First Geneva Convention (1906)

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First Geneva Convention  (1906) 

The First Geneva Convention, for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded in Armies in the Field, is one of four treaties of the Geneva Conventions. It defines "the basis on which rest the rules of international law for the protection of the victims of armed conflicts." It was first adopted in 1864, but was significantly updated in 1906, 1929, and 1949. Excerpted from First Geneva Convention on Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This is the official United States government translation published in the first volume of the United States Treaty Series (Bevans); an alternative translation from the 1988 work The Laws of Armed Conflicts can be found on the website of the Red Cross.

AMELIORATION OF THE CONDITION OF THE WOUNDED AND SICK ON THE FIELD OF BATTLE (RED CROSS CONVENTION)

  • Convention and final protocol signed at Geneva July 6, 1906
  • Senate advice and consent to ratification December 19, 1906
  • Ratified by the President of the United States January 2, 1907
  • Ratification of the United States deposited at Bern February 9, 1907
  • Proclaimed by the President of the United States August 3, 1907
  • Entered into force August 9, 1907[1]
  • Replaced by conventions of July 27, 1929,[2] and August 12, 1949,[3] as between contracting parties to the later conventions

35 Stat. 1885; Treaty Series 464

[TRANSLATION]

Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armies in the Field

His Majesty the Emperor of Germany, King of Prussia; His Excellency the President of the Argentine Republic; His Majesty the Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia, etc., and Apostolic King of Hungary; His Majesty the King of the Belgians; His Royal Highness the Prince of Bulgaria; His Excellency the President of the Republic of Chile; His Majesty the Emperor of China; His Majesty the King of the Belgians, Sovereign of the Congo Free State; His Majesty the Emperor of Corea;[4] His Majesty the King of Denmark; His Majesty the King of Spain; the President of the United States of America; the President of the United States of Brazil; the President of the United Mexican States; the President of the French Republic; His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Emperor of India; His Majesty the King of the Hellenes; the President of the Republic of Guatemala; the President of the Republic of Honduras; His Majesty the King of Italy; His Majesty the Emperor of Japan; His Royal Highness the Grand Duke of Luxemburg, Duke of Nassau; His Highness the Prince of Montenegro; His Majesty the King of Norway; Her Majesty the Queen of the Netherlands; the President of the Republic of Peru; His Imperial Majesty the Shah of Persia; His Majesty the King of Portugal and of the Algarves, etc.; His Majesty the King of Roumania; His Majesty the Emperor of All the Russias; His Majesty the King of Servia; His Majesty the King of Siam; His Majesty the King of Sweden; the Swiss Federal Council; the President of the Oriental Republic of Uruguay,

Being equally animated by the desire to lessen the inherent evils of warfare as far as is within their power, and wishing for this purpose to improve and supplement the provisions agreed upon at Geneva on August 22, 1864,[5] for the amelioration of the condition of the wounded or sick in armies in the field,

Have decided to conclude a new convention to that effect, and have appointed as their plenipotentiaries, to wit:

