꧀꧈​ Jabarail; Arab. جِبْرِيلُ or جبرايل, Gabriel, not Azrail. Fr.)

Jĕbrod, the idiomatic expression for a rope or string snapping. Jali na jĕbrod bai pĕgal, and the rope snapped in two. (Cf. Jav. ꦗꦼꦧꦿꦺꦠ꧀꧈​ Jĕbrét.)

Jĕbug, a dry pinang fruit, with the husk on, which has been kept some time in the house. (Jav. idem.)

Jěbul, springing up suddenly out of water, or out of any place of concealment. Kayu na jĕbul bai ngambang, the wood jumped up (from under water) and floated. Jélĕma na jĕbul bai ti lĕuwĕung the man suddenly popped out of the forest. (Cf. Jav. Jĕbul and Jĕbol, and Jav. Mal. Timbul. Fr.)

Jĕdak, the idiomatic expression of thumping, thwacking, striking violently or shooting. Jĕdak bai di gĕbugan, and he thumped him while he beat him. Jĕdak bai di bĕdil, and slap at him he shot

Jĕdéd, a word expressive of striking, thwacking, thumping, but in a more gentle de- gree than expressed by Jĕbod or Jĕdod. (Batav. Said of the firing of a fowling piece.)

Jĕding, having the upper lip turned upwards towards the nose v so as to make the mouth gaping. (Bat. idem.)

Jĕdod, a word expressive of striking, but in a heavier degree than Jĕdéd. (Bat. idem.)

Jĕdog, hanging lazily about a place. A vulgar expression to designate a person idling his time away at any place. To kick up your heels anywhere. Eukĕun jĕdog di lawang, he was idling about his door.

Jĕdur, thundering along, said of any impetuous rush, as a river in a state of flood. Chai jĕdur bai cha-ah , and the river came down in a roaring flood. Said also of men or cattle rushing, especially through jungle. Jĕdur bai lumpat, and they rushed impetuonsly along. (Batav. Said of the firing of a gun.)

Jĕg, an idiomatic expression of setting the foot to the ground, as of a deer or other animal which runs fast, and comes to the ground with a bound and immediately springs away again. Minchĕk na jĕg jĕlig bai lumpat, the small deer ran bounding away. Jĕg often occurs in composition indicating firmness, steadiness, as Jĕjĕg, Pajĕg etc.

Jégang, with the legs astride; standing with the legs apart.

Jégangkĕn, to distend, to pull out the under part of anything so as to enable it to stand of itself. Jégéng, a plant in the humahs growing innumerable small seeds, of the size of a pin's head, in clusters. It is called in Malay Jawa-wut. It can be steamed like rice and eaten. It is much given to cage birds. The Sunda people have a tradition that their ancestors lived on Jégéng before Paddy was known to them. The Malay word Jawa- wut is Sanscrit, composed of Jawa and But, C. 475 Eating (of Priests) literally Java- eating- See Jawa. (Jawawut might be Yawawat, resembling barley. Fr.)

Jégéng, turmeric, only used about Buitenzorg in this sense.

Jěgěr, stiff, inflexible, rigid. (Bat. idem.)

Jěgu, one of the many names for a wild pig.

Jěgur, the idiomatic expression of a person or animal plumping into the water; or of hurriedly running away with some noise. Jěgur bai turun ka chai, and splash he went into the water. Jěgur bai hasup ha lěuwěung, and dash he went into the forest. (Bat. Jěbur. Jav. Jěgur, the sound of thunder, or of a large gun. Fr.)

Jějak, to trample on; to stamp down with the foot. (Jav, Bat. idem.)

Jějalon, a lath or slip of barabu inserted lengthways in a gědég or wattling of bambu; the stick round which atap leaves are bent: derived from Jalu, the male of animals. Hateup sa jějalon, a single piece of Atap. (Bat. idem.)

Jějaluk, to go about asking alms, mostly under a religious pretext. (Batav. idem. Jav. Jaluk, to ask.)

