A Dictionary of the Sunda language/K
Ka, an inseparable particle used in the formation of derivative nouns, to which it is prefixed sometimes singly, but also, and that most frequently, the word to which it is prefixed, is followed by an, and by depriving the word of its initial Ka and affix an, the crude form of the word will be found and if necessary may be further sought in the dictionary. Kadua, the second, Katiga, the third. Kaburu, overtaken. Kangěunahan, delight, pleasurableness, derived from Ngěunah; Kaluhuran, height from luhur high.
Ka, a preposition in universal use; to, unto, towards. Ka mana, whither, or where are you going? Ka girang, up the river. Ka hilir, down the river. Kaluhur, upwards. Ka handap, downwards. It becomes often kang before a word beginning with a vowel. Bikun kadiyo kangaing, give it here to me.
Ka-adilan, justice, equity, righteousness. (Arabic, عادل, Adil, just.)
Ka-ang'inan, exposed to the wind; in a draft of wind.
Ka-angkat, taken away, removed.
Kababaran, overcome, outdone.
Kabadé, guessed, to know what a thing is, comprehended: to divine. Kayu iyo to kabadé, I do not know what is the name of this wood. Tachan di pupulih gěus kabadé, before he told me I had guessed it.
Kabadi, to be unwittingly overtaken by some evil or disease, which is supposed to be the work of evil genii, and for which a great variety of hocus-pocus incantations are put in requisition, to avoid the evil effects.
Kabah, arabic, the Kaaba. The temple at Mecca to which all good Mohammedans ought to make the pilgrimage. Close to the Kaaba is the celebrated well Zamzam. (ألكعبة, Al-Kâbot.)
Kabalik, upset, turned upside down, inverted.
Kabaya, Port: a loose robe, a dressing gown.
Kabaya-an, to be overtaken by some evil; to have met with a misfortune. See Baya. Kabayan, a person of the olden time, before the introduction of Mohammedanism, who was possessed of much supernatural power. Probably derived from Baya, C. 460, fear, terror, alarm. (Kabayan at Bali is a person, who executes the orders of the village-chief, Mandeça. Transact Batav. Society of Arts and Sciences. Vol. XXIII, p. 45 of the „Verslag van Bali.” Fr.)
Kabayar, paid, debt cleared off. To kabayar, I c'ant pay it.
Kabědag, to overtake; overtaken, come up with. Done in time.
Kabéh, all, every one, the whole. Probably compounded of the inseparable particle Ka which see- and Béh, the interjection of sight In Malagasi Bé means numerous. (Kawi, Javan. Balin. idem. Seems to be a prolongated form of Kweh or Akweh, Kawi, Balin. of the same import, which exists in Javan. Keh. ꦏꦺꦃ꧈ and in the corrupted form Kyéh ꦏꦾꦺꦃ꧈ which the Javanese suppose to be Kawi. Gericke compares beh ꦧꦺꦃ꧈ which means in composition thirty. Fr.)
Kabělějog, got into difficulties about any thing; done, cheated, swindled. Said of anything which we undertake and cannot fulfil.
Kaběněran, as it so turns out, as chance will have it; luckily. Anything that comes apropos.
Kaběsékěn, to have a husky cough caused by anything getting into the throat and sticking there, as dust or any small particle.
Kabět, distracted, attention drawn away by something else than what we ought to be attending to. Perplexed.
Kaběuběuhěulan, unable to void excrement.
Kaběuki, whatever we desire; the thing desired or wished for. Kaběuki na ha na lauk munding, Buffaloe flesh is just what he likes.
Kaběulit, entangled by a rope or string getting twisted round it.
Kaběurěuyan, said when a bone or other impediment sticks in the throat.
Kabias, to be cast away at sea; drifted from one's course: to lose oneself in a forest. See Bias.
Kabina, exceedingly, in a high degree, generally said of something bad. Kabina bina těuyn, that is excessively bad; that is to bad!
Kabirěung'o, espied, discovered with the eye, viewed, beheld, inspected.
Kabiri, gelded, castrated. Kěbo kabiri, a gelded buffaloe. Hayam kabiri, a capon. Kabiri is also said of trees and plants, the tops of which are nipped oft to make them grow more luxuriantly side-ways, as Tobacco, Coffee trees &c. &c. Biri, C. Page 473 is a woman, a wife. With the constructive Ka before it would imply womanized. If this derivation is true. we would be led to the conclusion that the Islanders learnt the art of gelding from the Indians of the continent.
Kabita, pleased with, delighted at, taken with, captivated. Evidently derived from Ka and Bita. Bita or Bhita, C. 474 — 495, fear, alarm, apprehension, terror. From this we must conclude that Kabita expresses an alarm lest we should be deprived of the object of our delight; and is thus literally- „alarmed about it."
Kabolér, behind in work, not able to get through a job, a task unaccomplished.
Kabongěrěui, wishing, longing.
Kabubuwahan, the kidneys. (See Buwah.)
Kabudayan, knowledge, skill. (Derived from buddhi, Scr., wisdom.)
Kabuhulan, notable to swallow; sticking in the throat.
Kabukti, got, obtained, come in possesion of, appropriated. Kalapa éta tachan kabukti buah na, the fruit of that Cocoa nut tree has not yet been obtained. See Bukti.
Kabul, arabic, receiving what we ask for; a petition granted; acceptable, consenting, receiving. Favourably.
Kabulan, the ceremony of taking a portion of the boiled rice when praying at Sěděkah bulan Mulud, which each man reserves for himself or for his family. The word is derived from Kabul, granted, the petition conceded (at the prayer).
Kabuli, a preparation of boiling rice with meat, butter and sweetmeats.
Kabur, run away, fled, made off, escaped.
Kaburu, overtaken, pursued and taken. Having time to finish any work. To kaburu, we had not time to get it done. It could not be accomplished.
Kabut, thrown about in confusion, scattered, dispersed. Kalang-kabut, disrupted, scattered, said either of men or things.
Kabuyutan, compounded of Buyut, which see. Anything which is buyut or sacredly forbidden. The Great grand father or Great grand child.
Kacha, glass for glazing; a looking glass. In this sense more frequently called ěntěung. Kachaya, C. 118 a kind of silicious clay or earth from which glass is made. Or it may be derived from Chaya, bright, brilliant- Ch'hāyā, C. 203 radiance, splendour, but the Polynesian Ka prefixed, and the terminal ya elided, and will then denote the object of splendour, from its being transparent.
Kacha-kacha, a triumphal arch erected in honour of a great man. An arched gateway of ceremony, usually constructed of bambu.
Kachang, a pea, a bean, pulse. Dolichos and phaseolus of the species are very numerous.
Kachang taněuh, ground nut, Arachis hypogcea, so called from the seed vessels returning into the earth, and becoming a sort of granulous root.
Kachap, is difficult to translate- and then- did'nt he- Kachap ngarajang, did'nt he fly at him.
Kachapi, name of a tree Sandoricum Nervosum. Produces a round apple-like fruit, full of cloves.
Kachapi, a native musical instrument; a kind of guitar or lute.
Kacha-piring, name of a large shrub with pure white flowers. Gardenia florida. Called also Picha piring which see.
Kachembang, a climbing shrub. Ardisia Tenniflora of the family Myrsinea. It bears a little black berry like the Privet oa the Ligustrum in Europe.
Kachichian, having something poured out or spilt upon it Kachichiau chi haněut, having warm water poured upon it.
Kachida, excessively, seriously, beyond hope of recovery. Rusak Kachida, excessively spoiled, knocked to pieces. Gěring kachida ill beyond hope of recovery. (Might be from Scr. Ch'hidâ, cutting, dividing. Fr.)
Kaching, left in the lurch, behind hand. Said of an idle good for nothing fellow who is always behind hand, who can never keep to time.
Kachip, a forceps or for cutting the betel-nut.
Kachoa, a cockroach, when of large variety. A troublesome insect in store rooms; it gets amongst provisions and is especially fond of cheese. Blatta orientalis.
Kachokot, laid hold of, caught in the hand. Possible to be done. Said of work which can be got through. To Kachokot, I have no chance of getting through (that work). It is more thau can be got through.
Kachuali, except; with the exception of, unless.
Kachubung, Datura in varieties. Datura ferox, Datura metel. When the seeds of the Datura ferox are eaten, they cause a sort of frenzy or madness. These seeds are often mixed with bad opium to give it the appearance of being very efficaceous. A few of the seeds of the Kachubung are given to the Perkutut doves which cause them to warble a great deal. See Kuchubung.
Kachugak, wounded in the foot or lower leg by anything large, as the end of a sharp stake or the like. When wounded by anything small, as a thorn, it is called Kasura.
Kadaik, resolution, vigour of mind or body. The will (to do anything) Rossa Kadaik na, vigourous in will or determination. (See Daik).
Kadal, a ground lizard, found much near houses and in gardens.
Kadalé, a variety of pulse frequently planted. Kadala, C. 101, a kind of small bean, usually called gram, which is given to horses.
Kadal-moyan, a piece of bambu which goes along the ridge-pole of the corners of a house, to which the covering is made fast, and the pegs to hold down the secured. - the lizard sunning itself.
Kadancha, a wood pigeon. A large wild pigeon in old forests which gives a loud and lugubrious cry or cov.
Kadang-kadang, sometimes, at times.
Kadariyo, the plural of Kadiyo, and is thus- come hither all of you-come here collectively.
Kadatangan, to have come to us or to me. Kadatangan sémah, a stranger is come to me; that is I have got a stranger in the house. Kadatangan untung, to have got prosperity.
Kadaton, a Palace, the residence of a Datu or Rata.
Kadék, to cut or hack with a sharp instrument, as with a sword or chopper.
Kadéngi, heard. To kadéngi, I do not hear it I did not hear it Kadéngi ka jauh, heard a long way off.
Kaděngkék, troubled, in difficulties.
Kaděngkěn, to lay down flat, to prostrate; to lay anything down on the ground.
Kaděpér, a fruit resembling a mango.
Kadijah, the first wife of Mohamet; she was a widow when he married her, and set him up in the world. She died three days after Abu Taleb, aged 65 years, and was Mohammeds only wife till her death.
Kading, 'tis true; Yes even so; now that of it. Used as if calling any circumstance to memory. Ho hading sia geus mayar, oh, now that think of it, you have paid. Běněr kading, now that of it, it is right.
Kadiniyo, to, on or at that very spot: there, with emphasis.
Kadipatén, the place or dwelling where an Adipati lives.
Kadiyo, hither, to this place, the usual expression for our — Come here!
Kadogan, a native stable for a horse; generally a single separate stall, made of open barwork with a roof, into which the horse is turned in loose and baned in.
Kadongdong, name of a tree, Paupartia Dulcis or Spondias mangifera, somewhat resembling a small manggo.
Kadongdong China, a pretty shrub for the fences of garden plots. Panax Pruticosa.
Kădu , an inland residency in Java, in which stand the magnificent ancient ruined temples of Boro Bodur. Both Marsden and Crawfurd give Kadu as Sanscrit implying the Dragon's tail, one of the nodes of the moon. Kadu is also the short for Kaduwa, C. 101. a sword, a sabre, and may have had some allusion to the kshattriyas or military caste settled here, and at no great distance from the abode of the holy men in Bagalén, and among the Prahu mountains. Kādu, the great and celebrated fruit of the Asiatic Archipelago called in Malay Durian, Durio Zibethinus of the natural family of Bombaceae.
Kadudukan, an employment, an office, a post of honour; rank. Kadudukan adipati, the rank of an Adipati. Tachan bogah kadudukan, he has not yet got employment or a situation.
Kaduga, to undertake, to take in hand; to reckon to be able. To kaduga, I cannot venture to undertake it See Duga.
Kaduhung, vexed, sorry for any act; inwardly regretting.
Kadut, a bag, bagging made of shreds of Palm leaves, especially of the Gěbang Palm, and much used for the sails of small native craft.
Ka-éntét, joined together, tacked or tied together. Adhering to each other.
Kagét, startled, put in trepidation. The more usual word is Rowas. It is also used in the construction of sentences as a word of apposition or contrast, what then, how if, suppose that, but if, but then. Kagét to di béré, but suppose he does not give to me. Kagét datang , but then he came. (59).
Kagol, any thing which is out of place, out of season, not opportune. Unseasonable, occurring at a wrong time. Put out of your routine. Something being in the way which prevents your acting. Jadi kagol ku batur, I become disappointed on account of my neighbours. (Is known at Batavia).
Kagugu, tickled with an idea; having a mixture of surprise and indignation about any matter.
Kagung'an, Highness- derived from Agung, principal, chief, with the pre- and suffix Ka and an. Kagung'an Raden Adipati, His Highness the Raden Adipati. Kuda kagung'an, your honour's horse.
Kah, glue; the word is probably Chinese, as these people have it mostly in use in their handicrafts, and import the article from China.
Kahakan, eaten, consumed. Buah na gĕus kahakan, its fruit has been eaten. To kahakan ku aing, I did not get any to eat.
Kahalingan, shut out by, intercepted by. The view cut off. Gunung éta kahalingan ku gunung dĕui, that mountain is still shut out by other mountains — you cannot see it. (Jav. idem.)
Kahanan, place, residence, where -a man puts up. Subsistance, means of living. (From the Javanese hânâ, to be. Fr.)
Kahar, authority, rights. Most probably Arabic.
Kaharti, understood, comprehended. Understanding, comprehension. Meaning. (From Scr. Artha, Mai. Arti).
Kahayang, desire, wish; what we long for, longing.
Kahĕumpik, encompassed, hemmed in so as not to be able to move at liberty; in a dilemma.
Kahirupan, livelyhood, maintenance, sustinance; life, existence. (See Hirup.)
Kahkal, hard and firm as Dodol or any preparation of cookery.
Kahot, invulnerable; a person whom weapon cannot wound, as daring scoundrels or rebellious subjects always pretend to be. A brave daring man. (According to Gericke means Kahot in Kiwi, excellent, eminent; a brave warrior.)
Kahujanan, rained upon; got wet from rain.
Kahyangan, name on Bali for the abode of the gods. See Hyang. Also small houses where offerings are made to the gods. On Bali there are the Sad Kahyangan or six chief temples distributed among the petty states of that island, which are noted places of Hindu worship.
Kai, a term of respect for an old man- honoured Sir! a contraction of Kiai which see.
Ka-i, wood, especially wood which has been cut, planks, beams or teh like. (Cf. Mai, Kayu.)
Kai-akas, a small active crab on sea shore, which burrows in the sand.
Kain, cloth made of cotton especially. Kain meja, a table cloth.
Kairok, wrong, mistaken, confounded.
Kait, to pull towards one with a hooked stick; a hook or crook. Any weight which is weighed at once on the native or Chinese Dachin or steelyard; the quantity which is put upon the Kait or hook of the instrument, to be weighed is called Sa Kait.
Kaitken, to pull towards one with a hooked stick; to hang up to a hook. To put the bridle over a horse's head.
Kajagjag, said of water the bottom of which can be felt by a man standing upright in it As much as a man's depth.
Kajalikeuh, sprained in the foot.
Kajang, a large piece of stiff matting made of the unexpanded leaves of a Palm tree, which are tacked together with split rattan, much used to keep off rain or wet, and as such are in universal use in all sorts of boats and river craft. Finer varieties are used for lining sugar baskets.
Kajar-kajar, name of a plant, Colocasia macrorhyza.
Kajĕun, never mind, it matters not; Ingkĕun na, kajĕun tĕuyn let it alone, it matters not the least. Kajĕun to di béré never mind even should he not give any.
Kaju, name of a tree, Anacardium Occidentalc, called also Jambu médé y and in Malay Jambu Monyat; the cashewapple. Kaju, C. 98 the cashew nut tree.
Kaka, Elder brother; a term of respect in adressing a man older than ourselves. In Malay Kaka is elder brother or sister. See Marsden Page 249. Akkā, C. 4. Eldest sister.
Kakab, a piece of injuk, as it comes from the tree in the shape of a triangular bit of matting. Injuk sa kakab , a piece of injuk.
Kakabuĕun, the lungs; the part in the chest on which the breath of respiration acts.
Kakait, a stick with a hook to it, much used when cutting brush wood, or grass, both for the facility which it gives in the work, and from saving the hand from being poked amongst the grass where often the deadly Orai tanĕuh , or ground snake , lurks. (Cf.Kait)
Kakait bĕusi, name of a shrub, an Uncaria, the same as Kuku hĕulang. Also a separate variety.
Kakalén, a gutter, a drain for water, a ditch. Derived from Kali to dig, and thus is literally — „a dug out" — It is not derived from Kali a river, which word, in that sense , does not exist in Sunda. But Kali is the word for a river in both Javanese and Malay as spoken on the coasts of Java, and especially at Batavia. The Sunda people use for river, Chi, chai, waluran.
Kakang, elder brother, more frequently Kaka, which see.
Kakap, name of a fine large sea fish of excellent flavour.
Kakapa, a padded cloth used by natives by way of a saddle.
Kakara, now for the first time; never before; Kakara nyaho di hadé na, now for the first time we know of its being in order.
Kakarak, only now, just now, freshly; as yet; now for the first time. Kakarak datang sa orang as yet only one man is come. Kakarak lĕumpang, he has just gone away. Kakara and Kakarak are two distinct words, but there is only a slight shade of difference in meaning between them
Kakasih, see Kasih, affection, love.
Kakat, to lift up and take away, to remove. Kudu di kakat it must be taken away.
Kakatuwa, a cockatoo; used as applied to parrots imported from countries beyond Java, as the parrots of the Moluccos.
Kakawén, singing, songs. Derived from Kawih which see. Ornaments of speech, something in addition to the plain truth. (The original word is Scr. Kawi, a poet, or rather Kawya, a poem. The word is a contraction from the following. Fr.)
Kakawian, singing, in the act of vociferating a song. The subject of a song, Eŭkěur kakawian in the act of singing.
Kakayon, timber, wood in general, all kinds of wood which grow. Wood taken as a class apart from shrubs or plants which do not grow wood or timber. (From Kayu.)
Kakĕduk and sometimes Kagěduk, a bit of bambu set in a running stream, so that the water constantly jerks it, by which strings are pulled to frighten pigs or birds.
Kakěmběn, a sort of scarf worn by women round the waist or breasts. The same as Karémbong which see. (On Bali Kamběn means the common clothing of a women; the scarf alluded to is called kamběn chěrik, that is a small cloth or kain. Fr.)
Kakén, a foot rule. (From Kaki.)
Kakénchéng, an iron open cooking pan formed like a concave segment of a sphere. A large sugar pan. (At Batavia it is made of copper.)
Kakénda, elder brother or sister; used only among people of rank. Compounded of kaka vide, and éndah, good, proper. (See above Baginda.)
Kakényéd, a small rope used as reins to a buffaloe yoked to plough or cart.
Kakěplok, knocking stones together to make a noise, as is done with stones under water to frighten fish towards any nets or traps which may be set. A joint of bambu set in the sawahs, which Alls and empties itself regularly, and the end which is split knocking against a stone , frightens the wild pigs away. (Jav. Képlok, to beat in the hands.)