His Majesty the Emperor of Germany, King of Prussia:
  • His Excellency the Chamberlain and Actual Privy Councilor A. de Bülow, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary at Berne,
  • General of Brigade Baron de Manteuffel,
  • Medical Inspector and Surgeon-General Dr. Villaret (with rank of general of brigade),
  • Dr. Zorn, Privy Councilor of Justice, ordinary professor of law at the University of Bonn, Solicitor of the Crown;
His Excellency the President of the Argentine Republic:
  • His Excellency Mr. Enrique B. Moreno, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary at Berne,
  • Mr. Molina Salas, Consul-General in Switzerland;
His Majesty the Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia, etc., and Apostolic King of Hungary:
  • His Excellency Baron Heidler de Egeregg et Syrgenstein, Actual Privy Councilor, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary at Berne;
His Majesty the King of the Belgians:
  • Colonel of Staff Count de T'Serclaes, Chief of Staff of the Fourth Military District;
His Royal Highness the Prince of Bulgaria:
  • Dr. Marin Rousseff, Chief Medical Officer,
  • Captain of Staff Boris Sirmanoff;
His Excellency the President of the Republic of Chile:
  • Mr. Agustin Edwards, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary;
His Majesty the Emperor of China:
  • His Excellency Mr. Lou Tseng Tsiang, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary at The Hague;
His Majesty the King of the Belgians, Sovereign of the Congo Free State:
  • Colonel of Staff Count de T'Serclaes, Chief of Staff of the Fourth Military District of Belgium;
His Majesty the Emperor of Corea:
  • His Excellency Mr. Kato Tsunetada, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Japan at Brussels;
His Majesty the King of Denmark:
  • Mr. Laub, Surgeon-General, Chief of the Medical Corps of the Army;
His Majesty the King of Spain:
  • His Excellency Mr. Silverio de Baguer y Corsi, Count of Baguer, Minister Resident;
The President of the United States of America:
  • Mr. William Cary Sanger, former Assistant Secretary of War of the United States of America,
  • Vice-Admiral Charles S. Sperry, President of the Naval War College,
  • Brigadier-General George B. Davis, Judge-Advocate-General of the Army,
  • Brigadier-General Robert M. O'Reilly, Surgeon-General of the Army;
The President of the United States of Brazil:
  • Dr. Carlos Lemgruber-Kropf, Chargé d'Affaires at Berne,
  • Colonel of Engineers Roberto Trompowski Leitão d'Almeida, Military Attaché to the Brazilian Legation at Berne;
The President of the United Mexican States:
  • General of Brigade José Maria Perez;
The President of the French Republic:
  • His Excellency Mr. Révoil, Ambassador at Berne,
  • Mr. Louis Renault, Member of the Institute of France, Minister Plenipotentiary, Jurisconsult of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Professor in the Faculty of Law at Paris,
  • Colonel Olivier of Reserve Artillery,
  • Chief Surgeon Pauzat of the Second Class;
His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Emperor of India:
  • Major-General Sir John Charles Ardagh, K.C.M.G., K.C.I.E., C.B.,
  • Professor Thomas Erskine Holland, K.C., D.C.L.,
  • Sir John Furley, C.B.,
  • Lieutenant-Colonel William Grant Macpherson, C.M.G., R.A.M.C.;
His Majesty the King of the Hellenes:
  • Mr. Michel Kebedgy, Professor of International Law at the University of Berne;
The President of the Republic of Guatemala:
  • Mr. Manuel Arroyo, Chargé d'Affaires at Paris,
  • Mr. Henri Wiswald, Consul-General at Berne, residing at Geneva;
The President of the Republic of Honduras:
  • Mr. Oscar Hœpfl, Consul-General at Berne;
His Majesty the King of Italy:
  • Marquis Roger Maurigi di Castel Maurigi, Colonel in His Army, Grand Officer of His Royal Order of the SS. Maurice and Lazare,
  • Major-General Giovanni Randone, Military Medical Inspector, Commander of His Royal Order of the Crown of Italy;
His Majesty the Emperor of Japan:
  • His Excellency Mr. Kato Tsunetada, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary at Brussels;
His Royal Highness the Grand Duke of Luxemburg, Duke of Nassau:
  • Staff Colonel Count de T'Serclaes, Chief of Staff of the Fourth Military District of Belgium;
His Highness the Prince of Montenegro:
  • Mr. E. Odier, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the Swiss Confederation in Russia,
  • Colonel Mürset, Chief Surgeon of the Swiss Federal Army;
His Majesty the King of Norway:
  • Captain Daae, of the Medical Corps of the Norwegian Army;
Her Majesty the Queen of the Netherlands:
  • Lieutenant-General (retired) Jonkeer J.C.C. den Beer Poortugael, Member of the Council of State,
  • Colonel A.A.J. Quanjer, Chief Medical Officer, First Class;
The President of the Republic of Peru:
  • Mr. Gustavo de la Fuente, First Secretary of the Legation of Peru at Paris;
His Imperial Majesty the Shah of Persia:
  • His Excellency Mr. Samad Khan Momtaz-os-Saltaneh, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary at Paris;
His Majesty the King of Portugal and of the Algarves, etc.:
  • His Excellency Mr. Alberto d'Oliveira, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary at Berne,
  • Mr. José Nicolau Raposo-Botelho, Colonel of Infantry, former Deputy, Superintendent of the Royal Military College at Lisbon;
His Majesty the King of Roumania:
  • Dr. Sache Stephanesco, Colonel of Reserve;
His Majesty the Emperor of All the Russias:
  • His Excellency Privy Councilor de Martens, Permanent Member of the Council of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia;
His Majesty the King of Servia:
  • Mr. Milan St. Markovitch, Secretary-General of the Ministry of Justice,
  • Colonel Dr. Sondermayer, Chief of the Medical Division of the War Ministry;
His Majesty the King of Siam:
  • Prince Charoon, Chargé d'Affaires at Paris,
  • Mr. Corragioni d'Orelli, Counselor of Legation at Paris;
His Majesty the King of Sweden:
  • M. Sörensen, Chief Surgeon of the Second Division of the Army;
The Swiss Federal Council:
  • Mr. E. Odier, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary in Russia,
  • Colonel Mürset, Chief Surgeon of the Federal Army;
The President of the Oriental Republic of Uruguay:
  • Mr. Alexandre Herosa, Chargé d'Affaires at Paris,

Who, after having communicated to each other their full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed on the following:

Chapter i. The sick and wounded

Article 1

Officers, soldiers, and other persons officially attached to armies, who are sick or wounded, shall be respected and cared for, without distinction of nationality, by the belligerent in whose power they are.