Jějamu, medicine; medicine to be drunk. A medicinal draft. (Jav. idem.)

Jějangkung, stilts; pieces of bambu with pegs in them used as stilts. (Jav. Jangkung, to be in the air, like a bird of prey Batav. Jangkungan, the same as Jějangkung. Fr.)

Jĕjĕg, to stamp down, to trample down with violence with the foot: to stam pon. Asana jějěg amat di bilang téa, well I counted it perfectly correct. (See Jějak.)

Jĕjélěma-an, a puppet, a scare crow, a figure dressed up like a man. Picked men, not every man, a man selected from a number. Jějélěma-an daik kadatangan rějěki, it is not every man who has good luck. (See Jélĕma.)

Jĕjĕman, to superintend work, to oversee; to arrange, to put in order.

Jĕjĕritan, skitting about: a hopping run.

Jějuluk, a variety of grass in smamps of wich the inner fith is used as wicks for oil lamps.

Jĕkat, alms. Arabic Zakat. The Jěkat on Java is generally a portion of the crop given to the Mohammedan priests, and which properly is 1/10 of the crop. There is also a Jěkat of other property. (Arabic زَكَاةٌ, Zakâton.)

Jéké'ng, a sort of short, sharp edged grass, resembling Ilat.

Jélĕma, a person, a human being, a man, a woman. Aya jélěma di dinjo, is any person there? Jélĕma jangkung, a tall person. Jélĕma is probably a corruption of the word Janma, C. 205, born, nature, birth; nation, race, tribe, lineage. Mr. Friederich supposes our Sunda word Jélěma to be a corruption, so as to suit Polynesian organs, of the word Janma which is Sanscrit also, and means- Birth, production, according to Wilson's Sanscrit Dictionary. Calcutta 1819.

Jĕlĕng, flung away, knocked away, pitched off, ass by the violence of wind, of a stream of water, or said of any object which rebounds and strikes against another. Get along! Be off!

Jélėr, name of a small fish in the rivers, 3 or 4 inches long. It has no scales but 5 cyrrhi or beards about the mouth. Cobitis Ilasseltii.

Jĕlig, an idiomatic expression of hopping or jumping. Jĕlig bai turun, he came down with a hop.

Jĕling'er, active, stirring about. Said of man or beast, who is full of energy and stirs about. In good health- well.

Jĕlot, dropping out, not as a liquid, but as any hard substance, as a tooth out of the head, a plug or nail out of a hole &c.

Jĕmjĕm. the holy well called Zĕmzĕm in the mosque at Mecca.

Jĕmblung, pot-bellied. A man with a large paunch. (Jav. idem.)

Jénari, the period just before dawn. Very early in the morning before daybreak.

Jĕnat, the late , — said of a person who is dead. Jĕnat na dulur kula, my late brother. Jĕnat na Dĕmang, the Demang (who is now dead). Jĕnnat, in Marsden Page 105 Paradise, in Arabic Jĕnnat, as gone to Paradise. (Jav. idem. Arab, جَنَّةٌ Jarnat, garden, paradise.)

Jéndral, European- a General- a Governor General.

Jĕnĕng, title, honorary designation. Name of honour. Di bérė jĕnĕng, they gave him a title. (Jav. Balin. To stand in honour, to govern. Fr.)

Jĕngkang, to set the legs astride or apart. To open the legs. (Jav. To be in danger to fall hindwards.)

Jéngkol, name of a tree and its fruit. Inga Bigamina. The fruit is a concatenation of large round beans in a black pod. The natives are very fond of it, though it is stinking stuff and is apt to give them severe fits of strangury.

Jéngkolan, suffering from strangury in consequence of eating Jéngkol.

Jepit, jammed between, nipped, pinched. Evidently derived from Apit which Crawfurd says is Sanscrit, close, side by side, pressed or squeezed between two bodies. (Jav. Mal. Batav. idem.)

Jĕpit and Jĕpitan, nippers, pincers, blacksmith's tongs.