Kakěpuk, in a hurry and confusion. Overhaste at any work whereby it is badly done. The reverse of Rinéh which see.
Kaki, a measure of a foot, which the word implies in Malay.
The usual foot employed on Java is the
- Amsterdam foot equal to ............11.146 English inches.
- Rhineland foot equal to ............12.357 English inches.
- The English foot is also in very general use . 12.000 English inches.
Kakiping, a wheel for a Pedaty or native cart, or a wheel for a Rice-mill, cut out of one disk of wood. Kĕping in Malay Marsden Page 260 flat (not convex). It is applied idiomatically in the enumeration of things flat and thin, as Kĕpingbatu a slate.
Kakituan, doing so, acting in that manner. Etymology kitu, thus, in that way.
Kakompongan, the flank of any four footed animal, as a horse or buffaloe or the like that part of the belly which adjoins the hind legs.
Kaku, stiff in expression or manner of speaking. Offended, vexed about anything without giving expression to it. (Malay also stupid; Javanese, Batavian stiff generally, even said from a dead body. Fr.)
Kakuprak, to knock about, to turn topsy turvy. To beat forest or jungle to drive out game. To knock people about and ill use them.
Kakurangan, deficiency, what is wanting. Dearth. (From Kurang Jav. Mal.)
Kala, a small scorpion. In Jampé it means the South; see Sěri. Kala, C. 111, a crab, the zodiacal sign scorpio. Kala, time, period. Bahéula kala, in former times, in days of old. Kala, C. 111. Time, a division of time. C. 120. Time, a name of Yama, the Regent of death, see Yama. Also a form of Siwa.
Kalabang, a centipede, a poisonous insect with many feet. Scolopendra. (Perhaps from Kala and bang, red, its colour being reddish. Fr.)
Kalābu, of a dirty or darkish colour, greyish. (At Batavia idem. In Malay it means the (greyish) hide or mark in a sick eye. Fr.)
Kalǎbu, upset, as a boat in water. (Labuh in Malay to let fall; in Javanese and Balinese to throw into the water or fire as a death punishment. Fr.)
Kalachés, name of a bird, also called Panyěusěup.
Kalachi, a wooden shovellike spoon for stirring dodol when boiling.
Kala gamarang, a character in the Manek Maya, who was transformed into a hog. (In Javanese Kala Gumarang; see Gericke.)
Kalahang, a very stinking kind of Durian.
Kalahiran, birth, time of coming into the world. (From the Arabic ظاهر thlâhir, apparens, conspicuus, thus the time of coming to the daylight. Fr.)
Kalakai, leaves and refuse vegetable matter collecting on the surface of the around, especially in forests or uncultivated ground.
Kalakuan, conduct, deportment, behaviour. For the reason that, seeing that: Kalakuan handap, for the reason that it is low. (From Laku, to go, to behave.)
Kalalén, forgotten, from lali to forget. Is used when addressing an equal. Lali is also Javanese for- to forget. (Lali is also Malay and Balinese. Fr.)
Kalam, Arabic, a pen, as used by Arabs and natives. It is made of the substance called Ilarupat, which see. (قلم, qalam calamus scriptorius.)
Kalam měta, or Lambeta, name of a variety of grass.
Kalamantan, Pulo Kalamantan, the native name for the vast island called by Europeans Borneo. Quere Kala, C. 120, a name of Yama, the regent of the dead, a form of Siwa. Manthana, C. 517. agitating, stirring, churning. Can this in any way refer to the Hindu legend of the world having been formed by a process of churning. With Borneo surrounded, as it is, by the other islands of the Archipelago, the idea might suggest itself, of its having been the churning staff of such an exploit.  Kalamari, yesterday. Kala, C. 111. Time. Mari, C. 538, killing; ruin; plague, epidemic; or Marita, C. 538. killed, slain, thus time which is dead.
Kalambu, curtains (of a bed).
Kalampah, used, in use, made use of. Usual expression in conversation. Basa kitu tilok kalampah, such a word is never made use of. (Lampah in Jav. the same as Laku, see Kalakon.)
Kalana, name of a great rebel in the 18 century on Java, called Kalana Jaya, strolling about and triumphant See ngalalana.
Kalang, a sort of outcasts on Java, perhaps now not found anywhere in the Sunda districts. Can these be the outcasts of Hindu times? The word is probably the same as heard in the Sunda expression Kalang-kabut, scattered, dispersed. In Roorda van Eysinga's dictionary of the Javanese language we find „Kalang, name of a people on Java, who formerly wandered about, but who are now chiefly fixed at Kali Wungu, Demak and Kěndal, and who have partly retained their peculiar customs." The word Balang, both in Javanese and Sunda, is to throw or fling, and Ka-balang, or by contraction perhaps Kalang, would mean flung out, and thus an outcast In Sunda also the word Alang-alangan means to wander about at random, and from this we may have Ka-alang. The Kalang are olso known about the Straits of Malacca, and occupied the present site of party of the town of Singapore, See Singapore Journal 1847 vol. I p. 300—804.
Kalang, field of battle; a circle for ronggengs to dance in. (Jav. kalang a circle; ngalang, to surround.)
Kalangan, circle, ring for fighting in &c.
Kalangan bulan, a circle of haze, or halo round the moon.
Kalang dada, a protector, a safeguard; any person or thing used as a main matter of protection.
Kalang kabut, disrupted, scattered, dispersed, driven in different directions.
Kalangkang, shadow, shade; the shadow of any object on which the sun shines.
Kalantaka, a small cannon on wheels, such as kept by native chiefs to fire salutes. (From Kâla, death, and antaka, finishing Fr.)
Kalanti, want of food, famine, famished. Pa-ih kalanti, died for want of food. Loba nu kalanti, many were famished.
Kalap, a disease suddenly turning a person half mad, as if possessed of the devil, Hair-brained. (Jav. Becoming distressed, miserable, by an accident, or any unknown reason. At Batavia it has the meaning given by the Sundas, a person not knowing where and what he is about. Fr.)
Kalapa, a cocoa nut, the cocoa nut tree-Cocos nucifera. Quere, may not this fruit have its name of Kalapa from having its fruits hidden within so much husk and shell, and thus secreted, see following word. A more decidedly Polynesian name for the Cocoa nut in many of the languages of the Archipelago is Niyor. (In Kawi exists also the form Kat'lapa. Fr.)
Kalapa, a secret place; an out of the way place in the forest, or among the mountains; out of sight, see Sunda. Perhaps from the etymon lap or lěp, covered up, hidden.
Kalapa, a variety of mangga so called.
Kaiapa-chiung, name of a tree wild in the jungle; Myristica glabra, a variety of wild nutmeg but without savour.
Kalarung, overlooked, passed over by mistake.
Kalayar, Trichosanthes Pubera, a liane with a bloodred fruit, which is of size of a hens egg but not eatable.
Kaiayar-kaloyor, to go strolling about without appearing to do any business; wandering negligently about.
Kaldé, an ass. C. 114 Kaludawā, an ass. The ass is not indigenons in Java, but a few years ago the Dutch government caused a great many to be imported under the idea that they would make useful beasts of burden. The experiment failed and the animal is now again very scarce.
Kalěbu, upset, turned upside down, especially as a boat in water. (See Kalabu.)
Kaléhkér, a small worm or grub, a sort of mite or acarus which eats timber in houses, especially near the surface, and after it is well dried.
Kaléng, Tin plate, such as used for lining cases, or white-smith's work. (Batav. idem.)
Kalěng'ěr, fainted away: lost consciousness. (Batav. id.)
Kalér, the north. (Jav. Balin. idem.)
Kāli, C. 121. One of the names of Durga, the wife of Siva; see Durga.
Kali, to dig, to grub up, to turn over the ground.
Kali, time, times, periods. Datang tilu kali, he came three times. This word is also most likely of Sanscrit origin. Kali and Kaliyuga, the fourth age of the world according to the Hindus. C. 113.
Kaliagé, Cudrania Pubesccns, a tall shrub with long and very sharp thorns.
Kalian, to dig, to dig at, to dig out.
Kaligung, confused in accounts; fancying that a debt is another figure than what it really is.
Kaliki, the castor oil plant, otherwise called Jarak jitun.
Kalilipa, the milt, the spleen, the liver.
Kalilipan, an involuntary twinkling of the eye.
Kalima, the fifth.
Kalima, as Kalima Sahadat, the Mohammedan profession of faith. La ilah illallah Mohammad rasul Allah, There is no God but God and Mohammed is the Prophet of God. Kalimat, arabic, a word, the word (of God), vide Marsden, Page 264. (كلمة kalimat; شهادة shahadat, testimony, thus the word of testifying the faith. Fr.)
Kalimborot, Castanea Javanica; wild variety of Chesnut. The fruit is not eaten, or very rarely, as it purges severely; it is covered with sharp spines like needles.
Kalipa, arabic, a vicegerent, a deputy, a caliph. A common name for a man. The word is mostly used when referring to religious matters, خليفة, khalifat.)
Kaliru, wrongly understood, mistaken, got into confusion. One thing taken for another. (Jav. liru idem, and to exchange.)
Kaliwat, in excess, excessively, exceedingly. Kaliwat rusak excessively destroyed. (Jav. id.)
Kaliwon, the fifth day in the old Javanese Pasar or week of five days. Vide Manis.
Kaliwon, a petty officer of the village administration in some parts of the country. He is an inferior native official in Java, the origin of which is not clear. On Borneo, in Ngadju or Pulo Pétak, a village or collection of houses is called Lewu (see Indisch Archief 1849. Eerste jaargang, vijfde aflevering) and the compound Kaléwon would imply an official presiding over such a village. The official's name may have been preserved in Java, after the Léwu, from which it had been derived, had become obsolete, and replaced by the Indian word Désa. Léwu is probably a continuous pile of buildings in which the people of Borneo usually live together. Such a Léwu may at one time have been usual on Java, till superseded by the Kampung or fortified enclosure, which the necessity of self-protection may have forced upon people. Some approach to a Léwu is still maintained by the inhabitants of the Tengger mountains in Pasuruan. (In Java it is the second in rank, following after the Toemenggoeng. Gericke.)
Kaloba-an, excess, abundance, more than required.
Kalong, a flying fox; a large animal of the bat kind. Pteropus Javanicus.
Kaloyor, strolling away, wandering about.
Kaluar, outside, without, excepting; go out! quitted an employment. Kudu kaluar, you must come out, you must leave your situation. Gěus kaluar, he has gone out; he has left his situation. Kaluar nu hadé, with the exception of those which are good. (Mai. id.)
Kaluarkěn, to dismiss, to turn out of an employment; to bring outside, to produce; to separate.
Kaluaran, literally „the outsiders;” among the Badui of South Bantem, those heathens who have been forced to leave the parent stock, in order that it may not exceed a fixed number are called Kaluaran.
Kaluhan, a bit of string or cord passed through the septum of the nose of a buffaloe, and the ends tied behind the horns. All working buffaloes have a tali kaluhan in their snouts, by which they are easily led or guided. (Jav, Kĕluh idem.)
Kaiuiah, the sap wood of a tree, the Alburnum.
Kalun, gone along with, included. To support in swimming; to float any object along water.
Kalung, a necklace, anything worn round the neck by way of ornament. (Jav. Mal. id.)
Kalung-dada, a bulwork; something to serve as a defence; a breast-place. An ornament hanging on the breast of young girls, by a string round the neck. This ornament is generally semicircular as a segment of the moon.
Kaluron, to bring forth before time; premature delivery; abortion.
Kama, C. 119. The Hindu Cupid, or deity of love.
Kamal, Java acid; the juice of fresh Tamarind, which is used for cleansing metals, especially brass-work. (According to Gericke Kawi for the Tamarind-tree.)
Kamala hiang, words heard in Jampés. Kamalā C. 106 a name of Lakshmi. Hiang, Hyang, divinity; the goddess Lakshmi; see Laksmi. Laksmi is little heard in Java and probably she was more generally known by the name of Kamala-hiang. (And Srî)
Kamaloli, heart-sore, vexed.
Kamanjon, an hermaphrodite. (At Batavia Banji.)
Kamar, arabic, the moon; word used in the composition of proper names. (قَمَرٌ).
Kamarang, a wasp; name of a fly or wasp which stings severely; it is less than the Tijuwan, and also stings less severely.
Kamarudin, a man's name — the moon of the faith — Kamar, moon, uddin of the faith.
Kamas-an, a goldsmith.
Kambang, to float, gnerally heard in the shape of Nyambang, which see. (Jav. id.)
Kamboja, name of a tree with white flower, much planted abont burial grounds. Plumeria acuminata. Kamboja, C. 119 the name of a plant, a sort of white Mimosa. Kamboja is the name by which the plant is every where known in Java, both in the Sunda and Javanese districts. At the Eastend of Java, however, it is most frequently seen planted about the graves. With its name it no doubt came from the continent of India. In Ceylon the flowers are much used for placing on the altars before Buddha, where, however, it is called in the colloquial dialect- Ewĕriya.
Kaméja, Port Camisa, a shirt, a shift.
Kamél, ar. the Zodiacal sign Aries. (حَمَلٌ. khamal.) Kami, we, us, also I. A polite expression whereby the speaker does not put himself above the person addressed, which he would do by using the pronoun aing. Imah, kami, my house. Kami kabéh daik ka gunung, we are all going to the mountains. (Mal. and Kawi, I, me; we, us.)
Kam-kam, a Chinese weapon of defence, like the blade of a sword mounted with a spear handle.
Kampa, to express oil with a peculiar press used by the natives and called Kampahan. (Mal. id.)
Kampahan, a wooden press to extract oil. There are two uprights set in two horizontal pieces, and by forcing in wedges the two uprights are driven together and thus exercise a great pressure on any oil producing matter placed between them.
Kampak, an axe; an axe such as used by Europeans and Chinese in contradistinction to the native axe called Baliyung, which see.(Kampak Jav. a great axe without a wooden shaft. Fr.)
Kampil, a bag, a large bag for Rice, Coffee &c. (Jav. A bundle, pak, bag.)
Kampu, a large wooden bucket or tub, in which oil is kept or measured. Ampuh, in Malay to overflow.
Kampung, a village; is properly Malay, but is still from associating with Europeans and Chinese often used, especially to designate themselves as- orang kampung, village people, as distinct from foreigners. Kampung is probably derived from Kapung or Kepung to enclose, with the peculiar m interposed, giving it the sense of an enclosed place or village, as in rude states of society, every village was a fortified place. The usual word for village in Sunda is Lumbur. Kampung in Malay is not merely a village, but „an inclosure" a place surrounded with a paling; a fenced or fortified village; see Marsden in voce Page 267. The Etymon of Kampung signifying enclosure, is also heard in the Malay expression Kain běkampo which is another name for a Sarong. See Singapore Journal April 1849 Page 275.
Kampung, to mix, to associate.
Kampungkěn, to join together, to unite, to collect into a common stock, especially a number of small things or trading articles.
Kamudi, a helm, a rudder, an oar to steer by. (Mal. كمودي Kumŭdi; Jav. Kamudi, Kĕmudi, Kumudi.)
Kamuning, name of a tree common about towns and in cultivated places. It has a pretty white flower and yields a handsomely mottled wood. Murraya exotica of the family Aurantiaceae.
Kana, to become, for the purpose. Kana hadé mohal, It is not likely to do any good. Jadi kana goréng, It will turn out bad. This word is evidently compounded of the particle Ka which see, and na, his, her, its- possessive pronoun.
Kanang'a, name of a tree with its yellow flower, which is much sought after by the natives to stick in their hair, Unona Odorata.
Kanari, name of a tree, the fruit of which yields a fine esculent oil; Canarium Commune. Its native country appears to be the Moluccos, but it is now plentifully planted about the European towns in Java, and used for shading the public roads.
Kanas, a Pine apple. Name derived from the European word Ananas. It grows now very abundantly every where, but has always been planted by man. Bromelia Ananas.
Kanchana, golden, gold. Kāchana, C. 118, turmeric; also the name of several plants and trees, which they bear in consequence of the yellow colour of their flowers, as the Champaka &c. (Kȧnchana Skr. Means gold; it is very common word in Kawi; the Javanese called formerly the southern part of Borneo Nusa Kanchana, the island of gold. Fr.)
Kanchara, name of the largest and best fish of the mountain rivers. Called in Malay Tambra. (Perhaps called Tambra from the copper-colour of one species Fr.)
Kanchěuh, fallen ill again in sickness; having got a relapse.
Kanching, a button; a bolt, a peg of wood or iron driven in to hold same other object fast. (Jav. Mal. idem.)
Kanchingan, to fasten with a Kanching; to bolt, to bar, to button. To fasten by driving in a peg.
Kancholah, a Braggadocio, a swaggerer. Said of a man who wants to carry every thing with a high hand.
Kanchur, the metal of a cast iron pan worked up for an inferior kind of steel.
Kandang, a pen, a fold, inclosure, shed for cattle. (Mal. Jav. idem (Javanese characters)).
Kandang Wěsi, Iron cage. A place so called in ancient Javanese history, and most probably in Jampang of the Prianger Regencies.
Kandar, to drag, to pull along, to haul.
Kandas, aground, ashore, grounded. Cleaned out, all gone to the last article. Said of any article which was being distributed, but is now done.
Kandayan, part of the native weaving apparatus. The frame for holding the Kėrékans, when the pattern is given to the cloth, and then would round the Pihanéan.Kandayang Tani, a female character. A sort of goddess presiding over agriculture. Kānana, C 118, a forest, a grove, and Dayang, vide voce. Tani in Sunda, industrious. Thus the „Forest-damsel who is industrious”. Agriculture began by felling the forest and making humahs.
Kandé, a scrip, a wallet, a small bag slung over the shoulder and carried about by a man wherever he goes, containing Sěurěuh and many other small objects. Ngaitkěn kandé to hang up the bag- means to take up your quarters with any one; make yourself at home and allowed to hang up your bag. Or in some sense to be admitted as a courtier or lover, and thus to familiarly divest yourself of the bag. (Jav. Kandi, a bag. (Javanese characters))
Kanděl, thick- not as liquids but as solid substances- liquids when thick are called Kimpěl. Kayu nu kanděl, a piece of thick wood- Kanděl biwir na, thick lipped- telling arrant lies. Kuda éta kanděl awak na, that horse has a thick body, is stoutly built. (Kěntěl (Javanese characters) in Javanese and Batav. means thick, stiff, just when speaking of liquids. Kanděl (Javanese characters) Jav. has the same meaning as in Sundanese. Fr.)
Kandung, to carry anything on the back wrapped up in a cloth, or more generally in the folds of the Samping; to carry a child on the back so wrapped up. (Mal. idem.)
Kanduruan, a petty title of distinction, lower than a Rangga, in use about Buitenzorg and in the Prianger Regencies. The kanduruans have charge of the bridges and roads, and look after the watchmen. This word may perhaps be derived from Duruwa, Clough 278, a child, an infant with the Polynesian pre- and suffixes Ka and an, meaning thereby, young lads, the children of chiefs, employed to bring over the orders of such chiefs, by way of starting them in some useful employment. This however leaves the n between ka and Duruwa to be inserted Euphoniæ gratiȃ.