A belligerent, however, when compelled to leave his wounded in the hands of his adversary, shall leave with them, so far as military conditions permit, a portion of the personnel and materiel of his sanitary service to assist in caring for them.

Art. 2

Subject to the care that must be taken of them under the preceding article, the sick and wounded of an army who fall into the power of the other belligerent become prisoners of war, and the general rules of international law in respect to prisoners become applicable to them.

The belligerents remain free, however, to mutually agree upon such clauses, by way of exception or favor, in relation to the wounded or sick as they may deem proper. They shall especially have authority to agree:

  • 1. To mutually return the sick and wounded left on the field of battle after an engagement.
  • 2. To send back to their own country the sick and wounded who have recovered, or who are in a condition to be transported and whom they do not desire to retain as prisoners.
  • 3. To send the sick and wounded of the enemy to a neutral state, with the consent of the latter and on condition that it shall charge itself with their internment until the close of hostilities.

Art. 3

After every engagement the belligerent who remains in possession of the field of battle shall take measures to search for the wounded and to protect the wounded and dead from robbery and ill treatment.

He will see that a careful examination is made of the bodies of the dead prior to their interment or incineration.

Art. 4

As soon as possible each belligerent shall forward to the authorities of their country or army the marks or military papers of identification found upon the bodies of the dead, together with a list of names of the sick and wounded taken in charge by him.

Belligerents will keep each other mutually advised of internments and transfers, together with admissions to hospitals and deaths which occur among the sick and wounded in their hands. They will collect all objects of personal use, valuables, letters, etc., which are found upon the field of battle, or have been left by the sick or wounded who have died in sanitary formations or other establishments, for transmission to persons in interest through the authorities of their own country.

Art. 5

Military authority may make an appeal to the charitable zeal of the inhabitants to receive and, under its supervision, to care for the sick and wounded of the armies, granting to persons responding to such appeals special protection and certain immunities.

Chapter II. Sanitary formations and establishments

Art. 6

Mobile sanitary formations (i.e., those which are intended to accompany armies in the field) and the fixed establishments belonging to the sanitary service shall be protected and respected by belligerents.

Art. 7

The protection due to sanitary formations and establishments ceases if they are used to commit acts injurious to the enemy.

Art. 8

A sanitary formation or establishment shall not be deprived of the protection accorded by article 6 by the fact:

  • 1. That the personnel of a formation or establishment is armed and uses its arms in self-defense or in defense of its sick and wounded.
  • 2. That in the absence of armed hospital attendants, the formation is guarded by an armed detachment or by sentinels acting under competent orders.
  • 3. That arms or cartridges, taken from the wounded and not yet turned over to the proper authorities, are found in the formation or establishment.

Chapter III. Personnel

Art. 9

The personnel charged exclusively with the removal, transportation, and treatment of the sick and wounded, as well as with the administration of sanitary formations and establishments, and the chaplains attached to armies, shall be respected and protected under all circumstances. If they fall into the hands of the enemy they shall not be considered as prisoners of war.

These provisions apply to the guards of sanitary formations and establishments in the case provided for in section 2 of article 8.

Art. 10

The personnel of volunteer aid societies, duly recognized and authorized by their own governments, who are employed in the sanitary formations and establishments of armies, are assimilated to the personnel contemplated in the preceding article, upon condition that the said personnel shall be subject to military laws and regulations.

Each state shall make known to the other, either in time of peace or at the opening, or during the progress of hostilities, and in any case before actual employment, the names of the societies which it has authorized to render assistance, under its responsibility, in the official sanitary service of its armies.

Art. 11

A recognized society of a neutral state can only lend the services of its sanitary personnel and formations to a belligerent with the prior consent of its own government and the authority of such belligerent. The belligerent who has accepted such assistance is required to notify the enemy before making any use thereof.

Art. 12

Persons described in articles 9, 10, and 11 will continue in the exercise of their functions, under the direction of the enemy, after they have fallen into his power.

When their assistance is no longer indispensable they will be sent back to their army or country, within such period and by such route as may accord with military necessity. They will carry with them such effects, instruments, arms, and horses as are their private property.

Art. 13

While they remain in his power, the enemy will secure to the personnel mentioned in article 9 the same pay and allowances to which persons of the same grade in his own army are entitled.

Chapter IV. Matériel

Art. 14

If mobile sanitary formations fall into the power of the enemy, they shall retain their matériel, including the teams, whatever may be the means of transportation and the conducting personnel. Competent military authority, however, shall have the right to employ it in caring for the sick and wounded. The restitution of the matériel shall take place in accordance with the conditions prescribed for the sanitary personnel, and, as far as possible, at the same time.