Jĕrami, Paddy straw. The straw from which the grain has been cut off. (See Jami.)

Jĕrih, feeling hurt or sore at getting a smaller portion or allowance than other people. (Jav. Bat. Jĕrih or Jrih, is to be afraid.)

Jĕro, deep, profound. Di jĕro, within, inside. Jĕro corresponds to the Malay word Dalĕm, and implies Inner in the sense of refined or accomplished. Basa jĕro, refined or far- fetched language. Paré jěro, called in Malay Padi Dalěm. Paddy which is of the best description and requires full five months to grow. Orang jěro, people who attend on great men or ave about a court. Yet the Sundas do not say Jěro as applied to a native chief, but use the word Dalěm, which see. (Jav. Balin. id.)

Jěruk, orange, pumplemoos- Shaddock. Jěruk is the generic name for a great variety of Citrus- as

  • Jěruk manis, Citrus aurantium.
Jěruk Honje, Citrus Javanica.
Jěruk Ipis, a small thin skinned variety- limes. (Batav. Jěruk tipis.)
Jěruk Bali or Jěruk Machan, the Pumplemoos which is the Citrus Decumana.

Jěujěuh, the length of the foot, a foot mark long. As Jěungkal is the span of the hand, so Jěujěuh is the span of the foot.

Jěujěur, the shaft of a fishing net; a fishing rod.

Jěujěut, to plat, to interweave with the hands; to plat like matting. (Jav. ꦗꦼꦗꦼꦠ꧀꧈​, Jějět, to interweave bambu.)

Jěunah, the maiden stem, the first fructification stem thrown out by the Kawung palm, and which is, of course, the first stem beaten and tapped for Sugar juice.

Jěuněum, the lair made by wild pigs to bring forth in. It resembles a large hay-cock; is made of grass, straw and twigs, under the middle of which they creep to bring forth.

Jěung, with. along with. Kudu jěung aing, it must be along with me.

Jěungjing, a tree, a variety of Acacia, very common in the jungle.

Jěungkal, a span, a span of the hand, a measure so called.

Jěuntas, a stage of rude sticks or poles set against a tree, in order to fell it, at some distance above the ground, where it is thinner.

Jěunti, is the name of a tree growing amongst Alang-Alang or ěurih, and is found in Krawang and the Prianger Regencies; it somewhat resembles the Sumpur, but is not that tree. The Jěunti at the east end of Java is called Sumpu, which is odd, from its resembling the Sunda Sumpur so closely.

Jiad, to help, to protect in difficulties. (Jav. , Jiyad, coercion, violence.)

Jiat nika, preparatory arrangements; arrangements taken with care so that all may be in order.

Jiěun, to make, to construct. Lěuwěung dt jiěunan humah, that forest has been converted into humahs.

Jihénnēm, arabic, Hell. (Arabic, جَهَنَّمُ, Jahannam.)

Jijirih, shirking work, getting out of the way for fear of orders or incurring something unpleasant. (Cf. Jěrih, Jav. , cowardly.) Jilid, arabic, to tan, to make leather; a skin, a roll, a volume. The covering or binding of a book. (Arabic, جِلْدٌ, Jild, the hide; leather, مُجَلِّدٌ, mujallad, covered with leather, a book, a tome.)

Jimat, an amulet, a talisman; spell, written charm, an incantation. It is the Arabic word Azimat of same import (عَزِيْمَةٌ).

Jin, arabic, evil spirit, demon; the race of genii. (جِنٌّ, Jinn, demons, genii.)

Jingjing, to lift up with the hand, to carry away in the hand without tying to a carrying stick. To carry off as a tiger carries its prey. This appears to be a sort of diminutive of Jungjung, to lift up.

Jingjingan, the stick in the native weaving loom, used to raise the alternate threads, by means of pieces of string tied to the same and the woof.

Jinis, the original true article; the Simon pure; that from which others are derived. (Seems to be the Arabic جِنْسٌ, Jins, which is taken from the Greek γένοζ. Latin genus. Fr.)