Kang, with, by, to; as Kang aing, with or by me, meaning I will take it. It is perhaps in this sense only the preposition Ka with ng suffixed before a vowel.
Kang, a familiar expression for Kaka, elder brother. A term of politeness addressed to a stranger, who is older than the speaker.
Kanjěng, is a title applied to high personages, invested with power, and is used when speaking as well of native chiefs on Java and Bali, as of the high European authorities, as the Governor General, or even the Residents. The etymon of the word may probably be found in the word Jěng which in a vocabulary of Kawi words in Raffles vol 2 appendix Page 169 is given as the Foot, in the same way as Paduka has the same meaning, and also applied to people of high rank; as if the speaker was unworthy to look higher or mention a more honourable part of the chief whom he adresses. It may in general terms be translated- illustrious. The Kang prefixed to Jěng is probably the Javanese Kang, who, which, that which, and placed before an active verb converts it into a substantive shape, as Kang nguchap, who speaks, the speaker. Kang patut, what is proper-proper, fit. R. van Eysinga's Javanese Dictionary 1835. Janghâ C. 208. The calf of the leg.
Kangjěng Sinuhun, a title addressed to an Emperor or king, and may be translated. "Your royal feet which are besought", or in general terms. "Your illustrious Highness".
Kangkaréng, a variety of Buceros bird.
Kangkong, a kind of frog or toad which makes a great noise in wet weather. Rather smaller than the Bangkong.
Kangkowak, any seed or fruit which has sprouted, but only as yet got seedling leaves.
Kangkung, Ipomaea reptans, a variety of Boléd, only it is smaller in both leaf and potatoe. It has a similar root. It can be dug in 4 or 5 months, whereas Boléd riquires much longer time to come to perfection.
Kangkurahan, to rince, to clean with water, especially a bottle. (Jav. (Javanese characters) Kurah, to rince the mouth. Also Kěkurah).
Kanigara, viz Kěbo Kanigara, a chief of Pajang, second son of Andaya ning rat, by one of the daughters of Browijaya and the princess of Champa. Khani, 158 the sun. Agāra, C. 61, a house. The house or abode of the sun.
Kaniki or Chikaniki, a river flowing from the Gunung Kendang over the Jambu Estate into Chidani river. The word Kaniki is not Sunda, but may be Sanscrit and the feminine of Kanika Clough 103 very small. Mr. Friederich supplies me with the Sanscrit word Kanika, a small particle. In the feminine, an atom, small, minute. The Chikaniki is only small in comparison with the Chidani into which it flows. Or the name may have originally attached to some of the upland branches of the stream The Chikaniki flows in front of the Passir Koléangkak on which is still found a rock fast in the earth bearing a Sanscrit inscription. Clough Page 158 gives Khanika from Khana, to dig, a miner, and also a rat, a house breaker; perhaps made Khaniki in the feminine for a river, and may have indicated the propensity of the river to undermine its banks, as nothing in the shape of a mine is known here. It may allude to the river having cut a deep bed in a narrow valley, as is the case in the upper part of its course. See voce Chikaniki.
Kanta, signs, gestures, such as a dumb man makes.
Kantéh, thread spun from cotton, twist, thread for weaving. Probably derived from Katinawa C. 99 to spin as thread.
Kantong, a pouch, a small bag of cloth which rolls up and in which are carried the Sěurěuh apparatus, a few doits or other trifles. The Kantong is worn stuk in the belt or Běuběur. (Bat. idem.)
Kantor, a government office. The Dutch word kantoor office; a place where public business is transacted.
Kanugrahan, in easy circumstances, in affluence, pleasant and easy. Anugraha, C. 29, favour, help, assistance, conferring benefits by promoting good and preventing ill.
Kanya, a virgin, occurs in the formation of some proper names in ancient history. Kanya, C. 104 a virgin, also one of the signs of the Zodiac-Virgo. Kanyaho, knowledge, understanding. Kula to bogah kanyaho have no knowledge (of the matter.)
Kanyahokĕn, to recognize, to acknowledge, to impart knowledge, to communicate.
Kanyanya- see kéniaya.
Kanyut, a bag, a sack, a purse.
Kapahili, taken by mistake; anything that is taken or done, under the impression of doing something else. Kapahili imah na mistaken in the house. (Jaw Hili, to give in exchange; ngilenni, to exchange, to indemnify. See Liru, which is the Ngoko-form.)
Kapahung, lost in the forest; cast away in the wilderness.
Kapaihan, swooned, fainted, lost consciousness. (Cf. Pajah Batav. Mal. exhausted , deadly sick, nearly gone. Fr.)
Kapal, a ship, a sea ship, a square rigged vessel. Marsden says that Koppel is the Malabar for ship. It is properly a Tulugu word. Kappara, C. 105, a ship, a sloop. Kapal api, a steamer or more literally a fire-ship. The words are Malay but always used to denote a steamer. Kapal prang, a ship of war. Kapal sudagạr, a merchant ship.
Kapala, a chief, a headman; the best of anything, as of rice, tobacco, &c. the prime part. The word in Malay implies the head, but in Sunda has this meaning only figuratively, as Hulu is the word simply for head. Kapāla, C. 105, the head, the skull. This resembles the Greek Kephale. Kā, C. 117, the head, the body. Pala, C. 372 fruit, flesh. (Scr. Kapála means only the skull, the cranium.)
Kapalang, not worth while, inopportune, any act undertaken which is suddenly impeded. Kapalang amat daik di gawé dĕui, téréh burit , It is not worth while beginning to work again, as it will soon be night. Jadi kapalang. It will not be worth while (as something will intervene and prevent it.) (Jav. (Javanese characters) Ngalangngi, to impede; palang , impediment.)
Kapan, an idiomatic expression for confirming an assertion. Kapan gĕus di béré, now have not I given it you. Can be best translated by-now, as in the following example Kapan daik kaluar, now are not you going to leave your situation. (Kapan, Ml. Jav. at what time, relatif and interrogatif; derived not from apa, but from puan, pon, demonstrativ, the original form in Kawi being Kapuan Fr.)
Kapanasan, heated, overcome with heat.
Kapang, the Teredo navalis; the sea worm which bores so easily into wood and even into soft stone.
Kapang'êrod, said when the feet get entangled in a rope, string, or jungle-rope, so as to impede walking.
Kapanggih, to meet; met, come in contact with. Tilok kapanggih, I never met him. (Jav. Panggih, to find, to encounter.)
Kaparĕk, near, in proximity. (Parĕk Javan. id. Kr. Chakĕt = Mal. dĕkat. This word undergoes a great variety of alterations, which it is long to enumerate. From parĕk-parĕkkan, followers. Fr.)
Kaparĕk, serviceable, as a person who is in great request.
Kapas, Cotton. Gossypium arboreum, and Gossypium Indicum, two varieties, the former perennial and growing in the villages about the houses; the latter an annual shrub planted in gardens made for the purpose. The name is probably of Indian origin and a modification of Karpāsa, C. 110. Cotton. Vide kapuk.
Kapas Chindé, a plant with a red flower, which yields a pod, with cottony filaments. Asclepias curassavica.
Kapas mori, a good variety planted for its cotton. Most probably mori is meant for mouri, moorish, or from Mauritius, and has thus been introduced by Europeans.
Kapĕndak, met, encountered, stumbled on. (Pĕndak (Javanese characters) the revolving of a certain time; the coming back of the same time; after elapsing of (for instance eight days.) Jav.)
Kapĕng, sometimes, as the case may be. Kapĕng na hadé, it is sometimes good. (Cf. Jav. Balin. Kaping. (See beneath sub voce).
Kapérad, met, spoken with; caught, secured.
Kapidengklung, name of a tall tree in mountain forests bearing a small oblong- round fruit, consisting of a very hard stone covered with an acidulous pulp which is eaten. Often also wrongly called Kopi Dĕngklung even by natives, because the fruit resembles that of the Coffee, and the initial Kapi is very close to Kopi. The tree is also Suraléh.
Kapidĕrĕng, foolishly meddling with what does not regard us.
Kapikir, to have regret — on reflection to think otherwise. (Jav. Mal. Pikir. Arab. Fikr. فِكْرٌ cogitatio, attenta consideratio. Fr.)
Kapila, a designation applied to certain black buffaloes which by some mysterious process gradually lose the black colouring matter of the hide, and turn white in blotches, especially along the sides, on the neck and about the head. — (Kapila, Scr. means tawny.)
Kapilangan, having become unconscious from sudden illness or a fit, but come to life again. Fainted away. (From Ilang.)
Kapinang'o, name of a forest tree which yields the disks for Pedaty wheels. Epicharis Altissima.
Kapindis, the swallow which builds the „Edible birds nest”; also sometimes the house swallow, which builds its nest under the eaves of houses.
Kapinĕura, said of old and former seeds which sprout up after the land has been cleared of jungle; not intentionally planted,
Kaping, properly composed of Ka and Ping. Ka is the preposition to, unto- and Ping partakes of the nature of an expletive which admits of no translation. Ulah kaping harĕup tĕuyn, ulah kaping buri tĕuyn, Do not go too much in front, do not lag too far behind. (Kaping is principally used before numerals, and is related to ing, ring, in. Fr).
Kapinis, the same as Kapindis, a swallow.Kapir, Arabic, an unbeliever, an infidel. One who denies the unity of the Godhead, and the divine mission of Mohammed. Marsden Page 248. (كَافِرٌ Kafir, infidelis.)
Kapiran, disappointment, anything done contrary to expectation or desire. Ulah sia jadi kapiran, D'ont you cause disappointment. (Known at Batavia).
Kapirang-pirang, how many, so very many. It is of the same etymology as the Javanese word Piro, how many, many- Piro-piro, multitude. Kapirang-pirang imah ĕunyĕuh, how many (or so very many) houses have fallen down.
Kapisěr, having become unconscious, but coming to life again; apparent death- the same as Kapilangan.
Kapitan, Captain. Kapitein, Dutch for captain. Kapitan-china, the Captain Chinaman.
Kapiting, a Crab, a sea-crab. Cancer. (Mal. Batav. idem.)
Kapo-ékan, overtaken by night; darkness closed in. Mad with rage, furious; dizzy, giddiness. The state of mind which precedes Amuk. (From Poë, night.)
Kapoi, exposed to the sun. To laku kapoi, it must not be exposed to the sun.
Kapok, disgusted with anything so that you will have nothing more to do with it. Discontinuing some act or offence in consequence of the penalty inflicted therefore. Maling kěbo éta to daiken kapok, they will not cease to steal buffaloes (notwithstanding the punishment inflictedf or the offence.) Kapok ayĕunah ngahĕurĕuian aing they now know better then to trouble me. — (Kapok, Batav. to become afraid, to get terrified from (doing anything) Kapok, Jav. to better, to amend himself. Gerick.)
Kapol, the soft husk of a young Cocoa nut which is eatable.
Kapol, Cardamums. Amomum Cardamomum.
Kaponakan, third cousins, children of mindo. (From anak, prefixed kapua? At Batavia and in the neighbourhood Kaponakan are the children of one's brother or sister; kaponakan misan, children of a cousin. Fr.)
Kaporod, stollen — a vulgar expression.
Kaprah, of the average rate or quality; something that every one does; universally admitted. Paré na kaprah, the paddy is an average crop- is fair. Kaprah lalaki éwéan, men as a rule take wives. Nu sugih kaprah bogah kawasa, Rich men are universally admitted to have power. (Kaprah, custom, usage. Jav. Batav.)
Kapuah, an excessive quantity, a glut.
Kapuah, used in Jampé and incantations, and seems to correspond with the Singhalese Kapuwa, a Demon priest, C. 105. (Might be the Kawi pronoun Kapua.)
Kapuk, the cotton used for stuffing pillows, mattresses &c. It is short in staple, and cannot be used for spinning. It is produced by the trees called Randu, and Randu lĕuwĕung, respectively Eriodendron Anfractuosum, and Bombax Malabaricum. See Randu.
Kapu, C. 105, the silk cotton tree; cotton.
Kapur Baros, Baros lime or Baros Camphor the produce ot the Dryobalanops Camphora. Baros is a place on the west coast of Sumatra where it is procured. Kapuru, C. 105. Camphor. (Scr. Karpûra, Camphor. Fr.)
Kara, an idiomatic expression hard to translate. Lain karagoréng éta D'ont you very well know that that is bad. It calls the attention of the hearer forcibly to some matter. Saha kara nu to datang, who, pray, is it who is not come. The word kara may be the crude part of the word Karanawa, C. 108, to do, to act, to make, to perform. See Perkara.
Karabu, an ear-ring with several stones or ornaments. Karabu-ros an earring with many ornaments. See Anting, which somewhat differs. (Ros is the Dutch word roos, a rose.)
Karak, pretty much of the same meaning as Kakarak, which see, and of which it appears to be an abbreviation. Only now, just now, freshly, as yet. Karak datang, just come. Karak siji, as yet there is only one.
Karaman, an idiomatic expression difficult to translate, but answers to- now that I think of it, now that I see it, &; it indicates surprise on the part of the speaker. Karaman luhur now that I see it, how high it is! Karaman ganchang, how quick it goes.
Karamat, Arabic, a place of offering, a holy place; an intercedence, a miracle. The graves of holy men are called Kramat, and here offerings and prayers are put up when the native is in difficulty. (كرامة, Karâmat, dignity, honour; plur. كرامات, karâmât, wonders edited by holy man, by their natural power. Fr.)
Karang, a wart on the body.
Karang, Coral rock, limestone rock in general found inland far from the sea. The coral rocks have no doubt obtained this name from exhibiting the appearance of a garden growing under the waves, consisting of branching corals, madrepores &c.
Karang, a garden, ground laid out, or set in order like a garden. The natives call the Bantam hill Gunung karang, which thus properly means, Garden mountain, from its having, no doubt from an early period, been laid out in gardens, of which the Pepper gardens still existed when Europeans first visited Java, and hence called by the Dutch the Peper berg. It is a volcanic mountain, and no limestone is to be found near it. In the Sunda language there is also the word Pakarangan for the enclosure round the house of a great man, which see. The Malays use the word terkarang, set in order, arranged when speaking of a book; and měngarang, to compose, to arrange either a book or other matter.
Karang-sua, a sea urchin, called also Sasalakan. Cidaris.
Karap, waxed threads used at the weaving loom.
Karara-an, ill, in bad health. Sickness.
Kararanggé, a red ant common on fruit trees in gardens which bites very hard. They cement the leaves of trees together to form their nests.
Kararas, dry plantain leaves, used for tying up various articles, as we would use coarse paper.
Kararawéah, Couhage; a fine slender liane bearing pretty looking pods of fruit in bunches, but which are covered with a fine hair or pilae, which sting and cause great itching. Mucuna pruriens, also Dolichos pruriens. Crawfurd gives Karawia as Arabic for Caraway, Carum carui, and our word looks like a plural of this word, though one night suppose that the Sundas would have au indigenous name for so virulent a native plant. Karasak, a scratching noise, like that of a rat. A moderate but sharp noise. Often used in the expression Karasak karésék, scratching and grating.
Karasan, to have a pleasure in; to be delighted with. (From rasa, Scr. flavour, taste; taste, sentiment).
Karatan, only heard in the expression lain karatan, something which is so bad that it cannot be endured; too bad to be put up with.
Karaton, the abode of a Ratu or native prince. A native palace.
Karawachi, Pica; name of a pretty little bird like a magpie in miniature, not much larger than a sparrow. It is found all over Java, and appears to exist on Sumatra, as Marsden at Page 340 gives the word Murei, a species of bird resembling a small magpie, commonly called the Dial bird. I saw it also in the garden of the factories at Canton. It is not known by this name at Jasinga, but by that of Manuk Haur, which see.
Karawang, lattice work. Name of a district and chief place to the Eastward of Batavia. It obtains its name from the mouth of the Chitarum being rent and torn in sunder, or divided into many embouchures, where it flows into the sea. Rawang expresses the state of being torn or split. See Rawang.
Karé-és, gravel, small stones- such as are laid down on a road or on a garden walk.
Karéhkél, gravel, small stones.
Karékéb, to eat, to munch, to gnaw.
Karémbong, a long piece of cloth worn by a woman round her chest and breasts; a sort of scarf. Called in Malay Saléndang.
Karěmi, small worms in children. Intestinal worms. (Scr. Krimi. Jav. Krimi and Kěrmi worms.)
Karěndu, crumpled as a cloth; folded or gathered in plaits.
Karépék, a wattled fence of split bambus set in a river to intercept the passage of fish, whilst the water can flow on as usual.
Karěpus, a cap, a night cap, a sailor's cap. The article and name are both Batavian.
Karésék, making a small noise, as of a mouse gnawing or the like. It is in a smaller degree, what Karasak is in a somewhat larger one. (Onomatopoetic word. Known at Batavia.)
Karěsil, shrivelled, small, diminutive; the remainder from which the larger ones have been picked out.
Karét, name of a tree; Ficus elastica. India rubber or Gum Elastic, which is procured from the Karét tree by tapping, when the sap runs out readily and soon coagulates into the gum which is seen in trade. Called also Kolélét.
Karěumbi, a tree, Omalanthus Lechenaultianus.
Kari, Curry. A common Indian dish made of fowl boiled up with several ingredients.
Kari, and only, no more than, it only remains to. Kari siji děui there is only one left. Kari ngahatěupan, only remains to put the ataps on (said of a house which is building and is otherwise complete) Kari in Ngoko — Kantun in Krama, T. Roorda Javanese Dictionary Page 172- to remain behind, to remain over; being left behind, remainder, remnant, residu.
Karia, a festival, a great meeting for eating and drinking. Kariya, C. 120, a matter, an affair. Is derived from Karanawa to make, to do; and would thus be- a piece of work, something done- as natives generally call festivals Pakarjahan a piece of work. (63).
Karinding, a musical instrument made of a tube of bambu about one foot long and one inch in bore, at the end of which is held a small instrument with a tongue to it. This instrument is struck by the finger and blown upon, when a sound like a jew's harp is produced.
Karintil, the designation of a certain quantity of cotton threads: Ten karintil make one Tukěl or hank.
Karisik, a thin variety of bambu.
Karisut, wrinkles on face or skin. Said of a swelling which has gone down leaving the skin flabby.
Karok, a variety of wild plantain; the fruit is not eatable, only the leaves are used for tying up articles.
Karoya, a variety of the Ficus Benjamina. An ornamental tree resembling the Waringin.
Kartu, Dutch kaart. Cards to gamble with; a map, a chart.
Karuan, most assuredly, certainly; granted, conceded as in an argument; having a fixed idea or intention; decided. Pagawéan nana karuan, his work is decided, or has a useful tendency. To karuan, at random, without thought. Lamun gěus karuan, if it is decided, if the matter has assumed shape. See Rua. Karuan is most likely derived from Ruwa, C. 597, an image, with the prefix Ka and suffix an, indicating an object, something visible, and thus affording certainty. (It might be derived from rua Kawi, ro Jav. = dua, two; a thing which has a second, a consequence, which is not left undone. Malay كروان, karuwan, thought, ideas, thinking; which might be conciliated with my derivation. Fr.)