Art. 15

Buildings and matériel pertaining to fixed establishments shall remain subject to the laws of war, but cannot be diverted from their use so long as they are necessary for the sick and wounded. Commanders of troops engaged in operations, however, may use them, in case of important military necessity, if, before such use, the sick and wounded who are in them have been provided for.

Art. 16

The matériel of aid societies admitted to the benefits of this convention, in conformity to the conditions therein established, is regarded as private property and, as such, will be respected under all circumstances, save that it is subject to the recognized right of requisition by belligerents in conformity to the laws and usages of war.

Chapter V. Convoys of evacuation

Art. 17

Convoys of evacuation shall be treated as mobile sanitary formations subject to the following special provisions:

1. A belligerent intercepting a convoy may, if required by military necessity, break up such convoy, charging himself with the care of the sick and wounded whom it contains.

2. In this case the obligation to return the sanitary personnel, as provided for in article 12, shall be extended to include the entire military personnel employed, under competent orders, in the transportation and protection of the convoy.

The obligation to return the sanitary matériel, as provided for in article 14, shall apply to railway trains and vessels intended for interior navigation which have been especially equipped for evacuation purposes, as well as to the ordinary vehicles, trains, and vessels which belong to the sanitary service.

Military vehicles, with their teams, other than those belonging to the sanitary service, may be captured.

The civil personnel and the various means of transportation obtained by requisition, including railway matériel and vessels utilized for convoys, are subject to the general rules of international law.

Chapter VI. Distinctive emblem

Art. 18

Out of respect to Switzerland the heraldic emblem of the red cross on a white ground, formed by the reversal of the federal colors, is continued as the emblem and distinctive sign of the sanitary service of armies.

Art. 19

This emblem appears on flags and brassards as well as upon all matériel appertaining to the sanitary service, with the permission of the competent military authority.

Art. 20

The personnel protected in virtue of the first paragraph of article 9, and articles 10 and 11, will wear attached to the left arm a brassard bearing a red cross on a white ground, which will be issued and stamped by competent military authority, and accompanied by a certificate of identity in the case of persons attached to the sanitary service of armies who do not have military uniform.

Art. 21

The distinctive flag of the convention can only be displayed over the sanitary formations and establishments which the convention provides shall be respected, and with the consent of the military authorities. It shall be accompanied by the national flag of the belligerent to whose service the formation or establishment is attached.

Sanitary formations which have fallen into the power of the enemy, however, shall fly no other flag than that of the Red Cross so long as they continue in that situation.

Art. 22

The sanitary formations of neutral countries which, under the conditions set forth in article 11, have been authorized to render their services, shall fly, with the flag of the convention, the national flag of the belligerent to which they are attached. The provisions of the second paragraph of the preceding article are applicable to them.

Art. 23

The emblem of the red cross on a white ground and the words Red Cross or Geneva Cross may only be used, whether in time of peace or war, to protect or designate sanitary formations and establishments, the personnel and matériel protected by the convention.

Chapter VII. Application and execution of the convention

Art. 24

The provisions of the present convention are obligatory only on the contracting powers, in case of war between two or more of them. The said provisions shall cease to be obligatory if one of the belligerent powers should not be signatory to the convention.

Art. 25

It shall be the duty of the commanders in chief of the belligerent armies to provide for the details of execution of the foregoing articles, as well as for unforeseen cases, in accordance with the instructions of their respective governments, and conformably to the general principles of this convention.

Art. 26

The signatory governments shall take the necessary steps to acquaint their troops, and particularly the protected personnel, with the provisions of this convention and to make them known to the people at large.

Chapter VIII. Repression of abuses and infractions

Art. 27

The signatory powers whose legislation may not now be adequate engage to take or recommend to their legislatures such measures as may be necessary to prevent the use, by private persons or by societies other than those upon which this convention confers the right thereto, of the emblem or name of the Red Cross or Geneva Cross, particularly for commercial purposes by means of trade-marks or commercial labels.

The prohibition of the use of the emblem or name in question shall take effect from the time set in each act of legislation, and at the latest five years after this convention goes into effect. After such going into effect, it shall be unlawful to use a trade-mark or commercial label contrary to such prohibition.

Art. 28

In the event of their military penal laws being insufficient, the signatory governments also engage to take, or to recommend to their legislatures, the necessary measures to repress, in time of war, individual acts of robbery and ill treatment of the sick and wounded of the armies, as well as to punish, as usurpations of military insignia, the wrongful use of the flag and brassard of the Red Cross by military persons or private individuals not protected by the present convention.

They will communicate to each other through the Swiss Federal Council the measures taken with a view to such repression, not later than five years from the ratification of the present convention.

General provisions

Art. 29

The present convention shall be ratified as soon as possible. The ratifications will be deposited at Berne.