Jintěn, cummin seed.

Jintěn, name of a plant with thick hairy crenulated leaf, often kept growing in a basket on the roof of houses and used in cookery. It is called in Malay Daun Kuching.

Jirak, name of a tree Dicalyt tinctorius, the bark is used in native dying processes.

Jirat, a noose with a limber stick bent down to it. A springe, a gin, a sliding knot. (Jav. ꦗꦶꦉꦠ꧀꧈​ Jirět idem.)

Jitun, olive. This word is Arabic- Zeitun. A variety of Jarak is called Jarak jitun, the olive atropha. Europeans call it vulgarly Palma Christi. (Arabic, زَيْتُوْنٌ‎.)

Jiwa, the soul, life. Jiwa, C. 212, life, existence; the sentient soul.

Jochong, sticking out stiff, rigid.

Jodo, a term applied to marriages where the parents on both sides give their consent, but the young people cannot made up their minds or agree. Jodo, Crawford- a pair, a brace, a couple, mate, match. (Jav. ꦗꦺꦴꦝꦺꦴ꧈​ Jódó, with the meaning given by Crawfurd.)

Jodog, the open landing place at the entrance of a native house, which is ascended by steps. The open balcony at a native's door.

Jogéd, a variety of fish trap for catching lélé fish. It opens downwards and the lélé has to make its way up.

Jogjěrog, to trot; to jolt and shake on horse back. In contradistinction to the native pas. A derivation of the following word. Jogjog, uneasy in motion, jolting; to keep moving. Jogjog di na kuda, jolting on horse back.

Joglo, a temporary accommodation shed: a canvass tent.

Jogo, to squat down on the hams, but not with the bottom touching the ground.

Jogor, stiff, unbending.

Johar, the planet Saturn. Béntang Johar, the star Saturn. (Cf. Jahal. Arab. زُحَلُ Zuhal)

Johor, name of a Malay state at the Southern extremity of the Malay Peninsula. Supposed to be so called from an Arabic word of the same sound meaning- Precious stone, or Pearl. It was founded by the Malay chiefs who were driven out of Malacca by the Portuguese. (Arabic, جَوْهَرٌ, Jauhar, from the Persian ݣَوْهَر, Gauhar, precious stones, pearls. Freytag.)

Jojong, keeping at one's work, or on our course, irrespective of what others are doing.

Jokjok, the place for putting rice in a native's house. The store place for rice. (Cf. Gericke s. v. ꦗꦺꦴꦏ꧀꧈​ meaning, to pour out, to fill.)

Jol, the idiomatic expression of coming. Jol bai datang, and pop he came; to pop suddenly upon any one; making appearance. Ti mana jol na, where did he pop from (come from). Chai na jol tijěro, the water oozes out.

Jolang, a wooden trough, a trough hollowed out from the stem of a tree. (Jav. ꦗꦺꦴꦭꦁ꧈​ Jolang, a chair for carrying people, hung round with clothes. Sund. Dulang, the same as our Jolang.)

Joli, a sedan chair, or any contrivance for carrying a person. (Jav. Balin. idem.)

Jolok, to probe at with a skewer; to poke at in a hole with any long thin implement,

Jombang, name of a violent current of wind passing through the country in one determined straight line and uprooting all before it. A sort of hurricane.

Jompo, disabled for work; not fit for work, from age or infirmity. (Jav. idem.)

Jompong, servants of nobles.

Jong, a Chinese junk; a ship. (Jav. ꦗꦺꦴꦁ꧈​ Jong, idem.)

Jongjongan; a short period of time, a short interval, say of about half an hour, particularly as applied to work going on. A jongjongan is also a designation of distance, as much as a man can walk in about half an hoar and will be thus about two or three miles. Might be translated — „a joggle on." —

Jongko, to sit on the rump on the ground, with the knees bent up under the chin. (Batav. Jongkok.)