Karuchuk, stakes of wood used in a fence, in a dam in the river &c.
Karuhun, forefathers; those who are further back than grandfather or grandmother. (Karuhun in Kawi means formerly, before; the foremost. In Jav. exist different forms derived from ruhun or rihin.) Karumpak, trodden down, as grass, straw or small bushes.
Karundang, a variety of the eggplant: Solanum Involucratum.
Karung, a bag, a sack.
Karunya, grace, favour, indulgence, compassion. Karuna or Karunawa. C. 109, mercy, tenderness, compassion. (Scr. Kârunya and Karuna, compassion, tenderness.)
Karunya-an, to have mercy or compassion upon any one.
Karusuk, to make a heavy dull sound, as of a man or animal walking in jungle. To grope your way through jungle.
Karusukan, to grope or push your way through thick reeds or jungle.
Karut, to twist and twine rope about anything; to make a net-work of rope round anything. Tampayang di karut, a large water jar set round with a matting of rope to prevent its breaking. Batu karut, a stone envelloped in matting, or rather as seen in the jungle envelloped in a tangled mass of lianes.
Kas, Dutch, a case, a chest.
Kas, Arabic, the extremity of the law; law of retaliation; very rarely used. (Arab. قِصَاصٌ, Qiçâç (also qaçç) talio, vindicta. Fr.)
Kasab, work, value, good. Naun kasab, what is the good of it.
Kasaksian, witnessed by, borne evidence by, attested by. Kasaksian ku mandor, witnessed by the mandor, or village chief. (From Scr. Sâkshin, Nom. Sûkshî, a witness; sa, with, akshi, eye.)
Kasaktian, supernatural power, enchantment. (From Çakti, id.)
Kasampak, met, fallen in with, come upon, encountered.
Kasandung, stumbled, tripped up, run unintentionally against some low object on the ground. (Sandung, (Javanese characters) to stumble against a stone, or any object on the ground Jav.)
Kasang, curtains, screens. Panggo-ongan gĕus di kasangan the shed where the gong is played has been hung round with curtains. Kasang ratu, curtains for a prince.
Kasangsang, caught, hooked, arrested; said of a rope, clothes or any object which is caught against something else. Tali na kasangsang ka na ruyuk. the rope has caught among the bushes.
Kasantap, to get an attack of illness as if caused by some evil genius. Suddenly struck ill, paralyzed.
Kasap, sharp and rough to the feel, harsh, biting like a file. (Kasap and Kasab Jav. id.; rough, not smooth.)
Kasar, rude, uncivil. (Batav. Malay كاسر Kâsar, rough, used also of cloth or other matters. Fr.)
Kasarang, as when a man or woman wants to get married and is refused; jilted. (Sarang Jav. to have a dislike, to be not inclined to.)
Kasarikat, see Sarikat.
Kasaru, to mistake, to take the wrong one from two or more objects which are very much alike; not recognize, as a person heard of but never seen. Kasarung, probably the same as Kasaru with the nasal and final ng suffixed, and may then imply- travestied, disguised. The word occurs only in the history of Pajajaran as Lutung kasarung, see Raffles Vol. 2 Page 102. „Guru Putra then gave Chiung Wanara a black monkey skin jacket, which the latter forthwith put on and immediately became in appearance like that animal. He, at the same time, gave him the name of Guru minda sida tanda Prabu Lutung Kasarung”.
Kasasar, gone astray, wandered till lost, lost the way, bewildered, embarrassed, perplexed. (Jav. Batav. id.)
Kasěbét, a small bit cut off, just touched, grazing upon. (Jav. (Javanese characters), Sěbit, torn in pieces, a piece torn off.)
Kasěděk, pinched for time, in a great hurry; jammed in difficulties, ((Javanese characters) S’děk in Kawi is the same as (Javanese characters) s’děng, which occurs also in Jav. and Malay, but means only at the time that, when. Fr.)
Kaséndal, work finished in proper time, got through early. (Sěndal (Javanese characters) Jav. to be prosperous in an undertaking.)
Kaséntor, to come and meet.
Kasép, handsome, good looking, said of a man, but not of a woman who is gěulis, which see. Said also of some things but rather ironically. Kasép amat perkara na, his adventure (or his story) is very handsome. He has got a very pretty adventure!
Kasěpuhan, the old gentleman; a respectful designation for an oldman. (Sěpuh, Jav. old.)
Kasěrahkěn, delivered up, handed over. (Sěrah, Mal. id.)
Kasiat, for the reason that, seeing that. Kasiat sasari na to daikkěn for the reason that ordinarily he will not.
Kasibat, overcome by dizziness in the head, from exposure to the sun. Struck by the sun.
Kasih, affection, love, compassion. Kasih na gědé nakěr ka nu Iěutik, he has great compassion on humble people.
Kasihan, compassion, mercy, consideration. Ménta kasihan tuan bai, I entreat your mercy.
Kasikěp, to be able to manage, to be master of, to have within one's power. Pagawéan éta to kasikěp, that work cannot be managed. Kasikěp ayěunah kabéh, we are now master of the whole.
Kasimah, terrified, afrighted, overcome by sudden and great terror, Paralyzed, frightened out of his wits. Ari ngadeng’i soara maung těulěui kasimah, as soon as he heard the roar of the tiger he became terrified, or frightened out of his wits.
Kasingsal, overlooked, missed.
Kasintu, a variety of wild jungle fowl of which the cock is small and red with black tail. Different from the Changgėhgar.
Kasir, name of an orthopterous insect, a kind of large cricket or Gryllus. It is full 11 inch long and thus a good deal larger than the Jangkrik, which it otherwise resembles. The kasir burrows deep in the ground, whereas the Jangkrik is generally about the surface, or in shallow holes. Kasmaran, a Jampé so called, the tendency of which is that no one will take offence at us. Also a Jampé by which one person is made to fall in love with another. This is derived from Kama the god of love who is also called Sang Hyang Smara. Bat. Trans: Vol. 22 Page 42. A philtre, a love charm.
- Samāra, C. 710, having the passions unsubdued. See Asmara.
- Samara, C. 709, a name of Kama, the deity of love; with the Polynesian prefix ka, and suffix an = Kasmaran.
Kaso, called in Malay, Glaga, Saccharum glaga; a reed which grows very luxuriantly, and to the height of tenor a dozen feet, forming almost impenetrable bushes. Though a variety of the sugarcane, the Kaso contains no saccharine matter, and is not thicker than a man's finger, Kasa, C. 122, a kind of reed or long grass (Saccharum Spontaneum).
Kasongkét, an arěui or liane with a thick stem from which project a series of small pedicles 11 à 2 inches long, which are covered with small flowerlets.
Kasongket, is also the name of a tall reedy grass, with long terminal hairy or feathery spike which is white and looks like a hairy cats tail.
Kasturi, musk, such as procured from animals—from the civetcat. Kasturu and Kasturyya, C. 116. musk, civet. (Skr. Kastûrî, Kastûrikâ and Kasturikâ, musk, the animal perfume so called. Wilson.)
Kasugihan, riches, wealth, opulence. (Sugih, Jav. Balin. Rich, opulent.)
Kasuhur, renowned, celebrated, famous. Arabic Mashur, Marsden P. 324. (مَشْهُوْرٌ Mashhûr; our word is rather derived from the substantive شُهْرَةٌ Shuhrat, divulgation, fame, with the Polynesian Prefix ka. Fr.)
Kasumba, and also kasumba-jawa, safflower. Carthamus tinctorius. Kasumbha, C. 134 Carthamus tinctorius (Scr. Kusumbha. Wilson.)
Kasungka, name of a liane in the jungle which gives an edible bean. Gnetum latifolium.
Kasur, a mattress, a bed made of cloth stuffed with cotton. (Jav. Mal. id.)
Kasura, to get a small spine or thorn stuck in the foot. Wounded in the foot by any small sharp thing.
Kasurupan, to become impregnated with to be possessed of; absorbed, sunk into; set as the sun. Kasurupan dědéwan, to be possessed of a supernatural spirit, of some evil genius. Kasurupan mata poi di jalan, the sun set while I was yet on the road. (Surup Jav. To get into, to get through; to go under, said of the sun.)
Kasusahan, in trouble, in difficulties, perplexed, down cast, afflicted. (From Susah.)
Kasut, embroidered slippers, such as worn by Chinese women of note.
Katagian, to have an involuntary longing for anything to which we are accustomed, and which we cannot resist, as the longing of a drunkard for liquor, of an opium smoker for opium, and the like. Derived from the word Tagi to dun, to bother for payment or performance of any duty. (Jav. (Javanese characters) Nagih, from Tagih with the same meaning as here Tagi. Katagian is used at Batavia, Fr.) Katalang, replaced by, to have got a substitute. Derived from the word Talang, a spout, and the idea implies—as water is carried over a hollow by a spout, so we are carried over a difficulty by the aid of some one else. Katalang ku minantu, relieved from some public duty by a son in law. The son in law performing the the public duty relieves his father in law from the obligation. A custom common at Jasinga and many other parts of the Sunda districts. The son in law relieves the father of his wife, but not his own father from the performance of feudal service. (Talang in Jav. has the same meaning; Nalang'ng'i, to order somebody to relieve ones self in the performance of a duty; also to give orders to buy. In the last acceptation tâlang is found in Malay Fr.)
Katalimbĕng, lost in a forest so that the person cannot find his way home. The natives pretend that this is in consequence of stepping over a liane called arĕui Bandĕng which in a manner charms thein. (From a root Timbĕng; al infixed.)
Katambahan, augmented, increased; something in addition. (From Tambah, to add.)
Katang'én, known, seen, evident (Tangi, Jav., to become awake, to rise.)
Katapang, name of a tree bearing a fruit like an almond. Terminalia katapang.
Katara, visible, clearly seen, manifest, espied. (From Scr. Tara, radiant, shining; clean, clear. Jav. Balin. Batav. idem.)
Katé, dwarf, small in stature, diminutive. (Batav. id. Jav. A small cock or hen. Gericke.)
Katéla, of nearly the same import as katara. Visible from a distance, clearly seen.
Katélah, called after, named from. Katélah ku anak, called after a child. The Sundaese have a practice which is the reverse of what is usual among Europeans. The father and mother are called after the eldest child. Thus if that child is called Hamat, the father will be Bapa Hamat add the mother Ambu Hamat, the father or the mother of Hamat But the word father or mother is often dropped, causing much confusion as to identity. This is an affectionate way of always acknowledging a child, which however, at same time conveys the pride of parentage.
Katépa, infected with any disease; infected by contagion.
Katépéng, a shrub producing a largish bright yellow flower, called also Daun kurap, or ringworm leaf. Acacia alata.
Katétésan, to get a drop; to have a drop fall upon you. To be implicated in any matter. (Jav. (Javanese characters) Titis, to drop.)
Kati, a catty, a weight so called; the 100th part of a Picul, which see.
Katia, a bark used fordying black. Imported, not found in the Sunda Jungles.
Katib, Arabic. A clerk, a priest's assistant; a preacher. (خَاطِبٌ, Khâtib, the priest who reads the Khutbat or the sermon of the Friday. Fr.)
Katiga, the dry season, from June to September. It is a remnant of the old Javanese method of counting the seasons, of which the other terras are not retained in the Sunda language. Katiga means- „the third" (Season). (On Bali and Java the third month.) Katimang, the oval ring of iron resembling an elongated O, which fixes into the splinter bar of a Chinese plough, by which the buffaloe drags it. The Katimang hooks the splinter bar upon the Chantél, which is a crooked bit of iron fixed to the end of the pole of the plough. (Timang Jav. A hook.)
Katimpahan, struck, knocked down, overwhelmed. (Batav. id.)
Katimun, more usually Hantimun, a Cucumber, which see.
Katindihan, covered up by, buried under, placed under. Katindihan ku kayu ěunyěuh, knocked down by a tree falling. (Malay Batav. id. Jav. (Javanese characters) Nindih to lay over.)
Katiněung, to feel a delight at seeing or meeting any one; also at the mere remembrance of any one to whom we are attached; bearing affection. In the language of Poggi, on the west coast of Sumatra, Ténung is the heart, and our Sunda word looks as if it were this same word with the constructive ka before it, and would thus imply, heart-felt or having relation to the heart, the seat of the emotions.
Kating’ali, beheld, seen, observed. A refined expression. (Ting’al, Jav., as a verb ning’al, to see; Balin. ting’hal id. Fr.)
Katinggalan, left behind, lagging behind on the road. Deserted. Jauh kénéh katinggalan nana, he was left a long way behind. Katinggalan nana, its remainder, what is left over. (From Tinggal.)
Katinggang, see Ninggang; under the influence of; fallen to the share of.
Katir, outriggers of a boat; arms distended on each side of a small canoe to prevent its upsetting.
Katiwasan, overtaken by some serious injury. (Tiwas, Jav. unlucky, unfortunate. Balin. poor, wretched. Fr.)
Katog, strong, of great strength. (Jav. Full grown.)
Katon, visible, within sight, seen. (From Ton, Non, to see. Jav.)
Katomas, name of a handsome variety of Justicia. The leaves are mottled yellow and green, or gold and green; it is an ornamental shrub.
Katrajang, overtaken by, suffering under, attacked by. Katrajang Cha-ah, overtaken by a flood. Katrajang nyěri běutung, suffering a belly ache. Katrajang ku nu ngabégal, attacked by banditti. (Jav. Trajang, attack in battle; Nrajang, to attack.)
Katukang, Ka to, with Tukang, see behind.
Katumbila, a stinking louse found about old bambu flooring, in native houses. Cimex.
Katumbiri, the rainbow. Apparently compounded of Kata, C. 101 a woman; lustre, effulgence, a ray of the sun; and Biri, C. 473 a woman, a wife. The two words being connected by the peculiar Sunda um which see, and is thus- the effulgence of woman. The natives have an idea that the rainbow is caused or happens whenever the Badiyadari or celestial nymphs are bathing.
Katumpuhan, being answerable for, liable for; anything lost or destroyed which has to be replaced by the person destroying it. (Jav. Těmpah, Tatěumpuh, Tatěmpah, replacing, indemnification.) Katunchar, Coriander seed. Coriandrum sativum..
Katung, a joint of bambu tied up to the Pager or wall of a native house, in which small valuables are kept.
Katunggu, watched, guarded, to be kept in order, properly superintended.
Katungku, said of a buffaloe which appears to be ailing, and which it is thought prudent to kill for fear of its dying, whereby the flesh would be lost, if the animal was not killed according to Mohammedan rites.
Katut, going in at the bargaiu; sold along with something else. Béas di juwal katut jĕung karung na, the rice was sold along with the bag.
Katuwon, inward sorrow, regret.
Ka-ubĕr, roused up, stirred up, put to rout.
Kaul, arabic. Marsden. A written agreement, contract, engagement, (قَوْلً, Qaul, a saying, word.)
Kaula, I, I myself. A humble designation of self, whereby the speaker places himself below the person whom he . It is still more humble than Kula, of which it seems to be a modification.
Kaulkĕn, to make a promise or engagement.
Kaum, arabic, an assembly of priests or men met for the purpose of prayer. (قَوْمً Qaum, people.)
Kaur, having time, having leisure. To kaur, I have no time. (Kahur Jav. time, leisure.)
Kaus, a stocking, such as worn by Europeans. It is the Dutch word kous, stocking.
Kawa, the Crater of a Volcano. Kawa, C. 115, a circle. Perhaps the name was applied to the craters of Volcanoes from their being generally circular openings on the tops of the mountains. (Perhaps a derivation from the Scr. root ku, to sound. Fr.)
Kawa Domas, name of one of the craters on the Tangkuban Prahu.
Kawah, a large cooking pan, a sugarpan. This and the precending word appear to be distinct, though so nearly allied in both sound an sense. The latter word, however, is always aspirated at the end which the other is not.
Kawai, the Baju or jacket of a native nobleman.
Kawalahan, overdone with work; having more trouble and work than can be got through; overtasked.
Kawalu, and Kawalu tutug, are great festivals of the Badui heathens in South Bantam. This Kawalu sounds like a Sunda form of the Javanese Wolu, Eight, and thus kawalu, would be the Eighth. Perhaps originally these festivals were kept in an eighth month..
Kawan, five nyéré of thread; and expression among the weaving women.
Kawan, a companion, an associate. Rarely used, being considered Malay, nevertheless the word occurs in Pandakawan which is a good Sunda expression, which see.
Kawas, as, like, resembling, as if, to bear the appearance of. Kawas na to daik mayar, he looks as if he did not intend to pay. (Perhaps from Awas Jav. clear, manifest.)
Kawasa, having power, or authority; able, capable; might, ability. Probably derived from wasa, C. 630, authority, mastership; with the constructive ka placed before it to give it an adjective form. (Jav. Mal. Kawasa and Kuwasa.)
Kawat, wire, fine drawn thread of any metal, but without a qualifying noun, generally means Iron wire. 'Kawat tambaga, brass wire.
Kawatir, to have any anxiety about, doubt, distrust. To be troubled with uncertainty how a matter will turn out Ulah kawatir, you need not be in trouble about it (Jav. Kuwatir, afraid, fearing danger.)
Kaw-auw-oh, a liane, the bark of the root of which is used to prevent Kawung toddy from turning sour.
Kawawa, to bear, to endure. To kawawa, I c'ant endure it. It is more than I can carry. (Jav. Kuwawa, to be able to do, to be in state of doing anything.)
Kawawĕuhan, acquaintance, any person with whom we are acquainted. (Jav. Wawuh, to have acquaintance, to be friend of.)
Kawayah, intermittent. Muriang kawayah, the intermittent fever.
Kawěl, to tie or fasten by twisting and turning round with string. (Jav. Kuwěl.)
Kawih, to sing, to warble. Kawi, C. 115. Poetry, songs &c. a learned or wise person. Kawiyama, C. 122, a poem, poetry. Kawya, C. 122, a poetical composition, a poem. Kawi, without the final aspirate is no doubt the same word and implies the old language of Java, in which the Hindu literature is preserved, and which was in use as connected with the Hindu religion. (Kawi Scr. a poet.)
Kawin, Persian, to marry, to wed, to espouse. The usual term for to marry in both Sunda, Javanese and the Malay of Java. Ngawin in Sunda and Javanese is to carry spears in procession, and Pangawinan are the people who so carry the spears. May not this have arisen from carrying spears in procession when the men (the intended father and son- in law) go to confirm the marriage. See Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indié Oct. 1852 Page 275 where mention is made of „4 aween pieken” four awin spears, and of „2 awinans” or attendants as occurrying at Grissée. In the Sunda districts you still see the intended father in law, with a spear in his hand, go to the priest, followed by his intended Son in law, when the legal form of the marriage takes place. See Nikah.
Kawinkĕn, to cause to marry, to marry out.
Kawini, a variety of mangga, mangifera. A true Terebintacea being very turpentiny.