A record of the deposit of each act of ratification shall be prepared, of which a duly certified copy shall be sent, through diplomatic channels, to each of the contracting powers.

Art. 30

The present convention shall become operative, as to each power, six months after the date of deposit of its ratification.

Art. 31

The present convention, when duly ratified, shall supersede the Convention of August 22, 1864, in the relations between the contracting states.

The Convention of 1864 remains in force in the relations between the parties who signed it but who may not also ratify the present convention.

Art. 32

The present convention may, until December 31, proximo, be signed by the powers represented at the conference which opened at Geneva on June 11, 1906, as well as by the powers not represented at the conference who have signed the Convention of 1864.

Such of these powers as shall not have signed the present convention on or before December 31, 1906, will remain at liberty to accede to it after that date. They shall signify their adherence in a written notification addressed to the Swiss Federal Council, and communicated to all the contracting powers by the said Council.

Other powers may request to adhere in the same manner, but their request shall only be effective if, within the period of one year from its notification to the Federal Council, such Council has not been advised of any opposition on the part of any of the contracting powers.

Art. 33

Each of the contracting parties shall have the right to denounce the present convention. This denunciation shall only become operative one year after a notification in writing shall have been made to the Swiss Federal Council, which shall forthwith communicate such notification to all the other contracting parties.

This denunciation shall only become operative in respect to the power which has given it.

In faith whereof the plenipotentiaries have signed the present convention and affixed their seals thereto.

Done at Geneva, the sixth day of July, one thousand nine hundred and six, in a single copy, which shall remain in the archives of the Swiss Confederation and certified copies of which shall be delivered to the contracting parties through diplomatic channels.

  • For Germany:
    • v. Bülow[seal]
    • Frhr. v. Manteuffel[seal]
    • Villaert[seal]
    • Zorn
  • For the Argentine Republic:
    • Enrique B. Moreno[seal]
    • Franco. Molina Salas[seal]
  • For Austria-Hungary:
    • Frhr. v. Heidler (ad referendum)[seal]
  • For Belgium:
    • Cte. J. de T'Serclaes[seal]
  • For Bulgaria:
    • Dr. Rousseff[seal]
    • Capitaine Sirmanoff[seal]
  • For the United States of Brazil:
    • C. Lemgruber-Kropf[seal]
    • Cel. Roberto Trompowski Leitão d'Almeida
  • For the United Mexican States:
    • José M. Perez (ad referendum)[seal]
  • For France:
    • Révoil[seal]
    • L. Renault[seal]
    • S. Olivier[seal]
    • E. Pauzat[seal]
For Great Britain and Ireland:
John C. Ardagh (with a reservation to articles 23, 27, 28)[6] [seal]
T. E. Holland [seal]
John Furley [seal]
Wm. Grant Macpherson [seal]
  • For Chile:
    • Agustin Edwards[seal]
  • For China:
    • Lou Tseng Tsiang[seal]
  • For the Congo:
    • Cte. J. de T'Serclaes[seal]
  • For Corea:[7]
    • Kato Tsunetada[seal]
  • For Denmark:
    • H. Laub[seal]
  • For Spain:
    • Cte. Silverio de Baguer[seal]
  • For the United States of America:
    • Wm. Cary Sanger
    • C. S. Sperry[seal]
    • Geo. B. Davis[seal]
    • R. M. O'Reilly[seal]
  • For Greece:
    • Michel Kebedgy
  • For Guatemala:
    • Manuel Arroyo[seal]
    • H. Wiswald[seal]
  • For Honduras:
    • Oscar Hœpfl
  • For Italy:
    • Maurigi[seal]
    • Randone[seal]
  • For Japan:
    • Kato Tsunetada[seal]
  • For Luxemburg:
    • Cte J. de T'Serclaes[seal]
  • For Montenegro:
    • E. Odier[seal]
    • Colonel Mürset[seal]
  • For Norway:
    • Hans Daae
  • For the Netherlands:
    • den Beer Poortugael[seal]
    • Quanjer[seal]
  • For Peru:
    • Gustavo de la Fuente[seal]
  • For Persia (with a reservation to article eighteen):[8]
    • Momtaz-os-Saltaneh M. Samad Khan[seal]
  • For Portugal:
    • Alberto d'Oliveira[seal]
    • José Nicolau Raposo-Botelho[seal]
  • For Roumania:
    • Dr. Sache Stephanesco[seal]
  • For Russia:
    • Martens[seal]
  • For Servia:
    • Milan St. Markovitch[seal]
    • Dr. Roman Sondermayer[seal]
  • For Siam:
    • Charoon[seal]
    • Corragioni d'Orelli[seal]
  • For Sweden:
    • Olof Sörensen[seal]
  • For Switzerland:
    • E. Odier[seal]
    • Colonel Mürset[seal]
  • For Uruguay:
    • A. Herosa[seal]

Final Protocol of the Conference for the Revision of the Geneva Convention

The Conference called by the Swiss Federal Council, with a view to revising the International Convention of August 22, 1864, for the Amelioration of the Condition of Soldiers wounded in Armies in the field, met at Geneva on June 11, 1906. The Powers hereinbelow enumerated took part in the Conference to which they had designated the delegates hereinbelow named.

