Elements of Chemistry (Lavoisier, tr. Kerr)
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ELEMENTS
OF
CHEMISTRY.
ELEMENTS
OF
CHEMISTRY,
IN A
NEW SYSTEMATIC ORDER,
CONTAINING ALL THE
MODERN DISCOVERIES.
ILLUSTRATED WITH THIRTEEN COPPERPLATES.
By Mr. LAVOISIER,
Member of the Academy of Sciences, Royal Society of Me
dicine, and the Agricultural Society of Paris, of the Royal
Society of London, and Philosophical Societies
of Orleans, Bologna, Basil, Philadelphia,
Haerlem, Manchester, &c. &c.
TRANSLATED FROM THE FRENCH,
By ROBERT KERR, F.R. & A.SS.E.
Member of the Royal College of Surgeons, and Surgeon
to the Orphan Hospital of Edinburgh.
EDINBURGH:
printed for WILLIAM CREECH, and sold in
london by g.g. and j.j. robinsons.
MDCCXC.
CONTENTS.
PART FIRST.  


ibid.  
26  
32  
43  
54  
Page 66  
78  
83  
97  
Combustion of Phosphorus,

100  
SECT. I.—Combustion of Charcoal,

101  
SECT. II.—Combustion of Hydrogen Gas,

102  
SECT. III.—Formation of Nitric Acid,

102  
SECT. IV.—Combustion of Wax,

105  
SECT. V.—Combustion of Olive Oil,

106  
CHAP. X.—Of the Combustion of Combustible Substances with each other,

109  
CHAP. XI.—Observations upon Oxyds and Acids with several Bases, and upon the Composition of Animal and Vegetable Substances,

115  
CHAP. XII.—Of the Decomposition of Vegetable and Animal Substances by the Action of Fire,

123  
CHAP. XIII.—Of the Decomposition of Vegetable Oxyds by the Vinous Fermentation,

129  
CHAP. XIV.—Of the Putrefactive Fermentation,

141  
CHAP. XV.—Of the Acetous Fermentation,

146  
CHAP. XVI.—Of the Formation of Neutral Salts, and of their Bases,

149  
SECT. I.—Of Potash,

Page 151  
SECT. II.—Of Soda,

155  
SECT. III.—Of Ammoniac,

156  
SECT. IV.—Of Lime, Magnesia, Barytes, and Argill,

157  
SECT. V.—Of Metallic Bodies,

159  
CHAP. XVII.—Continuation of the Observations upon Salifiable Bases, and the Formation of Neutral Salts,

161  
PART II.  
Of the Combinations of Acids with Salifiable Bases, and of the Formation of Neutral Salts,

175  
INTRODUCTION,

ibid.  
TABLE of Simple Substances,

175  
SECT. I.—Observations upon simple Substances,

176  
TABLE of Compound Oxydable and Acidifiable Bases,

179  
SECT. II.—Observations upon Compound Radicals,

180  
SECT. III.—Observations upon the Combinations of Light and Caloric with different Substances,

182  
TABLE of the Combinations of Oxygen with the Simple Substaces, to face

185  
SECT. IV.—Observations upon these Combinations,

Page 185  
TABLE of the Combinations of Oxygen with Compound Radicals,

190  
SECT. V.—Observations upon these Combinations,

191  
TABLE of the Combinations of Azote with the Simple Substanccs,

194  
SECT. VI.—Observations upon these Combinations of Azote,

195  
TABLE of the Combinations of Hydrogen with Simple Substanccs,

198  
SECT. VII.—Observations upon Hydrogen, and its Combinations,

199  
TABLE of the Binary Combinations of Sulphur with the Simple Substances,

202  
SECT. VIII.—Observations upon Sulphur, and its Combinations,

203  
TABLE of the Combinations of Phosphorus with Simple Substances,

204  
SECT. IX.—Observations upon Phosphorus and its Combinations,

205  
TABLE of the Binary Combinations of Charcoal,

207  
SECT. X.—Observations upon Charcoal, and its Combinations,

205  
SECT. XI.—Observations upon the Muriatic, Fluoric, and Boracic Radicals, and their Combinations,

209  
SECT. XII.—Observations upon the Combinations of Metals with each other,

219  
TABLE of the Combinations of Azote, in the State of Nitrous Acid, with the Salifiable Bases,

Page 212  
TABLE of the Combinations of Azote, in the State of Nitric Acid, with the Salifiable Bases,