Kawista, name of a large tree which yields a gummy matter used in making native ink.
Kawul, a sort of tinder procured from scraping the root part of the leaf branch, or frond, of a Kawung Palm. A spark of light struck from a steel is caught upon it, when fresh fire is made.
Kawung, name of a Palm tree so called, which yields sugar. Saguerus Saccharifera or Borassus Gomuti. Called Arén or Anau in Malay. The Sugar is boiled down from the toddy which exudes from the stems of fructification, on being beaten and sliced oft every day.
Kawung Parasi, a poor ill grown kawungpalm which yields little or no Sugar.
Kayang, some of the wild varieties of Quercus trees are so called.
Kayangan, the abode or temple of a Hyang or divinity.
Kayu, wood, timber; sometimes used for a tree in general. Kha appears to be wood in Burmese. See Singapore Journal Vol 4 Page 59 where Theet-Kha is given, a bitter wood. Theet is evidently the Singhalese Titta, C. 231, bitter, pungent. Au nunu, the name of the Waringin tree at Letta and Kissa of the Serwatti group, east of Timor. Au signifies tree- Singahore Journal Vol 4 Page 181. Now the word kayu appears to be a compound of these two words, Kha and au y inserted euphoniae gratia. Or it may be simply au with the idiomatic ka prefixed.
Kayu is an idiomatic term for counting certain substances which fold up flat like a board, especially piece goods. Chita sa kayu, a piece of Chintz.
Kayu-putih, literally- white wood. The tree grows in the Moluccos; and on Java the words kayu-putih, as in Europe, mean the essential oil derived from the tree. It is the Cajeput of Europe. Melaleuca Cajeputi.
Kéak, to chirp like a bird; to make a small chirping or squeaking sound.
Kěbat, straight on without divergence; in a due straight line. Kěbat bai ngidul went South in a due straight line.
Kěběl, a long time, a good while. Undur na geus kěběl, it is a good while since he went away. Sa kěběl, as long as.
Kěbo, a buffaloe, in Malay Karbau. This animal is also called munding in Sunda. Bos Bubalus. Karabha, C. 108, a Camel, an Elephant, probably derived from Karanawa, C. 108. to do, to act, to make, to perform-, and thus a working animal.. Kěbo, a title given anciently to Javanese chiefs, and is the same as Maisa, meaning Buffaloe. Munding another word for Buffaloe was also formerly used to designate the chiefs. Lembu a bull or cow, also occurse in a similar way in the composition of the names of ancient chiefs. Kěbo has had also extensive application in this sense on Bali. See Bat. Trans. Vol 23 Page 24. It occurs in the history of Java, see Raffles Vol 2, Page 105 in the name of Kěbo Mundarang, the minister of the king o Kèdiri, and again Page 135 in the person of Kěbo Kanigara, the chief of Pajang. The word Kabu given in Raffles is no doubt meant for Kěbo.
Kěbo-grang, name of a fish at Jasinga; the same as Sanggaringan.
Kěbon, a garden, a plantation, a cultivated bit of ground. The same word is also Malay. It might have been expected that the islanders would have had a pure Polynesian word for such a thing as a garden, or bit of planted land, but nevertheless Kěbon seems to have borrowed its root from the Sanscrit Bu the Earth, the world, Clough 477, and with the constructive Ka before and an after , would make Kabuan , the u and a, by a very common rule coalesce , and form O , making thus Kabon or Kěbon, a bit of earth, a bit of land- a garden.
Kěbut, to be blown about by the wind. To fan, to blow up a fire.
Kěbutan, to fan, to cause a current of wind to pass over anything by waving some instrument by way of a fan. To dust, to blow away the dust.
Kéchap, Catchup, a dark coloured sauce prepared by the Chinese.
Kěchap, to speak, to utter a word. Sa kěchap, a word. :(Mai. Jav. Kawi Uchap, word, tale; Kochap, spoken. Kěchap, Jav. the act of opening and clossing the mouth when pronouncing a word. The following article is certainly the same, the time for pronouncing a word being no more than the twinkling of the eye. Fr.)
Kěchap, a twinkling of the eye; any short space of time; immediately.
Kechěrik, a small variety of hand fishing net.
Kěděngan, to lie down upon. Meja di kěděngan, he laid himself down upon the table.
Kěděngkěn, to lay down, to place in a recumbent position. Kěděngkěn di na meja, lay it down flat upon the table!
Kědėr, fearful, uneasy in mind, startled.
Kědih, firm in character, not to be talked over.
Kědiri, name of a residency at the east end of Java, and the supposed site of the ancient kingdom of Daha. It was here that a remarkable woman, called Kili-Suchi, lived,
would neither pretend, that karabha is our karbau, notwithstanding that in a similar way the Western nations called the Elephant "Indian ox" (Aleph Hindi, Pott.) the Romans even "bos Lucanus" because they had seen the animal first in Lucania in the war with Pyrrhus: nor that the word karabha or karbau is derived from the root kri, to do, to work. The buffaloe is known in India and his principal name is mahisha, which is well known on Java and Bali. We might leave the karbau (kebo) to the Polynesians, even as the word Munding. Fr. vide voce: and with reference to her failing, the natives of the country say that the country obtained its name, as Kědih in their language means- the stoppage, or rather non-appearance of the menstrual flux. Hiri or iri is envy, and thus that Kědiri implies the stoppage above alluded and envy of others at the same time. Hiri, C. 794 is also shame, confusion, and Kedih-hiri would express-shame at not having the flux. Clough Page 158 gives Khadiri, a sensative plant, mimosa pudica, which would not be a bad emblem of Kili Suchi in her distressing position. Kili Suchi was not allowed to sacrifice herself on the funeral pile of her parents, in consequence of which, she is said to have borne great ill will , and thus may account for the iri or hiri in Kědih-iri. (Khadirî, mimosa pudica. Wilson. Jav. (Javanese characters) Kědiri, wherein the (Javanese characters) (dh) seems to indicate, that the Scr. word contained an aspirated letter. Fr.)
Kědokan, a muddy hole that a buffaloe wallows in any ground or road kept muddy and cut up by the constant passage of buffaloes or other animals.
Kěduk, to pull towards you, either with your hands, or with some instrument, as with a pachul, to scrape aside. Lěutak na kudu di kědukan, you must scrape the mud on one side.
Kéh, an interjection. Do you see! look now!
Kéhéd, glans penis.
Kéhkél, name of a small fish in rivers.
Kĕjëp, a twinkling, a wink of the eye; usually Sa kejep, any very short space of time. Jav. Kĕjĕp and Kĕjép id. Vıde Kĕchap.)
Kéjo, boiled rice, rice boiled fit for eating; called in Malay Nasi.
Kĕk, the idiomatic expression of laying hold of- seize hold! lay hold! Kĕk bai di chĕkĕl, and laying hands on him he seized him.
Kékéb, a variety of Sĕurĕuh found growing wild in the forests. It is used when the true leaf is scarce or not to be had. Chavica Blumei.
Kékéd, having the fingers cramped or drawn together by disease. Daik kėkéd, may I have my fingers cramped — a serious but common expression when a man wishes to insist upon the truth of what he says. (Jav. Kékét, to stick to each other.)
Kĕkéjoan, the white frothy juice which first flows from the fruit stem of the Kawung palm, when cut for gathering the toddy to make sugar. This will not boil down to sugar and is thrown away. It is soon succeeded by more pure juice from which the sugar is made.
Kĕkĕng, the bit of a bridle.
Kĕkĕng rang'ah, a bit set with iron points, called in Malay Tom duri, used much by the natives. (Tom is the Dutch toom, bridle. Fr.)
Kĕkĕng chaching, literally- a worm bit, and thus smooth, A smooth bit such as used by Europeans.
Kékés, a variety of small squirrel, Sciurus; found in the jungle. It resembles the Bu-ut but is smaller. Kěkětěg, the pulse, the beating of the blood. (Jav. Kětěg id.)
Kěkompongan, the flank of either man or beast. The side of lower part of belly. (Jav. Kěmpong, the milt, the bladder; Kěkěmpongan, would be the side, the place about the milt or bladder. Fr.)
Kělalén, forgotten, Compounded of Ka-lali-an. The word lali however, is of rare occurrence in Sunda for- to forget, which it more especially implies in Javanese. The common Sunda word being Poho.
Kělang, dry, desiccated.
Kělar, to have an affection for. Kělar ka Pajajaran to feel affection for Pajajaran. (Jav. To have sufficient power, to be able.)
Kělat, to connect with a bit of string; to tie lightly with a bit of string to fix to anything by tying down. A string used as a brace. (Jav. A ring, a string etc.)
Kélé, a bit of bambu, as much as is contained between two joints, used for holding water. Kélé's are always seen about the doors of native houses, to hold water to wash the feet with. Kalé C. 114- a water pot.
Kélék, the armpit. Di kélék, to carry under the arm.
Kělěm, sunk under water, covered by water, inundated. (Jav. id., also to sink under the sand. Batavian Tangk'lěm.)
Kělěngar, swooned away, fainted; in a fit and not recognizing people. (Jav. Mai. id.).
Kělětik, to extract oil from Cocoanuts by rasping the pulp and then boiling it down, as contradistinguished from di kampa, to procure the oil by squeezing in a press.
Kělěwěk, Pichung nuts prepared for cooking by drying over fire and then burying in the earth for a couple of months, or else they are poisonous.
Kělid, toward off, to parry.
Kělinchi, a hare, a rabbit; derived from the Dutch word Kleintje, a little one.
Kélong, Satan, the devil, evil spirits or genii.
Kělor, name of a tree Moringa Pterygosperma. The bark of the root of this tree rasped in shreds looks like and tastes like horse- radish, and is sometimes eaten with roast beef in same manner.
Kěmang, an inferior variety of mangga, Mangifera foetida.
Kěmat, to influence, to be will disposed towards others. An incantation to induce others to marry you.
Kěmbang, a flower, blossom, the choice of anything. Gunung kěmbang flowery mountain. Kěmbang or kambang may be derived from ka, the preposition, and Bang or abang, red.
Kěmbang ang'in, literally- the flower of the wind, means private information, secret notice.
Kěmbang pala, mace; literally —— the flower of the nutmeg.
Kěmbang Sapatu, the shoe flower, Hibiscus, Rosa- Sinensis. The red flower rubbed on leather serves as blacking, hence the name. It is properly Malay and called more usually in Sunda, Wéra. Kěmbar, twins, two children at one birth.
Kĕmbu, a large standing pannier used in boats to collect and retain fish, as it is caught with the casting net. Derived in all probability from Buwu with the preposition ka.
Kĕmbung, swollen up, inflated, blown up, distended.
Kěmbung, a small sea fish so called.
Kĕméja, a shirt, as worm by Europeans. Camisa, Port: a shirt. (See Kaméja.).
Kĕmĕndur, a commodore, a title given to some petty native chiefs about Batavia. Is the Dutch word Commandeur.
Kĕmit, a watchman about a dwelling house or store. A watchman in general, and especially at night. (Jav. Kěmit, to watch at wigth.).
Kěmpés, small in volume, in a small compass. Said of a swelling which has gone down; reduced as a swelling.
Kĕmpis a small pannier to collect fish in as caught. It has a wide bottom and narrow neck, like a bottle.
Kémpolkĕn, to bend aside; to turn away or aside.
Kěmudi, a helm, a rudder; a paddle or sweep to steer with. (See Kamudi.)
Kěn, a particle placed after a word, which then becomes a transitive verb; as goréng, bad, goréngkĕn, to make bad. Suka, pleasure, sukakĕn, to grant, to have pleasure in
Kěncha, left, the reverse of right. Lĕungan ti kéncha, the hand on the left, the left hand. Ka kéncha, to the left.
Kéncha-an, to stretch out a rope in order to mark out work, where to cut the ground. To line out ground for a garden bed or the like.
Kénchang, fixed, fast, firmly set in, tight. Quick, expiditions, smart. Severe, strictly adhering to regulations.
Kénchangan, to set fast, to tighten. To hurry.
Kénchéng, money down; for ready money, for cash.
Kénchérkěn, to turn out cattle from the Kandang, stable or place of confinement. To turn out to graze.
Kéndak, a paramour.
Kĕndal, name of a district in the residency of Samarang. In a country where so many remains of Hindu antiquity are found, it is not unreasonable to suspect a Hindu origin in all names of places which are not evidently Polynesian. Crawfurd gives Kěndalisada, name of the country of Hanuman in the Ramayaua; name of a mountain in the province of Samarang in Java and from this probably our Kĕndal is derived.
Kěndang, a roll or large package of anything. A roll of merchandise.
Kěndang, a long narrow native drum only covered atone end, and often carried suspended under the arm.
Kěndang, viz. Gunung Kèndang, the name of a ridge of mountains which extends the whole of Java, and is found of various elevations, from a few hundred to several thousand feet. It is, as it were, the backbone of the Island of Java. It forms the boundary ridge between Jasinga and the Prianger Regencies, and is there about 5000 feet high. In the residency of Sourabaya, there are also Gunung kĕndang which are a few hundred feet above the sea. It is probably derived from Kanda, C. 104, a hill, with the Polynesian ng added to it; in the same way that it is supposed the Malay word Padang, a plain, is derived from Pada, C. 357 meaning a place, a scite. Khandha, C. 158, a multitude, the trunk of a tree- and hence the multitude of mountains, or the mountains in ridges like the trunks of trees. Mr. Friederich writes me—„Khanda (masculine and neuter Khandam) means, a piece, a part, a fragment, a portion, a chapter, a section (Kĕndang?). The root is Khad, to , to tear, to break off; a part, apiece. Khanda, Clough Page 157 has precisely the same meaning, word for word.
Kĕndi, a water goglet, an earthenware jar with along narrow neck for holding drinking water. Kéndiya, C. 136, a water goglet. Kundhi is the water pot carried by Siwa, as represented in images of this god, at the old Hindu temples in Java. Marsden gives this word as Kundi, Gundi and Gindi (Kondu in Greek, Poculum barbaricum, Persicum, certe asiaticum) a water-pot, Earthenware bottle, ewer. (Scr. kundí.)
Kĕndit, a piece of string which is worn round the hips by way of a charm. Most native women wear a Kĕndit under their clothes.
Kĕndor, slack, wanting in tightness; remiss, negligent, slow.
Kĕndoran, to ease off, to slacken, to be less severe.
Kénéh, still, in continuance. Hadé kénéh, it is still good. Tahan kénéh, it will still hold out.
Kéngkérang, the shoulder blade, the bone which joins the shoulder to the neck.
Kéniaya or Kanyaya, to oppress, to ill use, to tyrannise over; to persecute. Aniya, C. 29 a common word for violence or power, to which is thus prefixed the Polynesian Ka, and anya put at the end.
Kĕning, as di kĕning, to cut and trim the eyebrows, as young coquette native girls do. See di dahi.
Kĕnjĕng, a title for high personages invested with power, and is applied as well to native chiefs on Java and Bali, as also to the European authorities, such as the Residents. Jĕng in the Kawi of Java means foot, and thus the great man is designated by a part of his body not higher than the foot, as inferiors are considered unworthy to look higher.
Kĕnong, a small round and convex metal musical instrument, belonging to a gamĕlan.
Kĕntang, Potatoes, any tuberous root of the Solanum kind.
Kĕntang, Chinese Cash, being a mixed metal, of which copper is the chief ingredient, with a square hole in the middle to string them by. Probably in common use in Java before the arrival of Europeans, as it is still to this day on Bali and Lombok. Called also Pichis and kupang.
Kénténg, a tile, a roofing tile.
Kĕntrung, the dull hollow sound of the stampers in the rice block. Any dull sound. Kényang, to pall at, to lug, to tug.
Kényéré, name of a tree with tough clastic wood.
Kêong, shape of snail's shell, coil, or spiral; a small shell fish found in swamps; a variety of Ampullaria. A snail; any small land molusk in a shell.
Képang, a peculiar kind of bambu platted work (Bilik, which see), which is the best and most substantial sort which is made.
Kepék, a sort of bambu basket with cover, the sides and top of which are covered with the cuticle of the branches of the Sarai palm, and which are impenetrable to water. The natives use Kėpéks, as we use portmanteaus for carrying about their clothes and other personal effects.
Képéng, any small copper coin, which is not a Dutch doit; any trilling value. Hagang nyiar pikulihĕun sa képéng, I want to seek work as a cooly, if it be but for a trifle.
Kĕpél, a young foal, with long shaggy hair.
Kĕper, generally called Ki-kĕper, a large forest tree. Or properly the bark of the tree which is stringy, and taken off in large pieces to be used as a kind of boarding in the rough houses of the natives.
Képés, to knock a side, to ward off by a gentle blow- to give a slap.
Képét, to eat one's own ordure under a foolish idea that we shall soon grow rich.
Kĕplék, toss- penny or toss-duit: any wager whether heads or tails will fall uppermost.
Kĕpluk, indicative of anything falling heavily to the ground, a heavy plump in a fall.
Kĕpluk-kĕpluk, to make a clashing noise, as in clapping the hands. To clap the hands.
Keprak-Kĕprik, to knock about, to toss about to move frequently and injure; to ill use.
Képrét, to sprinkle with water or any liquor, to throw water in drops on anything. Water shook from the hands on any object.
Képrik, to set after, to rouse up, to bustle at.
Kĕpuk-kĕpuk, to pat or strike gently.
Kĕpung, to encircle, to circumvent, to surround.
Kĕrai, name of a fish, found especially in caverns where there is water.
Kĕrak, in boiling rice, that part which is next the pot, which adheres to it and gets done brown. The brown crust of boiled rice.
Kérak, name of a bird much seen about buffaloes, perched on their backs, and pecking about their hide. Called also Jalak. The bird is black with a little white in the wings.
Kerèbĕk, the noise made by water entering a bottle or bambu kélé, when immersed therein, caused bij the escape of the air. The bubbling noise of air in water so escaping.
Kérék, to snore, to make a snoring noise, to breathe heavily. Ngorok, is to snore from the bottom of the throat, and expresses a more strenuous action than kérék.
Kérékan, small reeds round which threads are wound, and afterwards placed in the tropong or shuttle, when in the act of being wave into the web. The instrument is probably called Kérékan, the snorer, from the sound made when winding the threads upon the reeds, in the native spining whedl.
Kërĕng, severe, rigorous.
Kĕrĕp, set close together, crowded, thickset; frequently occurring.
Kĕrĕpan, to set close together- to bring nearer to each other.
Kĕrépék, split bambu fastened together so as to make a temporary fence, and set in rivers to enclose and catch fish.
Kĕrĕti the constellation of the Pleiades, called also Guru Désa or the village monitor, as the Paddy cultivation is regulated by its rising. Karttika, C. 120 the month Asala (Oct and Novr.) when the moon is full near the Pleiades. Karttikéya, C. 120, the Indian god of war , ansevering to the Grecian Mars. (Krittikâ, the Pleiades , who were considered as the nurses of Karttikéya, who is named after them. Fr.)
Kĕrĕwĕk, to lay hold of a man and bind him; to pounce upon.
