Elements of Chemistry (Lavoisier, tr. Kerr)

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ELEMENTS

OF

CHEMISTRY.


ELEMENTS

OF

CHEMISTRY,

IN A

NEW SYSTEMATIC ORDER,

CONTAINING ALL THE

MODERN DISCOVERIES.

ILLUSTRATED WITH THIRTEEN COPPERPLATES.

By Mr. LAVOISIER,

Member of the Academy of Sciences, Royal Society of Me-
dicine, and the Agricultural Society of Paris, of the Royal
Society of London, and Philosophical Societies
of Orleans, Bologna, Basil, Philadelphia,
Haerlem, Manchester, &c. &c.

TRANSLATED FROM THE FRENCH,

By ROBERT KERR, F.R. & A.SS.E.
Member of the Royal College of Surgeons, and Surgeon
to the Orphan Hospital of Edinburgh.


EDINBURGH:
printed for WILLIAM CREECH, and sold in
london by g.g. and j.j. robinsons.


MDCCXC.

CONTENTS.


PART FIRST.
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
Page I
ibid.
26
32
43
54
Page 66
78
83
97
Combustion of Phosphorus,
100
SECT. I.—Combustion of Charcoal,
101
SECT. II.—Combustion of Hydrogen Gas,
102
SECT. III.—Formation of Nitric Acid,
102
SECT. IV.—Combustion of Wax,
105
SECT. V.—Combustion of Olive Oil,
106
CHAP. X.—Of the Combustion of Combustible Substances with each other,
109
CHAP. XI.—Observations upon Oxyds and Acids with several Bases, and upon the Composition of Animal and Vegetable Substances,
115
CHAP. XII.—Of the Decomposition of Vegetable and Animal Substances by the Action of Fire,
123
CHAP. XIII.—Of the Decomposition of Vegetable Oxyds by the Vinous Fermentation,
129
CHAP. XIV.—Of the Putrefactive Fermentation,
141
CHAP. XV.—Of the Acetous Fermentation,
146
CHAP. XVI.—Of the Formation of Neutral Salts, and of their Bases,
149
SECT. I.—Of Potash,
Page 151
SECT. II.—Of Soda,
155
SECT. III.—Of Ammoniac,
156
SECT. IV.—Of Lime, Magnesia, Barytes, and Argill,
157
SECT. V.—Of Metallic Bodies,
159
CHAP. XVII.—Continuation of the Observations upon Salifiable Bases, and the Formation of Neutral Salts,
161
PART II.
Of the Combinations of Acids with Salifiable Bases, and of the Formation of Neutral Salts,
175
INTRODUCTION,
ibid.
TABLE of Simple Substances,
175
SECT. I.—Observations upon simple Substances,
176
TABLE of Compound Oxydable and Acidifiable Bases,
179
SECT. II.—Observations upon Compound Radicals,
180
SECT. III.—Observations upon the Combinations of Light and Caloric with different Substances,
182
TABLE of the Combinations of Oxygen with the Simple Substaces, to face
185
SECT. IV.—Observations upon these Combinations,
Page 185
TABLE of the Combinations of Oxygen with Compound Radicals,
190
SECT. V.—Observations upon these Combinations,
191
TABLE of the Combinations of Azote with the Simple Substanccs,
194
SECT. VI.—Observations upon these Combinations of Azote,
195
TABLE of the Combinations of Hydrogen with Simple Substanccs,
198
SECT. VII.—Observations upon Hydrogen, and its Combinations,
199
TABLE of the Binary Combinations of Sulphur with the Simple Substances,
202
SECT. VIII.—Observations upon Sulphur, and its Combinations,
203
TABLE of the Combinations of Phosphorus with Simple Substances,
204
SECT. IX.—Observations upon Phosphorus and its Combinations,
205
TABLE of the Binary Combinations of Charcoal,
207
SECT. X.—Observations upon Charcoal, and its Combinations,
205
SECT. XI.—Observations upon the Muriatic, Fluoric, and Boracic Radicals, and their Combinations,
209
SECT. XII.—Observations upon the Combinations of Metals with each other,
219
TABLE of the Combinations of Azote, in the State of Nitrous Acid, with the Salifiable Bases,
Page 212
TABLE of the Combinations of Azote, in the State of Nitric Acid, with the Salifiable Bases,
213
SECT. XIII.—Observations upon Nitrous and Nitric Acids, and their Combinations with Salifiable Bases,
214
TABLE of the Combinations of Sulphuric Acid with the Salifiable Bases,
218
SECT. XIV.—Observations upon Sulphuric Acid, and its Combinations,
219
TABLE of the Combinations of Sulphurous Acid,
222
SECT. XV.—Observations upon Sulphurous Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases,
223
TABLE of the Combinations of Phosphorous and Phosphoric Acids,
225