GERMANY

  • His Excellency the Chamberlain and Actual Privy Councilor A. de Bülow, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary at Berne,
  • General of Brigade Baron de Manteuffel,
  • Medical Inspector and Surgeon General Dr. Villaret (with rank of general of brigade),
  • Dr. Zorn, Privy Councilor of Justice, ordinary professor of law at the University of Bonn, Solicitor of the Crown.

ARGENTINE REPUBLIC

  • His Excellency Enrique B. Moreno, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary at Berne,
  • Mr. Molina Salas, Consul General in Switzerland.

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY

  • His Excellency Baron Heidler de Egeregg et Syrgenstein, Actual Privy Councilor, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary at Berne,
  • Chevalier Joseph d'Uriel, Chief Surgeon of the Austro-Hungarian Imperial and Royal Army, Chief of the Medical Corps and Chief of the 14th Division of the Imperial and Royal Ministry of War,
  • Mr. Arthur Edler de Mecenseffy, Lieutenant Colonel, General Staff,
  • Dr. Alfred Schücking, Surgeon Lieutenant Colonel, Chief Surgeon of the Salzburg Garrison.

BELGIUM

  • Colonel of Staff Count de T'Serclaes, Chief of Staff of the Fourth Military District,
  • Dr. A. Deltenre, Regimental Surgeon to the Carabiniers.

BULGARIA

  • Dr. Marin Rousseff, Chief Medical Officer,
  • Captain of Staff Boris Sirmanoff.

CHILE

  • Mr. Agustin Edwards, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary,
  • Mr. Charles Ackermann, Consul of Chile at Geneva.

CHINA

  • His Excellency Lou Tseng Tsiang, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary at The Hague,
  • Mr. Ou Wen Tai, Secretary of Legation at The Hague,
  • Mr. Yo Tsao Yeu, Secretary of the Special Chinese Mission in Europe.

CONGO

  • Colonel of Staff Count de T'Serclaes, Chief of Staff of the Fourth Military District of Belgium,
  • Dr. A. Deltenre, Regimental Surgeon to the Carabiniers, of Belgium.

COREA

  • His Excellency Kato Tsunetada, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Japan at Brussels,
  • Mr. Motojiro Akashi, Colonel of Infantry,
  • Dr. Eijiro Haga, Chief Surgeon, First Class (with rank of colonel),
  • Commander Prince Saneteru Itchijo (rank of lieutenant colonel),
  • Masanosuke Akiyama, Doctor of Laws, Counselor to the Ministry of War of Japan.

DENMARK

  • Mr. Laub, Surgeon General, Chief of the Medical Corps of the Army.

SPAIN

  • His Excellency Silverio de Baguer y Corsi, Count of Baguer, Minister Resident,
  • Mr. José Jofre Montojo, Colonel, General Staff, Aide-de-Camp of the Ministry of War,
  • Mr. Joaquin Cortés Bayona, Assistant Inspector, First Class, Army Medical Corps.

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

  • Mr. William Cary Sanger, former Assistant Secretary of War,
  • Rear Admiral Charles S. Sperry, President of the Naval War College,
  • Brigadier General George B. Davis, Judge Advocate General of the Army,
  • Brigadier General Robert M. O'Reilly, Surgeon General of the Army.

UNITED STATES OF BRAZIL

  • Dr. Carlos Lemgruber-Kropf, Chargé d'Affaires at Berne,
  • Colonel of Engineers Roberto Trompowski Leitão d'Almeida, Military Attaché at the Brazilian Legation at Berne.

UNITED MEXICAN STATES

  • General of Brigade José Maria Pérez.

FRANCE

  • His Excellency Mr. Révoil, Ambassador at Berne,
  • Mr. Louis Renault, member of the Institute of France, Minister Plenipotentiary, Jurisconsult of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Professor in the Faculty of Law at Paris,
  • Colonel Olivier, Reserve Artillery,
  • Mr. Pauzat, Chief Surgeon, Second Class.

GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND

  • Major General Sir John Charles Ardagh, K.C.M.G., K.C.I.E., C.B.,
  • Professor Thomas Erskine Holland, K.C., D.C.L.,
  • Sir John Furley, C.B.,
  • Lieutenant-Colonel William Grant Macpherson, C.M.G., R.A.M.C.

GREECE

  • Mr. Michel Kebedgy, Professor of International Law at the University of Berne.