Kĕri, growing slowly, stunted.
Kĕrid, to turn out a population to work corve'es; a general turn out of the population for public work. Kĕrid batok , a general turn out for work ; all available hands turned out to work.
Kĕridan, people turned out to work corvées. Di gawé kĕridan, to work by corvées.
Kĕrik, to scrape with the edge of knife. To scrape gently in general. To scratch, to scratch out or efface.
Kĕrna, for the reason that, because. (Scr. Karana, cause, motive. Kârana id.)
Kérok, to curry-comb, to scrape roughly. To strike off grain even in any measure — as in a gantang.
Kérong, to twist a rope round any object, so as to bind it securely; entangled. See Pangérong. Sungut anjing di kerong, the mouth of the dog is bound (by a rope twisted round and round its mouth, so that it cannot open it to bite.)
Kĕrta, peace, peaceable, in a state of repose, tranquil. Appears to be a participle of Karanawa, C. 108, to do, to act, to perform. Kĕrta or karta is often met with in the composition of proper names , both of persons and places , and means then- auspicious , fortunate. (Karta, means on Java in the words Surakarta, Ngayogyakarta, rather town. How krĕta, made, can mean peace, I have not yet been able to understand. Fr.)
Kĕrtas, Arabic, paper- Wang kĕrtas, paper money. Sa kĕrtas one guilder in paper money. The more usual word for paper in general is Daluang. (كُرْظَاسٌ :كَِرطاصٌ :كَِرّطَص Arab, but a vox peregrina, Freytag. Latin Charta.)
Kĕrta-Sura, name of the Residency and Capital of Java, near the present Sura-kĕrta or Solo. The name of the Capital was inverted when removed. Karta, accomplished, perfect in all that is done.
Kĕrud, a tiger, but not the Tiger royal, which is called Maung. There is a great variety , in the Sunda districts, of which the Black Tiger, Felis niger, is one.
Késang, perspiration, sweat. Késangan or Bijil késang, to perspire. (Bijil will be Jav. midjil, to come outside.)
Kĕsat, a dryness in the throat impeding articulation. Rough, not smooth.
Kĕsĕd, astringent in taste, tart like unripe fruit. Said of any fruit which has a harsh rough taste.
Kĕsur, a large and thick rattan , always used to stretch across rivers in order to haul ferry-boats or rafts across.
Kĕtan, a variety of Paddy, Oryza glutinosa. It is of a clammy nature and used for sweet meats and Kwéh.
Kétan-nadin, such grains as look like common rice, but are said to grow on the same ear with kĕtan.
Kétél, Dutch ketel- a kettle.
Kéténg, in retail; anything sold in retail, or in small quantities.
Kĕti, one hundred thousand. 100.000. Koti, C. 145, a number, 100 lacks or ten millions- so that in Sunda, and the same is the case in Javanese and Malay- a wrong interpretation has been given to this word.
Këting, a kind of fish in the sea.
Kĕtok, to strike gently, to tap.
Kĕton, name of a piece of money; an old Dukaton of the value of about three guilders.
Kĕtrok, to knock, to tap, to strike, To strike somewhat harder than Kĕtok.
Kĕtruk, to knock, to bray, to strike, but in a somewhat harder way than when Kétrok is used.
Kĕtug, a noise heard occasionally among the mountains, of which the people tell many marvellous stories. The sound is like that of cannon, where no cannon are known to be. A superstitious idea regarding any sound, heard among the hills, of which the cause is not known.
Kĕtug, a small round brass musical instrument belonging to the Gamĕlan. It is smaller than the Kĕnong.
Kĕu-ĕum, to soak in water, to put under water to Soak. To run water on Sawahs or other ground which is to be inundated for purposes of cultivation.
Kĕu-ĕung, afraid, timid, timorous.
Kĕu-ĕus, the fruit of Kolé or wild plantain.
Kĕuhĕul, impatient with waiting; vexed by delay. Tired out.
Kĕukĕupan, to cuddle, to embrace.
Kĕuna, hit, struck, as anything which is shot at, or aimed at in any way. To incur, to be subjected to, as Kĕuna di béwat, he iucured a fine. Di bĕdil to kĕuna, it was shot at but not hit. (Kĕna Batavian, Malay, Jav., Kawi id. In Kawi it has also the same meaning as the Malay âkan to, in the dative case. Akan after all seeins to be of the same origin, cf. aku, I, with Jav. Kawi kua, Batavian gua. Fr.)
Kĕunĕung, the heel; the knuckles.
Kĕupat, airs, pretensions. To kawawa ku keupat na, there is no enduring his airs. Hayang karareupat, they want to give themselves airs. Karareupat, is plural.
Kĕupĕul, the clenched fist when holding anything; the clenched fist. Sa kĕupĕul, as much as can be clenched in the fist. (Jav. Batavian , Kepel id.)
Kĕurĕung, a small packet of any stringy matter tied together. Tuwa sa kĕurĕun, a small packet of Tuwa or Tuba, a root with which fish are stupifyed.
Kĕurĕut, to pare off, to slice off with a knife, to slash ; to cut by drawing the knife steadily through any mass, not by hacking at it.
Kĕuyang, oppressively warm; close and warm without any air moving.
Kĕuyĕup, a small land crab, it burrows in earth on the edge of water, and is very troublesome in all earthen embankments made for the purpose of conducting water over hollows.
Kĕwĕuk, a mono valve sea-shell. Cypraea.
Khali, a high priest of Mahomedanism. (قَضٍ Qadhi the judge. On Java and Celebes it is also pronounced Kali; at Batavia (and in Malay) Kadhi. Fr)
Kharap, inclination, pleasure. Kumaha kharap sia do just as you like; follow your own inclination.
Khĕmis, Arabic, Thursday. (خَامِسْ Khâmis, the fifth, خَمْس Khams, five.)
Ki, a sort of honorific designation placed before men's names or titles; also placed before the names of many plants or trees. In the first instance it is probably a contraction of Aki, grandfather, and in the latter of Ka-i, which is sometimes though rarely heard for wood. Before titles as- Ki Tumunggung, Ki Demang- before proper names as- Ki Jaman, Ki Saman- before names of trees- Ki Cha-ang, Ki Julang, and more others, for which see below. (Ki corresponds with Si, Ni and Hi, used as a kind of article, but with different application; from all of them Pronouns are derived, as kita, I, si-ya, si-ra he (and you), ni-a, possessive, Hi-da, Bal. he (you). It is here not the place to explain this further. Fr.)
Ki-ai, a term of respect for an old man; a term of respect to designate a father in law. Compounded of Ki, a honorific designation, and Aya father. (Ki-ai (or-ahi) is another derivation from Ki, with ahi added, Ki-ahi, Ni-ahi (Nyai, a respectable female), Priy-ahi, I think, derived from priya, Scr. friend, a term of endearment; the name of Priyahi is given to certain inferior officers, who are for instance to superintend the koolies of Government, supplied by the native chiefs; who accompany strangers etc. Fr.)
Ki-ajag, name of a tree growing among the mountains, from which a Geutah or viscous gum is obtained , used to rub on scabs or on persons troubled with the cutaneous diseases called Ragét and Rodėk.
Kiamat, Arabic, the resurrection, the final dissolution of things at the end of the world. An expression indicative of matters having gone sadly wrong. Kiamat bĕrod, things are in a miserable plight. Poi kiamat, the day of judgement. (قِيَامَةٌ Qiâmat.)
Kiara, Ficus Procera, a large and spreading variety of the fig tribe. There are several varieties of Kiara, which is used a generic name. Kiara Payung, Umbrella kiara. Ficus terminalis. The Ficus Procera is more definitely called Kiara lawang, the door way kiara, from the stem, near the root dividing and forming a kind of porticoes.
Ki-asahan, Tetracera Dichotoma, a liane much used for tying fences &c.
Kiblat, arabic, the quarter towards which Mohammedans, of all countries, turn the face in prayer, which must be towards Mecca, (قِبْلَةٌ Qiblat.)
Kiboma, name of a tree, otherwise called Pĕutag, Pingko, Kadĕpėr. Helittophyllum Javanicum.
Kicha-ang, name of a tree called Cha-ang , clear, clean, from the leaves being beaten up in water, when they form a white lather which is used for cleaning the head.
Kichĕp, a twinkle of the eye. Sa kichĕp, a moment, a twinkling. (See Kĕchap.)
Kidang, name of a constellation of three very bright stars; the Belt of Orion. The word in Malay means a small variety of deer. Cermis muntjak, which is called in Sunda minchĕk, so that the Sunda people have very likely borrowed the designation of the constellation from the Malays. The position in the heavens of this Kidang constellation regulates the time for cutting forest for yearly paddy clearings.
Kidul, South; Laut kidul, the South sea.
Kidung, a prayer to ward off evil; such prayer brings misfortune upon the thief or the person evil disposed. The prayer is one of Mohammedan tendency, and not Bhuddistical. (67).
Ki-ĕndog, name of a large tree. Xanthophvllum excelsum.
Ki-haji, name of a forest tree, with good timber. Dysoxylum Macrocarpum.
Ki-hiang, name of a jungle tree, Adenanthera falcata, or Inga Kihiang; it is called Kihiang from Ngahiang, to disappear, to vanish, as now and then all the leaves drop) off. and leave the tree bare , as trees in winter in Europe. See Hyang: thus to this tree has been ascribed supernatural power, from the fact of its becoming bare, as if dead, and then coming to life again.
Ki-hiyĕur, a variety of wild chesnut or Castanea. Fruit not eaten. See Sanintĕn and Kalimborot.
Kihkir, a file, a rasp. Miserly, avaricious. (Malay, Batavianid. Jav. only a file, a rasp.)
Ki-hura, a variety of diminutive palm tree.
Ki-ih, to piddle, to make water.
Kijing, a bivalve shell fish, found in fresh water ponds, and muddy ditches. It is a muscle of about three inches long, and one and a half inch across.
Kiju, Cheese. Queijo, Cheese in Portuguese.
Ki-julang, a red wood used for gobang sheaths, brought from the south coast of Bantam.
Ki-kĕndung, a plant producing a pod like a bean.
Kikis, a fence made of split bambu wattled together, set round gardens &c, and especially used in native towns or large villages to set on each side of the road, so as to shut out the view of dirty homesteads.
Ki-konéng, a wild turmeric, grows wild in grasslands, and small jungles. Vide Konéng.
Kilang, viz. Sirĕum kilang, name of a small brown ant found on the ground.
Kilap, to shine, to glitter. (Jav. Kawi. Kĕlap. Malay, Batavian Kilap which means also lightning. Fr.)
Ki-lého, litterally, the snot plant. A genus of plants with several species. They have all white flowers growing immediately out of the stem of the tree, and which may have suggested the not very elegant name which it bears. They are called by Blume Saurauja, which ought to have been Sauravia. The bark of the Kilého tree is used for tying round the ends of the Kawung fruit branches, when cut off for the purpose of getting the toddy, as it is thought that they draw out the frothy juice or snot which first comes out, and which will not boil to sugar.
Kill Suchi, daughter of Déwa Kusuma, a sovereign of Eastern Java in the commencement of the 10th. century. She was the oldest of the family and remaining unmarried, performed a conspicuous part in the transactions of those days. To her is also ascribed the construction of the temples of Singa Sari. She was aunt to the celebrated Panji. The reason of her never marrying was that she was not after the habit of other women; which her name expresses. Kili, C. 125 the menstrual flux. Suchi, C. 745, white, clean, cleansed, purified. Thus clean of the flux, or free from it. The scene of her adventures is connected with Kĕdiri. Raffles Vol. 2. Page 88. Kili Suchi wished to sacrifice herself on the funeral pile of her parents , but it was not permitted her so to do. Raffles Vol. 2 Page 77.
Kilungan, to pretend ignorance, to pretend not to know.
Kimpĕl, thick or ropy as liquids. Hard or set, as anything which has been melted, melted, such as fat, wax or the like. Congealed, coagulated.
Kimpul, a small kind of Talĕus, or Arum esculentum.
Kimput, name of a vegetable planted in the humahs.
Kinchang, name of bambu outriggers for a boat, to prevent its upsetting.
wikt:kinchir|Kinchir]], the native spinning wheel.
King, a form of ing, of —— which in composition, when coming after a vowel, assumes an initial k or n, and becomes king or ing. Jaba sa king lafal, without, or not found in the text. Hadé ning paré, good for paddy (when growing). (Saking, means from, by. I suppose king is no word by it self, but Saka-ing which becomes sakeng, sangkeng and saking. Fr.)
Kingkilapan, Musaenda glabra, a shrub with white floral leaf; the flower is red. Also called Wurungan which see- the kilap in this word denotes the glitter of the white floral leaf among the others which are green.
Kingkip, a variety of orange tree with very small fruit like a berry; much used as a preserve by the Chinese. Triphasia Trifoliata.
Kipas, a fan for fanning the person. A fanner for winnowing. To fan, to winnow.
Ki-pĕuhĕur, name of a jungle tree, otherwise called Kihiang, see Pĕuhĕur. From the astringent and harsh nature of the bark, it becomes one of the chief ingredients in making a certain preparation with wood ashes to intoxicate fish, or render them senseless. See Nua and Tuba.
Kipsau, Chinese, a pipkin, a small earthenware pot for boiling water.
Kira, to think, consider, take thought; suppose, conjecture, guess. (Jav. Mal. id.)
Kira-kira, computation, estimate; with moderation, discreetly; to be guided by circumstances. Perhaps, about.
Kirabkĕn, to shake and pull out the short and dirty pieces from straw or long grass, so as to get the long stems clean and fit for thatch &c. &c. (Kirab Jav. to shake out Malay, to shake off.)
Kirai, a Palm tree which in the Moluccos and straits of Malacca gives the Sago of commerce. In Java its leaves aae extensively used for Ataps or thatch , for which purpose it is often much planted in swamps. One variety is Lagus, another Metroxylon.
Kirim, to send, to dispatch. To entrust, to recommend to any one's care. (Jav. Mal. id.)
Kiruh, dirty and muddy as water, turbid. Chai na kiruh, the water is turbid.
Kisa, a small basket made of Palm leaves matted together, generally to hold fruit, cucumbers or the like.
Ki-sa1ira, name of a tree, Acronychia Arborea.
Kisas, clear, on which no claim can be made.
Kisi, the small spindles or spools on which thread is wound.
Kismis, raisins, dried grapes. Persian Kishmish (Marsden Page 155).
Kitab, Arabic, a book. Alkitab, the book, viz. the koran. (كِتَابٌ.) Ki-tahi, name of a tree, the wood of which has a very fetid odour. Sapresma arborea Name of a creeper with stinking leaf.
Ki-téjé, the wild jungle cinnamon tree. Cinnamomum Javanicum.
Ki-tinggi, a kind of Centipede with black body, but red belly and feet.
Kitri, an ancient right, an inherited right.
Kitu, in that way, kitu éta so is it, so it must be. Kitu kahayang aing such is my desire; Kitu bai hadé, in that way is also good.
Ki-tuwa, name of a shrub, Leea Sambucina, vide Tuwa.
Ki-urat-urat, Pantago Asiatica, name of a ribbed grass resembling similar ones in Europe, grows in mountainous cool situations. Urat means sinew. Called in Malay Kuping manjangan, deer's ears.
Ki-wari, now, at the present moment. Also Ti kiwari.
Kiyas, a separation of man and wife for a short time, with a view to recover rĕpok.
Kiyo, in this way, such. Déngékĕn kiyo parentak na, Listen such are his orders.
Kling, a country on the coast of Coromandel; the coast of Coromandel generally called Kalinga, C. 113 extending from Cuttack to Madras. The people of Kling had great intercourse with the Archipelago before the arrival of Europeans, and by their means formerly, no doubt the produce of these countries reached Europe.
Klir, name of a range of mountains on the western boundary of the territory of Jugjokarta, west of the river Progo. It is thus called after a frontage of limestone rock, in the neighbourhood of the Coffee stores at Sumpĕl, which as seen from the Capital of Jugjo, has the appearance of the Screen, behind which the Wayang is exhibited, called by the Javanese Klir or Kĕlir. Tijdschrift voor Taalkunde, Jaargang 1- afl: 2. The Klir hills were no less a screen in days of old behind which the Brahmins in Bagalen had enshrined themselves.
Klontong, a Chiuese hawker or pedlar.
Koas, a runner which yields a pod containing beans.
Koas Kujang, a large variety of the above.
Kobak, pitch penny, or pitch doit, throwing coin into holes in the ground for a wager.
Kobar, in small squares, a pattern, looking as if disposed in squares.
Kobét, to tear or scratch with the paw, as a cat or tiger does.
Kobokan, a basin or bowl to wash the lingers in at meals; a finger glass.
Kochak, arrogant, self-conceited, boastful, overbearing.
Kochok, to shake a vessel containing a liquid, to shake up in a vessel, as a liquid in a bottle. (Jav. Kochak and Kochok idem.)
Kockolok, to shake up in a vessel, as liquid in a bottle. (Derived from Kochok.)
Kockorkĕn, to let water flow, to cause to flow, as by opening a sluice. Chai gĕus di kochorkĕn ka sawah, the water has been run upon the Sawahs.
Kodali, a bridle for a horse. (Jav. Batav. Kĕndali.)
Kodék, to scrape or scratch with the finger nail.
Kodi, a corge, anything counted or sold by 20 pieces.
Kodok, to grope with the hand; to feel for with the hand without being able to see.
Kodokan, earth trampled down and made miry by any animals, especially by buffaloes. A Buffaloe slough.
Kohkol, a joint of bambu with a longitudinal opening or slit, hung up in the wind, with a short piece of stick so arranged, that when it moves, it strikes the hollow and slit bambu, and makes a report which serves to frighten pigs or monkeys away from growing paddy or other cultivated plants.
Kohok, a peacock, so called from its cry when it gets up into trees; vide Mĕrak.
Koirkěn, to rake or pull away along the ground with any instrument, especially with a pachul.
Koja, a bag of net work carried by the Sunda people slung over the shoulder, in which all kinds of small matters are stuffed.
Koja, a Mohammedan of continental India, not an Arab. (خَو١جَه. Khawǎja, Persian, sapiens; senior; herus.)
Kojor, a bundle of palm sugar consisting of five Bungkus or packets. These five are tied up with split bambu and string, and form a long narrow roll.
Kojor, dead. A vulgar expression, and implies contempt for the person of whom it is said.
Koki, a cook, derived from the Dutch Kok = a Cook.
Kokod, the paw, the hand, the fist. The handle of anything. When used to designate a hand, it implies an indignity put upon the person who owns the hand.
Kokodén, Chintz and prints which are sold by the Kodi or corge. Printed cottons generally.
Kokolotěn, freckles on the face.
Kokoprok, a bit of bambu, generally a couple of joints so connected with a bit of wood suspended over a stream of running water, that it gets constantly jerked up and down, and so makes a noise, by knocking upon a stone placed for the purpose, to drive away wild animals from growing paddy.
Kokoro, poor, needy, indigent. (Jav. Kuru, Mai. Kurns, thin, meager.)