Jong'or, a bit of forest projecting beyond the general line; a bit of land projecting or jutting out.

Jonot, a name for a wild pig. Jontor, a projecting point, any large rough thing which sticks out. A headland, a promontory.

Jotang, name of a plant, Spilanthes acinella.

Jotang, name of a plant, Eclipta erecta.

Jual or Juwal, to sell. Daik di juwal, will you sell it? Hanto di juwal, it is not for sale. (Mai. Jav. idem.)

Jubag, crippled, laid up with desease in any part of the body.

Jubung, a circle of platted bambu set in a pan wherein sugar is boiling, to prevent its boiling over.

Jubur, the anus.

Judah, Jeddah on the coast of Arabia.

Jugang, a cross piece of wood ar bambu to distend any thing and prevent its collapsing, as a cross piece between two sides of a roof or other construction; a distender.

Jugang-jarging, walking backwards and forwards, with a swinging gait.

Jugja, and Jugjakarta, name of one of the present native seats of government, viz of the Sultan, in the native provinces of Java proper. Jugja is a corruption of Ayudya, the name of the kingdom of Rama in the Ramayana. Crawfurd. Ayodya, C. 45, a neg. Yodya, war- not to be warred against. The modern Oude the capital of Rama. Karta auspicious, fortunate, accomplished.

Jugjug, to direct the course to; to wish to get at; to aim at, to steer at, to drive, to chase away.

Jugul, a bit of bambu with a notch slit in it, serving to show the distance at wich ataps may be regularly laid on a roof, generally about four inches apart.

Juja, arabic, the Zodiacal sign Gemini. (Arab. ڷڄۄڒٲ Al- Jauzâ; probably from Scr. Yujau, the twins.)

Jujul, a stake or piece of wood, which being to long for its use, projects unnecessarily- sticking out.

Jujung, a fresh water river and pond fish, something like Gabus.

Jukung, name of a variety of cargo boat, in use on rivers.

Jukut, grass, of which the natives enumerate a great many varieties, always prefixing the word Jukut to each name.

Jukut Bau, stinking grass, Ageratum conyzoides. A plant which grows very rapidly amongst the mountains, and without care chokes all other plants, especially young paddy. It is called in some places Babadotan.
The following are some of the most usual grasses known to the Sundaese , including those most sought after for cattle; Běuběuntěuran; Bibitungan; Girintingan; Jampang; Jampang pahit; Kalam měta or Lambeta; Pingping kasir; Těki; Tiké, a sort of grass on the sea shore, and Walingi.

Julang, a variety of the Buceros or Rhineceros bird, it resembles the Rangkung. Juluk, to poke into a hole under water, with a stick to try if there is any fish in it, preparatory to using the hidi or spear point.

Julung-julung, a variety of fish. Sphyraena Jello.

Jumadil ahkir, arabic, the sixth month of the Mohammedan year; ahkir, means latter.

Jumadil awal, arabic, the fifth month of the Mohammedan year; awal means first, former.

Jumahat, arabic. Friday. The Mohammedan Sabbath. A week.

Jumarum, like needles, said of paddy just sprouted; literally like a Jarum or needle.

Jumbrah, a ceremony performed at Mecca, consisting in casting stones at a supposed demon or the Devil. The Sunda word is probably a corrupted form of the Arabic word Jamrat, which means gravel, and is applied to the same ceremony.

Jumlah, arabic, the sum, whole, total, aggregate, collection.

Jumpalit, turned topsy- turvy; with the bottom upwards.

Jung; a measure of land consisting of four bauhs. (Perhaps Skr. Janghâ, leg. Bâhu is arm.)

Jung, get along, go with you; go along; be off. Jung ria pulang- go along back with you. The idiomatic expression of lifting up. Jung di jungjung, and up they lifted it.

Jungjung, to lift up, to raise, to elevate, to prop up. A prop, a support.

Jungkěd, upset, turned over.

Jungkědkěn, to raise an object at one end while the other still rests upon the ground.