GUATEMALA

  • Mr. Manuel Arroyo, Chargé d'Affaires at Paris,
  • Mr. Henri Wiswald, Consul General at Berne, residing at Geneva.

HONDURAS

  • Mr. Oscar Hœpfl, Consul General at Berne.

ITALY

  • Marquis Roger Maurigi di Castel Maurigi, Colonel, Grand Officer of the Royal Order of SS. Maurice and Lazare,
  • Major General Giovanni Randone, Military Medical Inspector, Commander of the Royal Order of the Crown of Italy.

JAPAN

  • His Excellency Kato Tsunetada, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary at Brussels,
  • Mr. Motojiro Akashi, Colonel of Infantry,
  • Dr. Eijiro Haga, Chief Surgeon, First Class (with rank of colonel),
  • Commander Prince Saneteru Itchijo (rank of lieutenant colonel),
  • Doctor of Laws Masanosuke Akiyama, Counselor to the Ministry of War.

LUXEMBURG

  • Colonel of Staff Count de T'Serclaes, Chief of Staff of the Fourth Military District of Belgium,
  • Dr. A. Deltenre, Regimental Surgeon to the Carabiniers, of Belgium.

MONTENEGRO

  • Mr. E. Odier, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the Swiss Confederation in Russia,
  • Colonel Mürset, Chief Surgeon of the Swiss Federal Army.

NICARAGUA

  • Mr. Oscar Hœpfl, Consul General of Honduras at Berne.

NORWAY

  • Captain Daae, of the Medical Corps of the Norwegian Army.

NETHERLANDS

  • Lieutenant-General (retired) Jonkheer J. C. C. den Beer Poortugael, Member of the Council of State,
  • Colonel A. A. J. Quanjer, Chief Medical Officer, First Class.

PERU

  • Mr. Gustavo de la Fuente, First Secretary of the Legation of Peru at Paris.

PERSIA

  • His Excellency Samad Khan Momtaz-os-Saltaneh, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary at Paris.

PORTUGAL

  • His Excellency Alberto d'Oliveira, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary at Berne,
  • Colonel of Infantry José Nicolau Raposo-Botelho, former deputy, Superintendent of the Royal Military College at Lisbon.

ROUMANIA

  • Dr. Sache Stephanesco, Colonel of Reserve.

RUSSIA

  • His Excellency Privy Councilor de Martens, Permanent Member of the Council of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia,
  • Major General Yermoloff, of the General Staff of Russia,
  • Dr. de Hubbenet, Present State Councilor,
  • Mr. de Wreden, State Councilor and fellow of the Imperial Academy of Medicine,
  • Lieutenant-Colonel J. Owtchinnikoff, Professor of International Law at the Naval Academy of St. Petersburg,
  • Mr. A. Goutchkoff, Red Cross delegate.

SERVIA

  • Mr. Milan St. Markovitch, Secretary General of the Ministry of Justice,
  • Colonel Dr. Sondermayer, Chief of the Medical Division of the Ministry of War.

SIAM

  • Prince Charoon, Chargé d'Affaires at Paris,
  • Mr. Corragioni d'Orelli, Counselor of Legation at Paris.

SWEDEN

  • Mr. Sörensen, Chief Surgeon of the Second Division of the Army.

SWITZERLAND

  • Mr. Odier, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary in Russia,
  • Colonel Mürset, Chief Surgeon of the Federal Army.

URUGUAY

  • Mr. Alexandre Herosa, Chargé d'Affaires at Paris.

In a series of meetings held from the 11th of June to the 5th of July 1906, the Conference discussed and framed, for the signatures of the Plenipotentiaries, the text of a Convention which will bear the date of July 6, 1906.

In addition, and conformably to Article 16 of the Convention for the peaceful settlement of international disputes, of July 29, 1899,[9] which recognized arbitration as the most effective and at the same time, most equitable means of adjusting differences that have not been resolved through the diplomatic channel, the Conference uttered the following wish:

The Conference expressed the wish that, in order to arrive at as exact as possible an interpretation and application of the Geneva Convention, the Contracting Powers will refer to the Permanent Court at The Hague, if permitted by the cases and circumstances, such differences as may arise among them, in time of peace, concerning the interpretation of the said Convention.

This wish was adopted by the following States:

Germany, Argentine Republic, Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Bulgaria, Chile, China, Congo, Denmark, Spain (ad referendum), United States of America, United States of Brazil, France, Greece, Guatemala, Honduras, Italy, Luxemburg, Montenegro, Nicaragua, Norway, The Netherlands, Peru, Persia, Portugal, Roumania, Russia, Servia, Siam, Sweden, Switzerland and Uruguay.

The wish was rejected by the following States: Corea, Great Britain and Japan.

In witness whereof, the Delegates have signed the present Protocol.