Kokoro, name of a Scitamcnefbus plant, something like Laja-goa.
Kokos, to gnaw, to munch at, to corrode.
Kokosan, a fruit tree with very hard wood. A variety of Lansium.
Kol, the Dutch word kool, cabbage.
Koldi, supposed to be the forbidden fruit of Paradise. Some fruit which is not indigenous to Java, but not ascertained what it really is.
Kolé, tho wild plantain, Musa Trogloditarum.
Koléar, to fall from a height, to descend from on high.
Koléchér, a fiz-gig or wind-mill set near humahs or Sawahs. The natives take a great deal of interest in this play thing and are fond of having it near their growing paddy, which growing during the north - west monsoon, there is always plenty of wind to drive it.
Kolék, a small sailing prow or boat used at sea near the shore.
Kolĕk, to boil Walu, or any fruit with sugar and so make an agreeable dish.
Kolélét, another name for Karét, the Ficus Elastica who produces the Gum Elastic.
Kolombéran, a pool of water under the steps of a native house.
Kolomod, covered with mud and dirt. Dirty about the mouth from eating anything.
Kolong, the space below any object, especially when open. Imah kolong, a house built upon posts, with an open space under it. (Known at Batavia. Means commonly corner, place beneath.)
Kolong imah, the open space below a native's house which stands on posts.
Kolong méja, the open space under a table.
Kolong pĕdati, the open space under a cart.
Kolosod, slipped or glided down. Descenling with impetus.
Kolot, old; ripe, mature, strong in substance, not diluted; become consistent, used up, expended. Baris kolot, of the number or quality of old men; the elders. Buwah na geus kolot, the fruit is ripe, of full age, mature. Tahĕuran gula gĕus kolot the boiling of sugar has got consistence. Paré na duwit na kolot his paddy and money are expended.
Kolotkĕn, to shove in up to the hilt; to insert anything still further into its place; to shove an implement still deeper in. To expend, to use up.
Kolotok, a wooden bell hung to the neck of a buffaloe, by the sound of which it can easily be traced in the jungle.
Komboi, hairy, having long shaggy hair, as an animal. Hanging in a fringe.
Kombong, a bed chamber, a place of retirement.
Kombongan, an enclosure made with nets &c in a river; an opening is left, and a man on watch shuts this opening, by pulling up a bit of net, which has hitherto laid upon the ground, as soon as he perceives any fish stray into the enclosure.
Komĕd, I d'ont know, without my knowledge.
Komo, the more, more especially; said of anything which is beyond one's reach or controul. Aing to bisa, sia komo I am not able, what chance have you. Komo tĕuyn mĕunang, It is quite out of the question my getting it.
Kompa, a water wheel for turning a mill. Probably a corruption of the Dutch word Pomp, pump.
Kompés, to examine in order to elicit evidence or the truth, to cross question, to take to task. To inveigle in conversation.
Komprang, said of trousers. Chĕlana komprang, long and wide trousers reaching to the ankles, such as worn by Europeans. (Used at Batavia, also by natives.)
Kondang, a variety of fig-tree. Ficus Subracemosa. Kondé, the hair of women tied up in a neat round bunch on the top of the head. Kondé C. 143 the bunch or knot in which the Singhalese tie up their hair. (Kânda, a stalk, a stem; a cluster, a shrub. Scr. The kondé of the women is perhaps so called, because it resembles a cluster. Fr.)
Kondor, having a swollen scrotum.
Konéas, yellowish. A contraction of the words konéng, yellow, and péas, pale.
Konéng, yellow. (Jav. Mai. Kuning.)
Konéng, Turmeric, Curcuma. Konéng is the specific name for a great variety of plants, which may be called Turmerics. They are called Tému in Malay, which word is also occasionally heard in Sunda, vide voce. The konéngs are known for some peculiarity inflavour, and are used extensively either economically or medicinally. The following are the most common.
Konéng Gĕdé or Kikonéng, big turmeric, grows wild in open grass land.
„ Hidĕung, black turmeric.
„ Lalab, the Greens turmeric; from being used as a vegetable.
„ Puti, the white turmeric.
„ Santĕn, used in dying.
„ Tĕmĕn, or the true turmeric of commerce, and called also Kunyir.
„ Tinggang, a variety with unpleasant smell, used in dying.
„ Warangan, Arsenic turmeric, from deep yellow colour, used in dying.
Konéng tungtung, yello wended, said of paddy which begins to turn ripe.
Kong'ang, of force in law.
Kongkoh, separately, distinctly, as well as some one else. Kongkoh bai niĕun kĕbon, separately making a garden.
Kongkol, to plot with another. To take council with another to do something wrong. (Bat. Is perhaps the Dutch konkelen, of the same meaning. Fr.)
Kongkolakan, the orifice or opening in the skull where the eye is placed.
Kongkolong'ok, to crow as a cock.
Kongkon, to give an order to do something; to issue orders. (Jav. Kongkon and kéngkén.)
Kongkong'ok, to crow as acock. Kongkong'ok kotok, cock crow -an early hour in the morning before it is light.
Kongkorak, a wooden bell hung round a buffalee's neck, called also Kolotok.
Kongkorong, a kind of bracelet worn by children.
Kongkorong'ok , to crow as a cock.
Kongsi, Chinese, a commercial association. The uniting of several persons for some mutual object. The house where such meetings are held. The dwelling and office of a government farmer or of a Chinaman conducting any business, which, however, generally refers to conducting government pachts er farms.
Konjara, a cage, a place of confinement, a prison. Perhaps a corruption of Panjaraya, C. 350, a cage, an aviary, a dove cot. Marsden gives Panjara, Page 231 as Persian which is Pĕnjrah a cage, a place of confinement, a prison. Kontan, the Dutch word Kontant: ready money, money down, for cash.
Kontol, the testicles.
Kontol anjing, name of a plant.
Kontol munding, a variety of fig tree. Ficus Macrocarpa.
Konyal, a creeper which climbs up old trees in old forests and has numerous blood red fruits of size of eggs, dispersed along the stem.
Kop, the idiomatic expression for eating, of putting into the mouth. Ari kop kana kéjo, and when I took a mouthful of rice. Kop di hakan, and putting it in his mouth, eat it.
Kopak, a wooden sheath for an Arit. It is worn at the back and is a bit of wood about 7 or 8 inches square, and a couple of inches thick, cut out so as to admit the arit being stuck in and worn at the back fast with a string round the loins.
Kopi, coffee, evidently derived from the Dutch Koffij. Coffea arabica. (Arab. قهوة, Kahwâ.)
Kopi alas, Coffee gardens planted in a forest where the original large trees are left standing.
Kopi děngklung, name of a tree properly called Kapiděngklung, which see.
Kopia, a skull cap, such as worn by Moormen.
Kopo, name of a tree. Myrtus speciosa.
Kopo lalai, name of a fruit tree. Jambosa Hypericifolia.
Koran, Arabic, the Sacred book of Islam or of the Mohammedans. (قرأن, Qurânon.)
Korban, Arabic, offering, sacrifice. A goat or buffalo killed with religious ceremony and eaten in commemoration of some deceased person. (قربان, Qurbân, what is offered to god; a sacrifice. Fr.)
Koréd, to clean or scrape away weeds with an iron instrument. The iron instrument so called, being a small blade with a shaft hole set at an angle to the blade.
Koréhan, to scratch and examine; to tease out; to elicit. To scratch.
Koréjat, to jump up suddenly, starting on your feet.
Korék, to scratch, to poke with any instrument and draw out. To scrape. To devise all manner of means to inculpate a person.
Korék Kachang, to dig the ground nut, which is done first by ploughing it up, and by people then scratching out the nuts from the loose earth.
Koréng, a scab or ichorous wound or eruption on the skin.
Korét, unwilling to give anything; close fisted.
Korma, Persian, the Date palm, Phoenix dactylifera. Dates, the fruit of a Palm tree imported from Persia- Khurma, Persian.
Korod, a small variety of rattan, grows bushy and low, and sometimes almost impedes progress through old forests, as it is very full of prickles.
Korohok, split and pecked by birds, said of fruit or vegetables such as cucumbers &c.
Koromod, covered with dirt, splashed with mud, as the hands and body after work. Same as Kolomod. Koromong, a variety of round metal instrument belonging to the gamĕlan.
Koronchong, hollow armlets. Bracelets, armlets or little brass bells tied about the ankles of children , which give a small tinkling sound.
Korosokan, said of paddy not evenly ripening, especially in new made Sawahs which are of inferior value. Korosokan is where some ears are ripe whilst others are only partly so, even only just forming.
Kosara, a rope made of Buffaloe hide.
Kosen, valliant, daring. (Used at Batavia.)
Kosok, to rub, to scrub, to polish. (Mai. Batav. Gosok idem.)
Kosong, empty, void, vacant, unoccupied. Omong kosong , empty talk, talk which has no real meaning- nonsensical talk. (Malay, Batavian, idem.)
Kosta, properly the coast of Coromandel. The word is the Portuguese Costa. Kain kosta, or often simply kosta, a variety of printed cloth. Chaw kosta, a variety of plantain.
Kota, a fort, a strong hold. Kuta, C. 127- a fort, a stronghold. Kota is the name by which the chief towns in Java are designated in their neighbourhood. Daik ka kota, I want to go to (the fort) Batavia. (Scr. Kuta and Kutî)
Kotak and Kotakan, a square or division of a Sawah, on which the water can be evenly distributed; a compartment; a garden bed.
Kotak, a pyramidical medicine chest, consisting of a sort of small chest of drawers.
Kotba, arabic Khutbat, an oration pronounced in the mosque on Fridays, or at the Labaran on the conclusion of the Fasting month, (Arab. خُطْبَةً, Khutbat.)
Kotok, a fowl; the common domestic cock or hen.
Kotor, dirty, both physically and morally, impure. (Batavian idem.)
Koyan, a weight of 27 Piculs at Batavia, 28 at Samarang, and 30 at Sourabaya.
Krama, a word frequent in the composition of proper names. The high or polite dialect of the Javanese language is called Krama , in contradistinction to Ngoko which is rough or vulgar. Krama, C. 151 order, method, a degree, power, strength; an overcoming, subduing, surpassing; a sacred pecept, a religious practice.
Krang, small shell fish, as cockles, muscles &c. These shells are often found imbedded in limestone rock or tufaceous strata.
Kranjang, a basket, a hamper. (Jav. Mai. idem.)
Kranji, name of a tree, Dialium Indum-gives a small black shelled fruit which is eaten. Good tough substantial timber.
Kras, severe, rigorous, impetuous. (Jav. Batav. Malay Kěras and Kras, strong, heavy, severe, impetuous.)
Kras-tulang, name of a plant , of which the natives amongst the mountains drink a decoction by way of a tea. Chloranthus Inconspicuus.
Kréhkél, gravel, pebbles, such as is laid upon roads.
Krésa, pleasure, will, delight. Krésa nu gědé, the pleasure of great men. Krésa ning Allah, the will of God. (Cannot be anything else than Karasa. See Karasan.) Kréta, a carriage, a coach, a cart on European wheels. Karatté, C. 108. any kind of wheeled carriage. (Prof. T. Roorda derives the word from the Portuguese Carreto. Fr.)
Kris, the well known Malay weapon or dagger of this name.
Krisna, a Hindu god. Clough gives at Page 153 the following account. Krisna or more properly Krishna. In Hindu mythology Krishna is considered the most celebrated form of Vishnu, or rather Vishnu himself; in that form he is, however, distinct from the 10 avatars or incarnations of Vishnu, being always with the deity himself. One of the names of Arjuna the charioteer of the Sun.
Kromong, a metal instrument to be beat, belonging to the gamelan. (See Koromong.)
Krosi, arabic, a chair, a stool. (كرسي Kursi.)
Ku, with, by- Béak ku bědul, destroyed by the pigs. Ku aing, I will take it. Ku batur, taken by my companions.
Kuah, gravey, juice, sauce, broth.
Kuběr, to stir up a water or liquid, into which some substance has been thrown, so as to mix the whole thoroughly. (Jav. Kěbur idem.)
Kuchai, shalots, a variety of small onion planted in humahs.
Kuchěl, faded and soiled. Anything which from much use has lost its freshness.
Kuchubung, the barrel of a gun, the bore of a gun.
Kuchubung, name of a plant. Datura metel and ferox; the thorn apple. Dhuttura, C. 302, the thorn apple, stramonium. It is a shrubby plant with deeply indented leaves; bears a round pod or seed cell, one inch in diameter, covered with blunt thorns, and contains a lot of small brown seeds which are given to Perkutut doves to clear their voices and make them sing; also given to Jangkriks, a kind of grasshopper to make them fight to death. For man it is considered a deadly poison, but in small quantities is mixed with adulterated opium to give it an unnatural stimulus.
Kuda, a horse. Kudra in Tamil, a horse.
Kuda, a denomination for some of the chiefs in old Javanese history. It is most probably Kuda, C. 128, small, little, diminutive, and thus indicating the younger, as it is still used in this sense in Ceylon. So Kuda Laléan, is the grandson of the celebrated Panji. (It means, I think, also in this title a horse, being a strong animal; cf. Kěbo, or Munding and Mahisha, a buffalo, further Punggawa, a bull, Lémbu id. and also Gaja, elephant, as titles of chiefs in Javanese and Balinese History. Fr.)
Kuda awéwé, a mare, a female horse.
Kuda bapa, a stallion, a father horse; a stallion kept for covering mares.
Kuda baralak, a cock-tailed horse; a horse with a stiff and rigid tail.
Kuda-kuda, two stout pieces of wood joined like an X, with a pole projecting from the middle. Such kuda-kuda are universally used by carpenters to lay their wood on which has to be squared, or worked up in any way. The tie beams or triangular supports of a house roof.
Kuda Sambrani, a Pegasus; a wonderful horse which can fly.
Kuda Si-dudul, the war steed of Ali, the son in law of Mohammed.
Kuděrang, to prepare green die for cloth.
Kuděrat, arabic, power, omnipotence; nature, disposition. Kuděratna the nature of its inherent disposition. (قُدْرَةٌ Qudrat, potentia, opulentia.)
Kudu, must, a matter of necessity. Kudu di béré, it must be given. Kudu bai di datangkěn it isnecessary that he should be made to come. (Kudu, Ngoko Kědah, Jav. it is absolutely necessary; to desire absolutely.)
Kudup, a flower-bud.
Kudus, arabic Al khuds- Holy, hallowed. Roh al kudus , the Holy Ghost. Al khudus, is the name for Jerusalem among the Arabs, (قُدْسٌ Quds, puritas, sanctitas; Hierosolyma.)
Kudus, name of a small native town Eastward from Samarang, where the Mohammedan power was established after the overthrow of Majapahit, and hence it got the name of- the Holy.
Kuéh, a cake, any pastry or mess made of rice-flour. (Used at Batavia.)
Kujang, a variety of iron chopper with crooked blade.
Kujurkěn, to direct, to point, to give a direction. Kujurkěn ngalér ngidul, lay it in the direction of North and South.
Kuk-kuk, the native expression used for calling a dog.
Kuku, nail, claw, hoof. (Jav. Mal. idem.)
Kukubluk, also sometimes called Kutuk-bluk, the owl, especially applied to the bird when heard in the night time. (Also Kukuk-bluk at Batavia.)
Kukuh, stanch, firm, stiff, holding well together; said of an animal, as a horse or a buffaloe, which is strong and compact. (Jav. idem.)
Kuku-hěulang, literally Hawk's claws, name of a shrub, a variety of wild mountain gambir: also called Kakait běusi; Uncaria.
Kukular, thread made from the fibres of the pine-apple leaf, waxed and fit for sewing.
Kukulu , a variety of mangga so called.
Kukumur, the slime on a fishe's body; the slippery matter on the body of a fish; the greasiness of a fresh caught fish.
Kukunchung, the feathers which stick up on the top of the head of a peacock or any bird; a topping. (Jav. Kunchung. Batav. Kunchung and Kĕkunchung, a bush of hair on the top of the head, worn by young female children.)
Kukuprak, to rouse amongst, to chase away, to knock about- to look strictly after; to beat the jungle for game.
Kukur, to rub down on a kukuran.
Kukuran, an instrument for rasping cocoanuts. A bit of iron with notches or teeth fixed to the end of a horse of wood, over which the cocoanuts, when split in two, are rasped
Kukuruyuk, to crow as a cock, to coo as a dove; hence a dove is called Tikukur. Seems to have a common origin with Kukula, C. 127, a cock.
Kukus, to burn incense to heathen or imaginary divinities. To distil.
Kukut, to bring up the infant of another person; to act as parents to a helpless child. To take care of the young of any animal which has died or disappeared leaving its off-spring helpless. To foster, to nurse, to cherish.
Kula, I, the personal pronoun of the first person. It is neither the highest nor the lowest designation of self, and is thus the most general in use among equals, and conveys an idea of deference to the person addressed. The use of Aing places the speaker above the person addressed, and hiring below him. Kula, C. 132 a family, race, tribe or caste. May this word have been adopted by the Sundas as a personal pronoun, thereby designating one of the same caste or family, see Aing, and hence the idea, which it still conveys of some degree of equality, although of deference to the party addressed.
Kulak, a measure in which the priest receives the Pitrah or Labaran dues. See Pitrah. This measure ia exclusively confined to this operation; about three Kulak's are one Gantang.
Kulat, semen virile, et etiam lubricatio feminis.
Kulěm, to sleep, asleep; a very elegant and refined expression.
Kuli, a paid labourer, as contradistinguished from one who gets nothing, bat has to work feudal service; generally called throughout India- a cooly. Kuli, C. 133. hire, wages.
Kulikěn, to do any work with paid labourers.
Kulia, entire, every where. Sa kuliah dunya, the entire world. Sa kuliah jagat, through-out the whole land.
Kuliling, around, turning round and round, around and about without having any apparent occupation.
Kulilingan, to surround, to encompass, to work round.
Kulinchir, circular marks, or disposition of the hair either in man or animals. From the kulinchir natives pretend to draw omens, or form an opinion of the merits of a horse or of a buffaloe.
Kulisik, to turn the body, to get up, to arise from sleeping.
Kulisik-kulisik, moving gently or making a small noise, as of a person or animal moving stealthily.
Kulit, skin, hide, leather; bark, rind, husk, shell. Kulit jélěma, a man's skin. Kulit kěbo, a buffalce hide. Kulit asak, cooked hide- leather. Kulit kayu, bark of a tree. Kulit buwah, rind or husk of fruit. Kulit pinyu, tortoise shell.
Kulon, the west. It appears to be compounded of the word Hulu head, as Ka-hulu-an, by a familiar process is contracted into Kulon. From this we must infer that the word had its origin in Java; and it is not a little odd that the West-end of Java should have received from European navigators the name of Java Head. See Barat. (It is also Malay, Javan. and Balinese.)
Kulop, the foreskin, the prepuce derived from the Arabic Ghulf, of same import. (Arab. قلفة and غلفة Qulfat, Ghulfat, praeputium.)
Kulub, to boil, to cook in hot water.