SECT. XVI.—Observations upon Phosphorous and Phosphoric Acids, and their Combinations with Salifiable Bases.
226
TABLE of the Combinations of Carbonic Acid,
223
SECT. XVII.—Observations upon Carbonic Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases,
219
TABLE of the Combinations of Muriatic Acid,
231
TABLE of the Combinations of Oxygcnatcd Muriatic Acid,
232
SECT. XVIII.—Observations upon Muriatic and Oxygenated Muriatic Acid. and their Combinations with Salifiable Bases,
233
TABLE of the Combinations of Nitro-Muriatic Acid,
Page 236
SECT. XIX.—Observations upon Nitro-muriatic Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases,
237
TABLE of the Combinations of Fluoric Acid,
239
SECT. XX.—Observations upon Fluoric Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases,
240
TABLE of the Combinations of Boracic Acid,
242
SECT. XXI.—Observations upon Boracic Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases,
243
TABLE of the Combinations of Arseniac Acid,
246
SECT. XXII.—Observations upon Arseniac Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases,
247
SECT. XXIII.—Observations upon Molibdic Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases,
249
SECT. XXIV.—Observations upon Tungstic Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases, and a Table of these in the order of their Affinity,
251
TABLE of the Combinations of Tartarous Acid,
253
SECT. XXV.—Observations upon Tartarous Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases,
254
SECT. XXVI.—Observations upon Mallic Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases,
256
TABLE of the Combinations of Citric Acid,
258
SECT. XXVII.—Observations upon Citric Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases,
259
TABLE of the Combinations of Pyro-lignous Acid,
260
SECT. XXVIII. —Observations upon Pyro-lignous Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases,
Page 261
SECT. XXIX.—Observations upon Pyro-tartarous Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases,
ibid.
TABLE of the Combinations of Pyro-mucous Acid,
263
SECT. XXX.—Observations upon Pyro-mucous Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases,
264
TABLE of the Combinations of Oxalic Acid,
265
SECT. XXXI.—Observations upon Oxalic Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases,
266
TABLE of the Combinations of Acetous Acid, to face
267
SECT. XXXII.—Observations upon Acetous Acid, and its Combinations with the Salifiable Bases,
267
TABLE of the Combinations of Acetic Acid,
271
SECT. XXXIII.—Observations upon Acetic Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases,
272
TABLE of the Combinations of Succinic Acid,
273
SECT. XXXIV.—Observations upon Succinic Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases,
274
SECT. XXXV.—Observations upon Benzoic Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases,
275
SECT. XXXVI.—Observations upon Camphoric Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases,
276
SECT. XXXVII.—Observations upon Gallic Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases,
Page 277
SECT. XXXVIII.—Observations upon Lactic Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases,
278
TABLE of the Combinations of Saccho-lactic Acid,
280
SECT. XXXIX.—Observations upon Saccho-lactic Acid, and its Combination with Salifiable Bases,
281
TABLE of the Combinations of Formic Acid,
282
SECT. XL.—Observations upon Formic Acid, and its Combinations with the Salifiable Bases,
283
SECT. XLI.—Observations upon the Bombic Acid, and its Combinations with the Salifiable Bases,
284
TABLE of the Combinations of the Sebacic Acid,
285
SECT. XLII.—Observations upon the Sebacic Acid, and its Combinations with the Salifiable Bases,
286
SECT. XLIII.—Observations upon the Lithic Acid, and its Combinations with the Salifiable Bases,
287
TABLE of the Combinations of the Lithic Acid,
288
SECT. XLIV.—Observations upon the Pruffic Acid, and its Combinations with the Salifiable Bases,
289
PART III.
Description of the Instruments and Operations of Chemistry,
291
INTRODUCTION,
Page 291
CHAP. I.—Of the Instruments necessary for determining the Absolute and Specific Gravities of Solid and Liquid Bodies,
