Bhagavad-Gita (Besant 4th)/Discourse 17
अर्जुन उवाच ।
ये शास्त्रविधिमुत्सृज्य यजन्ते श्रद्धयाऽन्विताः ।तेषां निष्ठा तु का कृष्ण सत्त्वमाहो रजस्तमः ॥ १ ॥
Those that sacrifice full of faith, but casting aside the ordinances of the Scriptures, what is verily their condition, O Krishna? Is it one of Purity, Passion, or Darkness? (1)
त्रिविधा भवति श्रद्धा देहिनां सा स्वभावजा ।सात्त्विकी राजसी चैव तामसी चेति तां शृणु ॥ २ ॥
The Blessed Lord said:
Threefold is by nature the inborn faith of the embodied—pure, passionate, and dark. Hear thou of these. (2)
The faith of each is shaped to his own nature, O Bhârata. The man consists of his faith; that which his faith is, he is even that. (3)
Pure men worship the Gods; the passionate the gnomes and giants; the others, the dark folk, worship ghosts and troops of nature-spirits. (4)
The men who perform severe austerities, unenjoined by the Scriptures, wedded to vanity and egoism, impelled by the force of their desires and passions, (5)
Unintelligent, tormenting the aggregated elements forming the body, and Me also, seated in the inner body, know these demoniacal in their resolves. (6)
The food also which is dear to each is threefold, as also sacrifice, austerity and almsgiving. Hear thou the distinction of these. (7)
The foods that augment vitality, energy, vigour, health, joy and cheerfulness, delicious, bland, substantial and agreeable, are dear to the pure. (8)
The passionate desire foods that are bitter, sour, saline, over-hot, pungent, dry and burning and which produce pain, grief and sickness. (9)
That which is stale and flat, putrid and corrupt, leavings also and unclean, is the food dear to the dark. (10)
The sacrifice which is offered by men without desire for fruit, as enjoined by the ordinances, under the firm belief that sacrifice is a duty, that is pure. (11)
The sacrifice offered with a view verily to fruit, and also indeed for self-glorification, O best of the Bhâratas; know thou that to be of passion. (12)
The sacrifice contrary to the ordinances, without distributing food, devoid of words of power and without gifts, empty of faith, is said to be of darkness. (13)
Worship given to the Gods, to the twice-born, to the teachers and to the wise, purity, straightforwardness, continence and harmlessness, are called the austerity of the body. (14)
Speech causing no annoyance, truthful, pleasant and beneficial, the practice of the study of the Scriptures, are called the austerity of speech. (15)
Mental happiness, equilibrium, silence, self-control, purity of nature—these are called the austerity of the mind. (16)
This threefold austerity, performed by men with the utmost faith, without desire for fruit, harmonised, is said to be pure. (17)
The austerity which is practised with the object of gaining respect, honour and worship, and for ostentation, is said to be of passion, unstable and fleeting. (18)
That austerity done under a deluded understanding, with self-torture, or with the object of destroying another, that is declared of darkness. (20)
That alms given to one who does nothing in return, believing that a gift ought to be made in a fit place and time to a worthy person, that alms is accounted pure. (20)
That given with a view to receiving in return, or looking for fruit again, or grudgingly, that alms is accounted of passion. (21)
That alms given at unfit place and time, and to unworthy persons, disrespectfully and contemptuously, that is declared of darkness. (22)
"Aum Tat Sat," this has been considered to be the threefold designation of the Eternal. By that were ordained of old Brâhmanas, Vedas and sacrifices. (23)
Therefore with the pronunciation of "Aum" the acts of sacrifice, gift and austerity as laid down in the ordinances are always commenced by the knowers of the Eternal. (24)
With the pronunciation of "Tat" and without aiming at fruit are performed the various acts of sacrifice, austerity and gift, by those desiring liberation. (25)
"Sat" is used in the sense of reality and goodness; likewise, O Pârtha, the word "Sat" is used in the sense of a good work. (26)
Steadfastness in sacrifice, austerity and gift is also called "Sat", and action for the sake of the Supreme is also named "Sat." (27)
Whatsoever is wrought without faith, oblation, gift, austerity, or other deed, "Asat" it is called, O Pârtha; it is nought, here or hereafter. (28)
Thus in the glorious Upanishads of the Bhagavad-Gita, the science of the Eternal, the scripture of Yoga, the dialogue between Shrî Krishna and Arjuna, the seventeenth discourse, entitled:
THE YOGA OF THE DIVISION OF THREEFOLD FAITH.
- ↑ Shraddhâ.
- ↑ The three qualities, Sattva, Rajah, Tamah, are here used in their moral correspondences, and are therefore translated as Purity, Passion, and Darkness
- ↑ That is, the man's faith shows what is the man's character.
- ↑ Yakshas, gnomes, are the servants of the Lord of Wealth, i. e., are connected with metals; Râkshasas, giants, or Titans, are the gigantic inhabitants of Atlantis versed in magic and sorcery.
- ↑ Pretas, ghosts, are departed men; while Bhûtas, nature-spirits, are of a somewhat goblin-like type.
- ↑ Mantras.
- ↑ To the officiating priests.
- ↑ Gurus.
- ↑ Manah.
- ↑ Tat.