Kulumud, the soft eatable pulp of a fruit, which surrounds a stone or kernel, such as the Rambutan.
Kulur, name of a tree, Artocarpus Incisa, called in Malay Kluwi and Timbul.
Kulutuk, one of the names of a variety of plantain of which the fruit is not eatable, but the leaves sought for and used as wrappers. Vide Chaw.
Kumaha, how? in what way? what is the matter; what do you want. Kumaha daik hadé, how can it be good, or right? Sa kumaha harga na, what is the price of it? Kumaha pihadéan nana, how shall we act in order to have matters right. Sia manan lumpat kadiyo kumaha, what is the matter that you come running here.
Kuman, a small fine animalcule, adhering to the skin and causing itching; an atom, a minute particle.
Kumat, a relapse of disease; confirmed illness. (Jav. Kumat, to be sick and well by rotation.)
Kumbah, to wash, to cleanse with water. The etymon of this word is Bah, which does not occur alone, in Sunda, but in Malay, Marsden P. 57 is- „a flood, an inundation”. The Bah has the usual preposition Ka before it, elided with um implying a frequent repetition of the act (Jav. idem.)
Kuměli, name of a lowly plant with crenulated leaves, which is planted and produces a small potatoe. Plectranthus Tuberosum of the family of Labiatae, also palled Coleus Tuberosus.
Kumis, mustachios. The hair growing on the upper lip. (Mal. idem.)
Kumisi, said of paddy when it is about to shoot the ear of grain. Literally- like a kisi or spinning wheel spindle. (Cf. Jav. Mal. Isi, the contents; to fill.)
Kumpai, the fine straggling, dangling, long offsets of the roots of such trees as grow on the moist banks of water.
Kumpani, The European government; the Dutch government. Derived from the East India Company. Paréntah kumpani, a Government order. Kapal kumpani, a Government ship, a man of war. Gawé kumpani, to work for the Company or Government, to do feudal service. This is the name by which the feudal service on private Estates is known. The services of a man for one day in seven being at the disposal of the land owner. Orang kumpani, a person who is performing feudal service.
Kumpul, to collect, to gather, to assemble, to accumulate. (Mal. Jav. idem.)
Kumpul, a small sized gong for collecting guests, or giving notice that an entertainment is preparing. (Certainly the same word as the preceding Fr.)
Kumusut, entangled, in confusion. A kind of plural of kusut, and means kusut, only in a superlative degree. Kun, said of anything which belongs to a question of religion which is not clearly understood.
Kunaun, why, for what reason, why not? composed of Ku with, and naun, what. Kunaun aing to di béjakěn, why did you not let me know?
Kunchi, a key, a lock, a bolt. Kunchika, C. 126- a key. Lawang kudu di kunchian, the door mast be locked, or bolted. (Jav. Mal. idem.)
Kunchianak, a fabulous spectre said to haunt women in child-birth, or with small infants at the breast. This spectre is thought to often mysteriously destroy both mother and child. It is sometimes heard pronounced as Kunti beranak, the ber before anak betraying it, in that form, to be a Malay expression. The Malays may have made of Kunti hana, Kunchianak, by misunderstanding the meaning of the words, and adopting expressions of their own of nearly the same sound. Kunti, C. 129 is the wife of Pandu, and mother of the five Pandawa princes by as many gods, and from her and her children this Javanese spectre appears to have its origin. Hana, C. 785, to hurt, to injure, to kill, and hence Hanaka or Hanaki would be a male or female destroyer, elided into Kunti-hana, or Kunti the destroyer. The Malays have evidently seized upon the resemblance of Hanak, to their own Beranak, to bring forth young, and so the expression has got currency in the Indian Archipelago. The Pandawa Princes were killed in the wars, as related in the Mahabarat. (They killed rather their enemies, and retired afterwards into the solitude. Fr.)
Kundur, a gourd, a variety of large Calabash.
Kungkang, name of an insect called in malay Balang Sang'it the stinking fly. When touched it voids a very nauseous liquid. It is a great enemy of young paddy when just forming from the flower, and when still in a soft liquid milky state, as the insect then inserts its proboscis into each grain and sucks out the contents, thus often destroying whole corps. (The Sundanese eat these animals! Fr.)
Kungkung, to make a dam of earthwork filled in between two wooden fences. The Kungkungs of such a dam are more properly the cross bars which hold the opposite sides of the fence from flying asunder. A bit of bambu or wood set in an arch.
Kungkung, to tie as a dog, with a bit of bambu over the rope, by which it is led, to prevent its getting at the man who leads it, to bite. To bend bambus round a stake to retain it in its place and prevent its giving way.
Kungkung, the sound of a gong struck at distinct intervals.
Kungkuwung, the Rainbow, probably refering to its arched shape.
Kungsi, going to the extent of, going as far as. Kungsi kabikěun, did you go as for as giving it. Kungsi datang, did he go to, the extent of coming. Mohal kungsi, it will not require to go to that extent. To kungsi kahakan, I did not get as far as to eat it. (Jav. Kongsi, Kangsi, Kasi, till to, as far as.)
Kuning, yellow, more usually Konéng. Much used in composition, Kěmbang kuning, yellow flower, the name of a village so called on the Jasinga Estate.
Kuntul, a white bird of the heron kind, Ardea Egretta, common in new ploughed Sawahs; disappears during the dry monsoon.
Kunyir, turmeric, Curcuma; also called Konėng Těměn, the real turmeric.
Kunyu, a monkey, a name of endearment.
Kupa, name of a tree and fruit; Jambosa cauliflora.
Kupa landak, name of a tree; Flacourtia sapida.
Kupang, name of the old Chinese coins formerly in use in Java, with a square hole in the middle. Also called Pichis. The word is most frequently heard in Bantam, where the Chinese traded before the arrival of Europeans. Limang kupang, 500 such coins or about the value of two guilders. (Called Pichis, Pitis, Pipis at Bali. Five hundred would be limang atus Pitis. Fr.)
Kupat, rice boiled to a sort of paste and put up in young Cocoa nut leaves, matted into a fourcornered case; used much to carry on journeys. (Jav. idem. Batav. Katupat.)
Kuplok-képlok, the splash of water less than waves; the chop of the sea.
Kuprak, the act of rousing amongst, of knocking about, of looking narrowly after.
Kupu-kupu, a butterfly, a moth.
Kupu-kupu, name of a bush with handsome flowers: Pterisanthes Cissoides.
Kura, a tortoise. Occurs as a designation in Pantuns, Sangkura, the mystic tortoise of which sometimes wonderful stories are told. The large land tortoise sometimes imported from countries beyond Java, is called Kura. (Scr. Kûrma, a tortoise, a turtle?)
Kura-an, Arabic, the Koran; the sacred book of the Mahomedans. (See Koran).
Kura-an, to rince, to wash out as a bottle. (Jav. Kurah, to rince the mouth.)
Kurabu, ear-rings. (See Karabu.)
Kurai, Celtis orientalis, name of a tree. It is said that the Chinese burn this wood for charcoal to make gunpowder.
Kuramas, to wash the hair of the head with burnt paddy straw by way of a lie. To wash the hair with any ingredients which yield a lather, as with Ki-cha-ang which see. The natives all kuramas or cleanse the hair of the head in this way, at the end of the Puasa or fasting month and just before the Labaran. (Jav. Kramas idem.)
Kurang, to want, be short, deficient, wanting. Kurang chai, wanting water. Kurang luhur, wanting in height. Kurang perchaya, wanting in confidence. (Jav. Mal. idem.)
Kurang'an, to reduce, to take from, to diminish.
Kurap, a scorbutic humour, a totter, a ringworm. Daun kurap, name of a plant, Acacia Alata. In Malay, Marsden 22 Urap is to anoint, to daub over. Perhaps our kurap is so named from spreading over the surface of the skin; and in that case the Sunda has the derived word, without having retained tho root. (Mal. idem. Jav. Korep.)
Kurěn, a family; man, wife and children.
Kurěnan, married, having wife and children. Or when said of a woman — having a husband. Kuriang, name of a personage in ancient native lore, called mostly Sang kuriang. Perhaps Kuru hyang, from kuru, C. 131, a bud, a bow, a tortoise; thus the supernatural Tortoise god. Or Kura, C. 131, a dwarf, a pigmý; any male animal stinted in its growth. Sang kura hyang, the supernatural dwarfgod.
Kuring, I the personal pronoun; used by an inferior to a superior, and is a very humble designation of self. (Perhaps from Ku = Aku, I, with addition of ring, in. Fr.)
Kuripan, name of a private Estate, South from Batavia. The ancient name of the present Grobogan, in the residency of Samarang; derived from hurip, living, thriving, prosperous. Ka-hurip-an the place of thriving or prosperity.
Kuris, the small pox, variola. Tukang kuris, the man who vaccinates.
Kurog, a pretty brown coloured bird, size of a dove.
Kuru, lean, thin, meager. (See above Kokoro.)
Kuruchuk, a pole or straight thin piece of wood; a stake for a fence.
Kurung, to confine, to shut up, imprison; to enclose, to include. (Jav. Mal. id.)
Kurungan, a cage, a coop, a place of confinement. Kuda kurungan, a stall horse kept in a Kadogan, as distinguished from one which always runs loose.
Kurunyung, sneaking out into view; coming leisurely along. Kurunyung bai bijil, and he came out leisurely into view.
Kurupuk, the thick hide of the neck of some animals, especially of deer or buffaloes, which is scraped clean, and then roasted or burnt for eating; much relished by the natives.
Kurusuk, to sneak or creep about any tangled thicket, as the jungle, in the way a tiger does, or as a man who is hiding himself.
Kurusukap, to walk into or through the jungle; to struggle or make your way through any tangled jungle.
Kusar, the zodiacal sign Sagittarius. (ألقوس al-Kaus, the bow, used in the Indian way as a zodiacal sign en lieu of Sagittarius; the Greek sign Sagittarius is also known to the Arabs under the name of Al-Rámì الرامي, the bowman. Fr.)
Kusial, jumping out inter view, coming suddenly in sight.
Kusuma, a warrior, a brave man, a hero; a rebel, a man in arms against established government. Kusuma , C. 134, a flower in general, and hence has been applied in Java to represent men. Dewá kusuma, the flower of the gods; the name of a prominent hero of old Javanese romance; he flourished in the early part of the 10th. century A. D. and sent his children to continental India to be educated. Raffles Vol 2 Page 88. He was the grandfather of the celebrated Panji.
Kusut, entangled, perplexed, confused, intricate. (Mai. Batav. idem.) Kuta, a fort, a fortified place, a stronghold; a walled town. Kuta. C. 127, a waterpot; a house; a mountain; a fort, a stronghold; a hammer. Ngadangdangan kuta, building a fort. Kutang, a short jacket without sleeves, but buttoning down the front like a European's waistcoat. (Also a waistcoat of women, worn under the Kabaja, buttoned and covering the breast. Mal. id. Jav. Kotang. Fr.)
Kutél, foolish, daft
Kutil, a wart, an excrescence on the skin. (Jav. idem.)
Kutu, a louse; a flea; Kulu jélĕma, a louse on a human being, Pediculus. Kutu anjing, a flea on a dog. Kutu hayam, a flea on a fowl. In these two last senses, the Kutu is a Pulex. (Mal. idem. Jav. every kind of small animals. Gericke.)
Kutuk, a curse, damnation; Si kutuk the accursed one, the damned fellow. Kutuk Allah, the curse of God.
Kutuk-bluk, the owl, more frequently called Kukubluk.
Kutum, a bud, a flower bud.
Kutung, maimed so that the stump of leg, arm or finger remains. (Bat. idem.)
Ku-ud, Arabic, sitting, remaining in one place on of praying, (كُعُودٌ, Kuûd, the act of sitting.)
Ku-uk, a big full-grown Onggrét. Also the beetle which is often found among old horse or buffaloe dung: in this latter sense it is a Geotrupes.
Kuwali, name of a place in the Regency of Galu in Cheribon, where some ancient inscriptions have been found. The word will admit of the following solution. Ku C. 126 an indeclinable particle of deprecation, implying sin, guilt; reproach; contempt, meanness. Wali C. 628, wild, living in a forest. Ku-wali, a vile person living in the woods, say perhaps some unorthodox sage, who had retired to the solitude of the forest, and hence called sometimes Sanghyang Kuwali, as reported by Raden Saléh. Tijdschrift voor land- taal- en volkenkunde 1854 Jaargang 2 aflev. 2. Page 155, in the same way as Kuwéra which see. It may somewhat tend to confirm our acceptation of wali, living in the forest, that no temple or ruins of any buildings have been found near the inscribed stones. (But there has been a Kuta! Fr.)
Kuwĕng, a name given to the Oah monkey, being an imitation of its cry.
Kuwéra, C. 133 from Ku bad, vile, and wéra, body. The Indian Plutus, the god of wealth. The name of the deity alludes to his deformity, he being represented as having three- legs and only eight teeth. See Soma.
Kuwuk, a sea shell in some varieties. Cypraea and Oliva.
Kuwung-Kuwungan, the rainbow. Called also Kungkuwung. In Malay called Kung, Marsden Page 274.
Kuya, a fresh water turtle or tortoise, found in the inland rivers.Kuya-batu, a smaller variety of the above, in swampy places or on dry land.
Kuyuk, Iwung or young sprouts of Bambu, put in the water to soak before boiling
- for eating. The young bambu sprouts so soaked.
Kwali, a large pan for boiling in. A cauldron.
- Biri is no Scr. word; bhiru, means fearful, and the feminine a timid woman. The Scr. words for castrated mean having lost the testicles, they are according to Williams, English and Sanscrit dictionary, ch'hinnaivrishana, ch'hinnamûshka, mushkaqûnya. A Eunuch is called kliwa, which means the genus neutrum; he has besides a great deal of other names, which mean no man, a third superfluous being, a guardian of women. But none of these words resemble in form, or meaning to that of Kabiri (as given above in the text). We shall thus perhaps be obliged to seek for the origin elsewhere. Fr.
- The Dragon's tail is called Ketu in Sanscrit. Corruptions as from Kêtu into Kădu cannot be admitted in Javanese without a great deal of analogous cases. The only word to be brought forward in favour of Marsden and Crawfurd is Kuda, derived by Humboldt and others from Scr. ghota. But even this derivation is no more than a conjecture. The name self dragon's tail is not an كدو (Kĕdu) in Marsdens Malay dictionary leaves it uncertain if the e be long or short. In the first case we expect a ي after the ك; the latter case is very improbable, when the word is to be derived from Kêtu. After all I know from inscriptions a name Iwarahu, which must have been a place of notice in the northeastern part of Java- and it means like Rahu who is the upper part of the dragon, and always desirous to devour the sun or the moon. Fr. one, why should it have been given to such a fine, celebrated country? Kaduwa might be Khadga, on Java however such an alteration seems not to be admissible. We might find perhaps the Etymon of the word in any of the Polynesian languages. The writing
- (59) In Kawi it is kagiat; Jav. and Batavian kagêt; on a golden ring from Java kajêt; Malay kějut and another Javanese form is kějût. Fr.
- The original inhabitants of Borneo, d'ont know this name; only the Javanese, who conquered the southern parts, so far as the present Pontianak to the westward and the country of the king of Kuti to the eastward, could have given such a name to that part of the island they knew, and by the Malays, who were the successors in possession of the maritime parts of Borneo, the name might have been spread farther. I should prefer to consider the name Kalamantan (or Kalamantěn), originally certainly Kalamanta as a form of Kâlamat (in the stronger cases Kalamant) this means possessing Kâla, (the destroying deity). The a is added to save the stronger form, and the n might have been put to the word in a time, when the meaning of the word was no longer understood, and the ka considered as the common Polynesian prefix, which seemed to demand also the suffix an. It is true, that Sanskrit words ending in a should form possessive adjectives by the Suffix wat, but the Javanese troubled themselves never about the exact rule3 of Sanscrit grammar. Lengthened forms as vanta and manta exist in the languages derived from the Sanscrit As to the meaning, the Javanese certainly consideredt he inhabitants as possessing Kâla (Jama, death) for the reason of their unheard of barbarous manners , cutting heads from an ambush , eating human flesh (which some continue to do till now) and being devoid of all attributes of mankind. Fr.
- It might be the same as kalû, a division of time, about 8 seconds. Kali to Kalû would stand as arti to Scr. artha. Fr.
- The Sanscrit word kȃnda (with two cerebral letters) has besides other significations, for instance „a chapter of a book” also that of „opportunity, season”; yang will be nothing else than hyang, as explained in this dictionary sub voce, cf. Guriang, sang hyang, Kamalȃ hjang etc. Kȃnda (h)yang tani appears thus to be the goddess of season, of the just time (for working the field.) Tani means in Javanese and Balinese „the agriculturists, the country people” in opposition to the lazy people of the towns (něgara, nêgrȋ) who live with the princes and other great men. In the mouth of the country people means wong tani certainly a brave, honest, industrious man, but with the people of the towns it has rather the meaning of a brutal, not civilized fellow, who is only good to work for the prince and his innumerable attendants, who live all their days in idleness. Tanni in Scr. is not the same word, it means not a plant in general, but a peculiar kind of plant that can be of no particular use for the agriculturist. The comparison of this Scr. word our tani, (written only by the present Javanese tanni), by Prof. T. Roorda falls thus to the ground Fr.
- (63) Kârya is a participle of the future time in the Passivum, and means what is to be done (faciendum); it is at Bali mostly employed for religious festivals, and the feasting is rather considered as the secondary accessory thing. This word kârya, work, necessary business, (makârya to have such a business in hand), has been alterated in Malay into kěrja, the y being replaced by the cognate palatal sound, as is sometimes the case in Malay, in opposition to Javanese and Balinese. Kěrja means simply to work. Fr.
- Jav. Malay Katumbar. There is a very remarkable exchange between b en ch in Malay and Sundanese. See Changkudu to Mal. Bangkudu; Changkwang - Bangkwang. The letters B en Ch seeming to be very distant from each other, must have been considered or rather felt by the natives to be cognate. I know no Analogon of their exchange in other languages, who are cognate to each other, they are the one a Media the other a Tenuis of another class, Fr.
- Walu is the Kawi-form of wolu; it is written also wwalu. Kawalu might be also the eighth day of a month, the Hindu festivals being more commonly called after the day (of the white or black half) of the moon, on which they happen. This custom we find back on stone inscriptions of Java and Sumatra. The eighth day is indeed a holy-day, being the commencement of a new phase of the moon. Fr.
- Karabha Scr. A young Camel, or any young animal; a young Elephant. Also Kalabha. I
- On Bali the popular poetry is called Kidung, in contradistinction to the more honoured Kawi (kakawin); this shows that it is not originally Mohammedan, but existed already in Hindu times. The poor Javanese of the present day want to show themselves good Mohammedans, by referring their old property to the wholesome (!) introduction of the Islam. Bali alone and the inscriptions of Java give the measure of what originally belongs to the Archipel, and what has been introduced by the apostles of the Islam. The influence of the last has not gone till to the groundwork of religion, institutions and customs of Java. Fr.