Flora Australiensis/Volume 5/Proteaceae/Dryandra

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29. DRYANDRA, Br.

(Hemiclidia, Br., Josephia, Salisb.)

Flowers hermaphrodite. Perianth regular or nearly so, usually straight, the tube slender, the limb oblong or linear, the laminæ separating as the tube opens, or rarely remaining long coherent as in Banksia, and the limb thus sometimes reflexed before opening, the tube separating into the four claws to below the middle, the base of the tube remaining entire. Anthers narrow, sessile in the concave laminæ, the connective thick, usually very shortly produced beyond the cells. Hypogynous scales 4, very narrow, thin and membranous (rarely deficient?), usually accompanied by a few long hairs. Ovary very small and sessile; style straight and scarcely exceeding the perianth, or longer, curved and protruding from a slit in the perianth-tube until the end is set free by the separation of the laminæ and then straightened; the stigmatic end, on a level with the anthers, of a different texture, smooth or striate and furrowed, continuous with the style or thickened at the base into a slightly prominent rim, the real stigma small and terminal; ovules 2 (usually or always ?), collaterally attached at or near the top. Fruit a compressed capsule, opening at the dilated end (or outer margin) in two coriaceous or rarely almost woody broad valves. Seeds 2, or 1 by abortion, compressed, with a terminal membranous wing broad and rounded like the valves, the seeds either separated by a plate simple between the nuclei, double between the valves, as in Banksia, but not so thick, or the outer integuments of the 2 seeds remain distinct from each other but separated from the seeds forming two membranous plates between the seeds, or remaining attached to the nucleus or to the whole seed leaving the seeds separate, each with a double or wingle wing.—Shrubs, often low or flowering near the base. Leaves alternate, very rarely entire, usually either sinuate and prickly-toothed, or pinnatifid or pinnate with numerous small regular lobes or segments, usually smooth and veinless on the upper surface, white-tomentose or marked with parallel transverse veins underneath. Flowers sessile, in pairs, in dense terminal or lateral heads in an involucre of numerous imbricate scale-like bracts and usually surrounded by a ring of floral leaves similar to the stem leaves; receptacle flat or convex, densely villous or woolly, with narrow-linear villous or woolly bracts or paleæ subtending each pair of flowers, sometimes very small or deficient at least in the centre of the head. Perianth usually yellow, the short entire base glabrous or villous towards the divided part, the remainder of the tube or claws usually pubescent or villous, the limb occasionally, the whole perianth very rarely, glabrous. Ovary almost always hairy. Capsules usually villous, but the hairs very readily rubbing off, and in some species apparently glabrous from the first.

The genus is endemic in West Australia. It is readily distinguished from Banksia by the involucre, by the flat or nearly flat receptacle, and by the fruit; but the structure of the flowers is so uniform that it is very difficult to establish any definite sections. The differences in the foliage correspond but very little with those in inflorescence, and both are variable in some species. Meissner has founded his groups on the former, I have preferred the inflorescence, which appears to me more characteristic. With regard to the sections founded upon the differences in the so-called dissepiment of the capsule (the plate intervening between the seeds), I have adopted them upon the supposition that these differences are constant, but the seeds remain to be examined in a considerable number of species. If it should prove that these species, here arranged according to their apparent affinity with those whose seeds are known, have been misplaced, all practical utility in these sections will be lost, and some other principle of division must be sought for, although no good one has as yet suggested itself.

Sect. 1. Eudryandra.Outer integuments of the inner faces of the two seeds united in a bifid plate separating from them Involucres various, the bracts narrow or very rarely rather broad.
Series 1. Armatæ.Flower-heads usually large, mostly terminal, enclosed in floral leaves longer than the flowers. Involucres broad. Perianths above 1 in. long. Leaves with prickly teeth or lobes.

Involucre (2 in.) as long as the flowers. Leaves obovate-oblong, deeply prickly-toothed, not white underneath.

1. D. quercifolia.

Involucre about half as long as the flowers.

Leaves obovate or oblong-cuneate, prickly-toothed.

Leaves white underneath

2. D. præmorsa.

Leaves green on both sides

3. D. cuneata.

Leaves pinnatifid, with flat pungent-pointed lobes

Perianth-limb glabrous. Fruit 1-seeded

4. D. falcata.

Perianth-limb more or less hairy. Fruit 2-seeded

5. D. armata.

Leaves divided to the midrib or nearly so into small rigid segments with revolute margins.

Leaves 6 in. to 1 ft. long, the lobes lanceolate or triangular.

6. D. longifolia.

Leaves 2 to 4 in. long, the segments linear, distant.

7. D. Fraseri.
Series 2. Floribundæ.Flower-heads small, mostly terminal, the floral leaves either shorter than the flowers or few and spreading. Involucres broad. Perianths under 1 in. long.

Leaves obovate or cuneate, prickly-toothed, flat. Perianth silky-pubescent

8. D. floribunda.

Leaves lanceolate, prickly-toothed or semipinnatifid, flat. Perianth silky-hairy.

9. D. carduacea.

Leaves linear with revolute margins, entire or with few prickly teeth. Perianth glabrous.