213  
SECT. XIII.—Observations upon Nitrous and Nitric Acids, and their Combinations with Salifiable Bases,

214  
TABLE of the Combinations of Sulphuric Acid with the Salifiable Bases,

218  
SECT. XIV.—Observations upon Sulphuric Acid, and its Combinations,

219  
TABLE of the Combinations of Sulphurous Acid,

222  
SECT. XV.—Observations upon Sulphurous Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases,

223  
TABLE of the Combinations of Phosphorous and Phosphoric Acids,

225  
SECT. XVI.—Observations upon Phosphorous and Phosphoric Acids, and their Combinations with Salifiable Bases.

226  
TABLE of the Combinations of Carbonic Acid,

223  
SECT. XVII.—Observations upon Carbonic Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases,

219  
TABLE of the Combinations of Muriatic Acid,

231  
TABLE of the Combinations of Oxygcnatcd Muriatic Acid,

232  
SECT. XVIII.—Observations upon Muriatic and Oxygenated Muriatic Acid. and their Combinations with Salifiable Bases,

233  
TABLE of the Combinations of NitroMuriatic Acid,

Page 236  
SECT. XIX.—Observations upon Nitromuriatic Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases,

237  
TABLE of the Combinations of Fluoric Acid,

239  
SECT. XX.—Observations upon Fluoric Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases,

240  
TABLE of the Combinations of Boracic Acid,

242  
SECT. XXI.—Observations upon Boracic Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases,

243  
TABLE of the Combinations of Arseniac Acid,

246  
SECT. XXII.—Observations upon Arseniac Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases,

247  
SECT. XXIII.—Observations upon Molibdic Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases,

249  
SECT. XXIV.—Observations upon Tungstic Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases, and a Table of these in the order of their Affinity,

251  
TABLE of the Combinations of Tartarous Acid,

253  
SECT. XXV.—Observations upon Tartarous Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases,

254  
SECT. XXVI.—Observations upon Mallic Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases,

256  
TABLE of the Combinations of Citric Acid,

258  
SECT. XXVII.—Observations upon Citric Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases,

259  
TABLE of the Combinations of Pyrolignous Acid,

260  
SECT. XXVIII. —Observations upon Pyrolignous Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases,

Page 261  
SECT. XXIX.—Observations upon Pyrotartarous Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases,

ibid.  
TABLE of the Combinations of Pyromucous Acid,

263  
SECT. XXX.—Observations upon Pyromucous Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases,

264  
TABLE of the Combinations of Oxalic Acid,

265  
SECT. XXXI.—Observations upon Oxalic Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases,

266  
TABLE of the Combinations of Acetous Acid, to face

267  
SECT. XXXII.—Observations upon Acetous Acid, and its Combinations with the Salifiable Bases,

267  
TABLE of the Combinations of Acetic Acid,

271  
SECT. XXXIII.—Observations upon Acetic Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases,

272  
TABLE of the Combinations of Succinic Acid,

273  
SECT. XXXIV.—Observations upon Succinic Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases,

274  
SECT. XXXV.—Observations upon Benzoic Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases,

275  
SECT. XXXVI.—Observations upon Camphoric Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases,

276  
SECT. XXXVII.—Observations upon Gallic Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases,

Page 277  
SECT. XXXVIII.—Observations upon Lactic Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases,

278  
TABLE of the Combinations of Saccholactic Acid,

280  
SECT. XXXIX.—Observations upon Saccholactic Acid, and its Combination with Salifiable Bases,

281  
TABLE of the Combinations of Formic Acid,

282  
SECT. XL.—Observations upon Formic Acid, and its Combinations with the Salifiable Bases,

283  
SECT. XLI.—Observations upon the Bombic Acid, and its Combinations with the Salifiable Bases,

284  
TABLE of the Combinations of the Sebacic Acid,

285  
SECT. XLII.—Observations upon the Sebacic Acid, and its Combinations with the Salifiable Bases,

286  
SECT. XLIII.—Observations upon the Lithic Acid, and its Combinations with the Salifiable Bases,

287  
TABLE of the Combinations of the Lithic Acid,

288  
SECT. XLIV.—Observations upon the Pruffic Acid, and its Combinations with the Salifiable Bases,

289  
PART III.  
Description of the Instruments and Operations of Chemistry,

291  
INTRODUCTION,

Page 291  
CHAP. I.—Of the Instruments necessary for determining the Absolute and Specific Gravities of Solid and Liquid Bodies,