Jungkěl, turn or time of any measure of length. Sabraha jungkěl, how many measures is it? How many times of the measure?

Jungkěl, upset, cast down, tumbled over. Jungkěl bai di bědil, he shot at and tumbled him over.

Jungkkělkěn. to turn over by placing a lever underneath.

Jungklang, precipitous, steep.

Jungkulan, Java head: the west end of the island of Java. Derived from the verb Tungkulan, to hang over and fondle, as the hills and rocks here overhang the Indian Ocean.

Juragan, a headman or leader in any way. A petty district Chief; the Chief native or Headman on the private Estates, who has charge of the police. A headman in a boat. Compounded of Juru, an overseer, one who presides over or acts in any department of business, and Agěng Chief, though in the compound word the final g is hardly ever heard.

Jurak, name of a fish in the rivers.

Juré, the corner ridge pole of a house.

Jurig, an evil spirit, a sprite, a goblin.

Jurjana, base, evil, wicked, brutish, sensellamess , cious. Durjjana, C. 279, vile, bad, wicked , malicious. Kéchap jurjana, malicious speaking.

Juru, corner; the inner angle of anything; corner of a room.

Juru, an overseer, director, one who presides over, or acts in any department of business.

Juru-basa, a linguist, an interpreter.

Juru-mudi, a helmsman, a steersman.

Juru-tulis, a clerck, a writer, a secretary.

Jurung, to assist; to come to the help of, to befriend.

Jut, the idiomatic expression of getting down, descending. Jut bai turun ti imah, and down he stepped from his house (always built on piles above the ground).

Ju-uh, much, as of flowing liquids; abundant in water or in juice. Said of the branch of a Kawung tree which yields much juice. Ju-uh tinggur, cha-ah sadapan said of the Kawung Palm — profusely flowing from the beaten stem, and sending forth a flood from the toddy tapping.

  1. The Sanscrit root is jâgri, with ri-vocalis. But this again must be a reduplication of a simple monosyllabic root, perhaps from grî, sonum edere; canere, laudare, from which also gal-lus (Cf. garrulus), the watchman, and singer of the night seems to have his name. In Jaga the ri-vocalis is replaced by a, the pronunciation of the ri at the end of the word being difficult. In the middle of words the ri is replaced by the sound nearest to it, but at the end this woud appear to be to weak. Fr.
  2. And on Java proper the inhabitants of the Tenggěr mountains. Jakun or Yakun is in other countries a corruption of Yaksha, a kind of demons, similar in Brahraanical Mythology to the more known Râkshasa's. The word Yaksha is known in the Archipel, and the corruption Jakun might have come over in later times, perhaps with the propagators of Mohammedanism. Fr.
  3. Mal, idem, but Jav. ꦢꦭꦤ꧀꧈​ dalan, which appears to be the original form. Cf. Ujan and Jadi. It is thus rather Polynesian, no Scr. root or word approaching to it. Fr.
  4. Japara like Jakĕrta, Jasingha, composed of Jaya, victory, and para, enemy: thus implying vanquishing the enemies. The way of composition shows that the Composition was not made by Hindus, but by Javanese, who had no clear idea of forming Sanskrit Composita, otherwise they would have called it Parajaya. The analogy of other words commencing with Jaya excuses the small mistake. Fr
  5. (55) The question about ,,Burung Darah" depends only upon the way of writing the word ,,Darah". Marsden sub voce Marapati gives ,,Burung Darah". The Javanese Dictionary gives ,,Burung Dårå". I am much inclined to follow Marsden, because he was the most judicious and careful man, who ever meddled with these poor languages. Darah, every body knows is blood-Dârâ, Jav. Mal. a maiden, but in Sanscrit a wife. Fr.
  6. In an Inscription of the year Saka 1216 (or 1215), see Raffles 2d. ed. Plate 83, the island is called Yawadwipa. Yawa is a kind of corn- barley. Jawa, as at present pronounced is thus a corruption—y becoming j is very common in all Indian languages. Fr.