295
CHAP. II.—Of Gazometry, or the Measurement of the Weight and Volume of Aëriform Substances,
304
SECT. I.—Of the Pneumato-chemical Apparatus,
ibid.
SECT. II.—Of the Gazometer,
308
SECT. III.—Some other methods for Measuring the Volume of Gasses,
319
SECT. IV.—Of the method of Separating the different Gasses from each other,
323
SECT. V.—Of the necessary Corrections of the Volume of Gasses, according to the Pressure of the Atmosphere,
328
SECT. VI.—Of the Correction relative to the Degrees of the thermometer,
335
SECT. VII.—Example for Calculating the Corrections relative to the Variations of Pressure and Temperature,
337
SECT. VIII.—Method of determining the Weight of the different Gasses,
340
CHAP. III.—Description of the Calorimeter, or Apparatus for measuring Caloric,
343
CHAP. IV.—Of the Mechanical Operations for Division of Bodies,
357
SECT. I.—Of Trituration, Levigation, and Pulverization,
ibid.
SECT. II.—Of Sifting and Washing Powdered Substances,
Page 361
SECT. III.—Of Filtration,
363
SECT. IV.—Of Decantation,
365
CHAP. V.—Of Chemical means for Separating the Particles of Bodies from each other without Decomposition, and for Uniting them again,
367
SECT. I.—Of the Solution of Salts,
368
SECT. II.—Of Lixiviation,
373
SECT. III.—Of Evaporation,
375
SECT. IV.—Of Cristallization,
379
SECT. V.—Of Simple Distillation,
384
SECT. VI.—Of Sublimation,
388
CHAP. VI.—Of Pneumato-chemical Distillations, Metallic Dissolutions, and some other operations which require very complicated instruments,
390
SECT. I.—Of Compound and Pneumato-chemical Distillations,
ibid.
SECT. II.—Of Metallic Dissolutions,
398
SECT. III.—Apparatus necessary in Experiments upon Vinous and Putrefactive fermentations,
401
SECT. IV.—Apparatus for the Decomposition of Water,
404
CHAP. VII.—Of the Composition and Use of Lutes,
407
CHAP. VIII.—Of Operations upon Combustion and Deflagration,
414
SECT. I.—Of Combustion in general,
ibid.
SECT. II.—Of the Combustion of Phosporus,
418
SECT. III.—Of the Combustion of Charcoal,
421
SECT. IV.—Of the Combustion of Oils,
Page 425
SECT. V.—Of the Combustion of Alkohol,
433
SECT. VI.—Of the Combustion of Ether,
435
SECT. VII.—Of the Combustion of Hydrogen Gas, and the Formation of Water,
437
SECT. VIII.—Of the Oxydation of Metals,
441
CHAP. IX.—Of Deflagration,
452
CHAP. X.—Of the Instruments necessary for Operating upon Bodies in very high Temperatures,
460
SECT. I.—Of Fusion,
ibid.
SECT. II.—Of Furnaces,
460
SECT. III.—Of increasing the Action of Fire, by using Oxygen Gas instead of Atmospheric Air,
474
APPENDIX.
No. I.—Table for Converting Lines, or Twelfth Parts of an Inch, and Fractions Of Lines, into Decimal Fractions of the Inch,
481
No. II.—Table for Converting the Observed Heighth of Water in the Jars Of the Pneumato-Chemical Apparatus, expressed in Inches and Decimals, into Corresponding Heighths Of Mercury,
482
No. III.—Table for Converting the Ounce Measures used by Dr Priestley into French and English Cubical Inches,
483
No. IV.—Table for Reducing the Degrees Of Reaumeur’s Thermometer into its corresponding Degrees of Fahrenheit’s Scale,
484
No. V.—Additional.—Rules for Converting French Weights and Measures into correspondent English Denominations,
Page 485
No. VI.—Table of the Weights of the different Gasses, at 28 French inches, or 29.84 English inches barometrical pressure, and at 10° (54.5°) of temperature, expressed in English measure and English Troy weight,
490
No. VII.—Tables of the specific Gravities of different bodies,
491
No. VIII.—Additional.—Rules for Calculating the Absolute Gravity in English Troy Weight of a Cubic Foot and Inch, English Measure, of any substance whose specific Gravity is known,
505
No. IX.—Tables for Converting Ounces, Drams, and Grains, Troy, into Decimals of the Troy Pound of 12 Ounces, and for Converting Decimals of the Pound Troy into Ounces, &c.
508
No. X.—Table of the English Cubical Inches and Decimals correspanding to a determinate Troy Weight of Distilled Water at the Temperature of 55°, calculated from Everard’s experiment,
511