295  
CHAP. II.—Of Gazometry, or the Measurement of the Weight and Volume of Aëriform Substances,

304  
SECT. I.—Of the Pneumatochemical Apparatus,

ibid.  
SECT. II.—Of the Gazometer,

308  
SECT. III.—Some other methods for Measuring the Volume of Gasses,

319  
SECT. IV.—Of the method of Separating the different Gasses from each other,

323  
SECT. V.—Of the necessary Corrections of the Volume of Gasses, according to the Pressure of the Atmosphere,

328  
SECT. VI.—Of the Correction relative to the Degrees of the thermometer,

335  
SECT. VII.—Example for Calculating the Corrections relative to the Variations of Pressure and Temperature,

337  
SECT. VIII.—Method of determining the Weight of the different Gasses,

340  
CHAP. III.—Description of the Calorimeter, or Apparatus for measuring Caloric,

343  
CHAP. IV.—Of the Mechanical Operations for Division of Bodies,

357  
SECT. I.—Of Trituration, Levigation, and Pulverization,

ibid.  
SECT. II.—Of Sifting and Washing Powdered Substances,

Page 361  
SECT. III.—Of Filtration,

363  
SECT. IV.—Of Decantation,

365  
CHAP. V.—Of Chemical means for Separating the Particles of Bodies from each other without Decomposition, and for Uniting them again,

367  
SECT. I.—Of the Solution of Salts,

368  
SECT. II.—Of Lixiviation,

373  
SECT. III.—Of Evaporation,

375  
SECT. IV.—Of Cristallization,

379  
SECT. V.—Of Simple Distillation,

384  
SECT. VI.—Of Sublimation,

388  
CHAP. VI.—Of Pneumatochemical Distillations, Metallic Dissolutions, and some other operations which require very complicated instruments,

390  
SECT. I.—Of Compound and Pneumatochemical Distillations,

ibid.  
SECT. II.—Of Metallic Dissolutions,

398  
SECT. III.—Apparatus necessary in Experiments upon Vinous and Putrefactive fermentations,

401  
SECT. IV.—Apparatus for the Decomposition of Water,

404  
CHAP. VII.—Of the Composition and Use of Lutes,

407  
CHAP. VIII.—Of Operations upon Combustion and Deflagration,

414  
SECT. I.—Of Combustion in general,

ibid.  
SECT. II.—Of the Combustion of Phosporus,

418  
SECT. III.—Of the Combustion of Charcoal,

421  
SECT. IV.—Of the Combustion of Oils,

Page 425  
SECT. V.—Of the Combustion of Alkohol,

433  
SECT. VI.—Of the Combustion of Ether,

435  
SECT. VII.—Of the Combustion of Hydrogen Gas, and the Formation of Water,

437  
SECT. VIII.—Of the Oxydation of Metals,

441  
CHAP. IX.—Of Deflagration,

452  
CHAP. X.—Of the Instruments necessary for Operating upon Bodies in very high Temperatures,

460  
SECT. I.—Of Fusion,

ibid.  
SECT. II.—Of Furnaces,

460  
SECT. III.—Of increasing the Action of Fire, by using Oxygen Gas instead of Atmospheric Air,

474  
APPENDIX.  
No. I.—Table for Converting Lines, or Twelfth Parts of an Inch, and Fractions Of Lines, into Decimal Fractions of the Inch,

481  
No. II.—Table for Converting the Observed Heighth of Water in the Jars Of the PneumatoChemical Apparatus, expressed in Inches and Decimals, into Corresponding Heighths Of Mercury,

482  
No. III.—Table for Converting the Ounce Measures used by Dr Priestley into French and English Cubical Inches,

483  
No. IV.—Table for Reducing the Degrees Of Reaumeur’s Thermometer into its corresponding Degrees of Fahrenheit’s Scale,

484  
No. V.—Additional.—Rules for Converting French Weights and Measures into correspondent English Denominations,

Page 485  
No. VI.—Table of the Weights of the different Gasses, at 28 French inches, or 29.84 English inches barometrical pressure, and at 10° (54.5°) of temperature, expressed in English measure and English Troy weight,

490  
No. VII.—Tables of the specific Gravities of different bodies,

491  
No. VIII.—Additional.—Rules for Calculating the Absolute Gravity in English Troy Weight of a Cubic Foot and Inch, English Measure, of any substance whose specific Gravity is known,

505  
No. IX.—Tables for Converting Ounces, Drams, and Grains, Troy, into Decimals of the Troy Pound of 12 Ounces, and for Converting Decimals of the Pound Troy into Ounces, &c.

508  
No. X.—Table of the English Cubical Inches and Decimals correspanding to a determinate Troy Weight of Distilled Water at the Temperature of 55°, calculated from Everard’s experiment,

511 