10. D. carlinoides.

Leaves pinnate with numerous small segments, the margins revolute.

Leaf-segments narrow, distant. Perianth-limb glabrous.

11. D. polycephala.

Leaf-segments short, approximate. Perianth-limb narrow, densely villous.

12. D. Kippistiana.
Series 3. Concinnæ.Flower-heads small, broad, axillary, the bracts narrow, the floral leaves usually spreading. Leaves flat or nearly so, tomentose underneath, pinnatifid, with short lobes.

Leaves narrow, the lobes small and distant.

13. D. squarrosa.

(See also 33, D. patens, with the flower-heads of the Concinnæ but the foliage of the Obvallatæ.)

Leaf-lobes contiguous, ovate-triangular, mucronate-acute.

Leaf-lobes reaching about halfway to the midrib.

Involucral bracts acute, ciliate.

14. D. serra.

Involucral bracts obtuse, tomentose.

15. D. concinna.

Leaf-lobes divided nearly to the midrib.

16. D. foliolata.
Series 4. Formosæ.Flower-heads large, broad, terminal or axillary. Involucral bracts broad; villous. Leaves flat or nearly so, with numerous contiguous triangular lobes or segments, tomentose underneath, acute but not pungent-pointed.

Leaf-lobes scarcely reaching above halfway to the midrib. Flower-heads mostly terminal.

17. D. stupposa.

Leaf-lobes deep but not reaching the midrib. Flower-heads mostly lateral.

Styles nearly 2 in. long.

18. D. nobilis.

Styles under 1½ in. long.

19. D. mucronulata.

Leaves divided to the midrib.

Leaf-segments 2 to 4 lines long. Flower-heads mostly terminal.

20. D. formosa.

Leaf-segments under 2 lines long. Flower-heads mostly lateral.

21. D. Baxteri.
Series 5. Niveæ.Flowering stems from a creeping trunk very short, with one or few ovoid flower-heads surrounded by long floral leaves. Leaves pinnate with numerous rigid segments white underneath except in D. nana.

Leaf-segments contiguous, triangular or falcate, 1 to 3 lines long

22. D. nivea.

Leaf-segments separated by broad sinuses, linear, 2 to 4 lines long

Style under 2 in. long; stigmatic end narrow.

23. D. arctotidis.

Style about 3 in. long; stigmatic end large, ovoid.

24. D. nana.

Leaf-segments linear, ½ to above 1 in. long, some of them again lobed.

25. D. Preissii.

(See also 30, D. vestita, which has sometimes dwarf flowering-stems.)

Series 6. Obvallatæ.Flower-heads axillary, ovoid or small, enveloped in long floral leaves. Leaves either pinnate with very small rigid segments or more frequently pinnatifid with very rigid pungent-pointed lobes.

Leaves pinnate with numerous decurrent segments, under 2 lines long, the margins revolute.

Involucral bracts numerous, with long plumos points. Perianth about ¾ in. long.

26. D. sclerophylla.

Involucral bracts few besides the leafy ones. Perianth nearly 1 in. long.

27. D. pulchella.

Leaves pinnatifid with pungent-pointed lobes.

Involucral bracts with long plumose-hairy points, or some of them leafy.

Leaf-lobes triangular, approximate, white underneath.

28. D. plumosa.

Leaf-lobes linear or lanceolate, usually distant.

29. D. seneciifolia.

Involucral bracts numerous, narrow, tomentose or villous, but not plumose.

Involucre narrow, 1 in. long. Leaf-lobes nearly flat.

Leaf-lobes about as long as the broad rhachis.

30. D. vestita.

Leaf-lobes much longer than the narrow rhachis.

31. D. cirsioides.

Involucre campanulate or broadly ovoid, under ¾ in. long. Leaf-lobes distant, with revolute margins, white underneath.

Perianth-limb glabrous. Involucre broad, ½ in. diameter

Bracts with acute, usually recurved tips. Floral leaves appressed.

32. D. Hewardiana.

Bracts obtuse, appressed. Floral leaves spreading.

33. D. patens.

Perianth-limb hairy. Involucre ovoid, ¾ in. long, the bracts appressed or inflexed.

34. D. conferta.

Involucral bracts hirsute, the inner bracts above 1 in. long, the upper half reflexed and deciduous.

35. D. horrida.

Involucres glabrous or nearly so, the bracts rather broad and closely appressed.

Leaves 2 or 3 in. long, with linear or lanceolate lobes not distant. Involucre ¾ in. long.

36. D. serratuloides.

Leaves 6 in. to above 1 ft. long, very narrow, with small distant lobes. Involucre above 1 in. long.

37. D. comosa.
Series 7. Gymnocephalæ.Flower-heads lateral, on very short scaly peduncles without floral leaves outside the involucre. Involucral bracts very numerous and narrow, a few of them leaf-like in one species.

Involucral bracts all very narrow, acute and dry.

Leaves (2 to 4 in.) pinnate with numerous very small segments with revolute margins and white underneath. Involucre 1 in. long.

38. D. Shuttleworthiana.

Leaves (3 to 5 in.) narrow and entire. Involucre 2 in. long.