Done at Geneva, the sixth day of July, one thousand nine hundred and six, in a single copy which shall be deposited in the archives of the Swiss Confederation and certified copies of which shall be delivered to all the Powers represented at the Conference.

  • For Germany:
    • v. Bülow
    • Frhr. v. Manteuffel
    • Villaret
    • Zorn
  • For the Argentine Republic:
    • Enrique B. Moreno
    • Franco. Molina Salas
  • For Austria-Hungary:
    • Baron Heidler-Egeregg, d. pl.
    • Dr. Jos. Ritter v. Uriel, G. Lieut., délégué adjoint.
    • Artur von Mecenseffy, Obstit., dél. adj.
    • Dr. Alfred Schücking, O. St. A., Garnisonchefarzt von Salzburg, dél. adj.
  • For China:
    • Lou Tseng Tsiang
    • Ou Wen Tai
    • Yo Tsao Yeu
  • For the Congo:
    • Cte. J. de T'Serclaes
    • Dr. A. Deltenre
  • For Corea:
    • Kato Tsunetada
    • Colonel M. Akashi
    • Prince Itchijo
    • M. Akiyama
  • For Denmark:
    • H. Laub
For Spain:
Cte. de Baguer ad referendum
José Jofre Montojo
Joaquin Cortés y Bayona
  • For Belgium:
    • Cte. J. de T'Serclaes
    • Dr. A. Deltenre
  • For Bulgaria:
    • Dr. Rousseff
    • Capitaine Sirmanoff
  • For Chile:
    • Agustin Edwards
    • Ch. Ackermann
  • For the United States of America:
    • Wm. Cary Sanger
    • C. S. Sperry
    • Geo. B. Davis
    • R. M. O'Reilly
  • For the United States of Brazil:
    • C. Lemgruber-Kropf
    • Colonel Roberto Trompowski Leitão d'Almeida
  • For the United Mexican States:
    • José M. Pérez
  • For France:
    • Révoil
    • L. Renault
    • S. Olivier
    • E. Pauzat
  • For Great Britain and Ireland:
    • John C. Ardagh
    • T. E. Holland
    • John Furley
    • W. G. Macpherson
  • For Greece:
    • Michel Kebedgy
  • For Guatemala:
    • Manuel Arroyo
    • H. Wiswald
  • For Honduras:
    • Oscar Hœpel
  • For Italy:
    • Maurioi
    • G. Randone
  • For Japan:
    • Kato Tsunetada
    • Col. M. Akashi
    • Prince Itchijo
    • M. Akiyama
  • For Luxembourg:
    • Cte. J. de T'Serclaes
    • Dr. A. Deltenre
  • For Montenegro:
    • E. Odier
    • Colonel Mürset
  • For Nicaragua:
    • Oscar Hœpel
  • For Norway:
    • Hans Daae
  • For the Netherlands:
    • den Beer Poortugael
    • Quanjer
  • For Peru:
    • Gustavo de la Fuente
  • For Persia:
    • M. Samad Khan
  • For Portugal:
    • Alberto d'Oliveira
    • José Nicolau Raposo-Botelho
  • For Roumania:
    • Dr. Sache Stephanesco
  • For Russia:
    • Martens
    • Yermoloff
    • V. de Hubbenet
    • J. Owtchinnikoff
  • For Servia:
    • Milan St. Markovitch
    • Dr. Roman Sondermayer
  • For Siam:
    • Charoon
    • Corragioni d'Orelli
  • For Sweden:
    • Olof Sörensen
  • For Switzerland:
    • E. Odier
    • Colonel Mürset
  • For Uruguay:
    • A. Herosa
  • 0
  • 0

Footnotes

  1. Six months after Feb. 9, 1907, date on which ratifications were deposited by the United States and Russia (the second and third countries to deposit instruments of ratification).
  2. TS 847, post, vol. 2.
  3. 6 UST 3114; TIAS 3362.
  4. In a declaration dated Oct. 15, 1906, laid before the Swiss Federal Council by the Japanese Chargé d'Affaires at Bern, the Imperial Japanese Government stated that since it had the right to control the foreign relations of Korea, the inclusion of Korea in the preamble of the convention and the signature of the latter by the Japanese plenipotentiary on behalf of Korea as a separate contracting party were considered by the Japanese Government as null and void.
  5. TS 377, ante, p. 7.
  6. The U.K. reservation regarding use of the Red Cross emblem was maintained at the time of ratification but withdrawn on July 7, 1914.
  7. See footnote 4, p. 516.
  8. Persia's reservation reads, in translation, as follows: "In place of the Red Cross on a white field, Persia substitutes the Red Lion with the Red Sun on a white field as the emblem of its military sanitary service."
  9. TS 392, ante, p. 230.

This work is in the public domain in the United States because it is a work of the United States federal government (see 17 U.S.C. 105).