39. D. speciosa.

Several of the outer involucral bracts leaf-like. Leaves under 2 in. long, linear cuneate, mostly 3-toothed.

40. D. tridentata.
Sect 2. Aphragmia.Outer integuments of the two seeds not connate or readily separable from each other (seeds without any or with a double plate between them). Involucre large, with numerous broad bracts.

Involucres broad, lateral below the leafy branches, the bracts black, glabrous or minutely ciliate.

Leaves very narrow, entire, or with few or very numerous short not pungent-pointed segments.

41. D. tenuifolia.

Leaves under ½ in. broad, pinnatifid with distant triangular pungent-pointed lobes.

42. D. proteoides.

Leaves above ½ in. broad, pinnatifid with broadly triangular rigid acute lobes.

43. D. runcinata.

Involucres ovoid, terminating very short ascending stems, with a few leaves below them.

Leaf-lobes broadly triangular, rigid, acute.

43. D. runcinata.

Leaf-lobes short, very numerous, regular and obtuse. Involucre 2 in. long, glabrous and black.

44. D. obtusa.

Leaf-lobes linear, often again divided. Involucre 3 in. long, pale coloured, tomentose when young.

45. D. bipinnatifida.

Involucres terminal, broad, villous, surrounded by long floral leaves.

Leaf-segments linear or narrow-lanceolate

46. D. pteridifolia.

Leaf-segments ovate lanceolate or triangular.

47. D. calophylla.

Sect. 1. Eudryandra, Meissn.—Outer integuments of the inner faces of the two seeds united in a bifid plate separating from them. Involucres various.

See below, the observations under Sect. 2.

Series 1. Armatæ.—Flower-heads usually large, mostly terminal, enclosed in floral leaves longer than the flowers. Involucres broad. Perianths above 1 in. long. Stigmatic end of the style slender, often scarcely distinct. Leaves with prickly teeth or lobes.

This series differs from the Formosæ chiefly in the foliage.

1. D. quercifolia, Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 467. Branches stout, tomentose or villous. Leaves obovate-oblong or oblong-cuneate, undulate and deeply prickly-toothed or lobed, contracted into a short petiole, 3 to 4 in. long, flat, very rigid, veined and reticulate underneath but quite glabrous. Flower-heads terminal, very large, surrounded by floral leaves longer than the flowers. Involucre hemispherical or nearly globular, nearly 2 in. long, densely villous, the outer bracts subulate-acuminate, the inner ones linear or linear-lanceolate. Perianth about as long as the involucre, hoary-tomentose above the short glabrous base, the remainder silky-villous, the limb narrow, 3 lines long. Style longer the perianth, the stigmatic end long slender and furrowed. Capsule obovate-falcate, fully ½ in. broad.—F. Muell. Fragm. vii. 50.

W. Australia, Drummond, 4th coll. n. 307.

2. D. præmorsa, Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. ii. 265, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 467. Branches tomentose and sometimes hispid with spreading hards. Leaves obovate or oblong-cuneate, truncate, undulate, coarsely prickly-toothed or lobed, 1½ to 3 in. long, white underneath, with prominent transverse veins. Flower-heads terminal, surrounded by floral leaves at least as long as the flowers. Involucre broad, the outer bracts broadly lanceolate and tomentose, the inner ones narrow and acute, about half as long as the flowers. Perianth above 1 in. long, silky-villous, the limb 2 lines long, villous with longer hairs than those of the tube. Style longer than the perianth, with a distinctly sulcate stigmatic end of about 1 line. Capsule obovate-falcate, rather above ½ in. long.

W. Australia, Drummond, n. 26, 125, 2nd coll. n. 339, 5th coll. n. 422.

3. D. cuneata, R.Br. in Trans. Linn. Soc. x. 212, Prod. 397. A tall shrub, the branches rather thick, tomentose and often hispid with long spreading hairs. Leaves shortly petiolate, from obovate to oblong-cuneate, undulate and deeply prickly-toothed or almost entire, tapering at the case, 1½ to 2½ or rarely 3 in. long, penniveined and reticulate but not white underneath. Flower-heads terminal, closely surrounded by flower leaves longer than the flowers. Involucre broad, about ½ in. long, silky-tomentose, the outer bracts lanceolate and some of the almost leafy, the inner ones very narrow, passing into the filiform paleæ. Perianth about 1¼ in. long, hirsute with fine hairs, short on the tube rather longer on the limb, the limb narrow, acute, 2½ lines long. Style nearly 1½ in. long, the stigmatic end slender, obscurely furrowed. Capsule broadly rounded, about ½ in. diameter.—Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. i. 590, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 468.

W. Australia. King George's Sound or adjoining districts, R. Brown, Baxter, Drummond, n. 175, 3rd coll. n. 292, Maxwell.

4. D. falcata, R. Br. in Trans. Linn. Soc. x. 213, Prod. 397. A shrub of 4 or 5 ft., the young branches usually tomentose and hirsute with spreading hairs. Leaves more or less cuneate, pinnatifid or deeply toothed with lanceolate pungent-pointed teeth or lobes, tapering at the base but almost sessile, mostly 2 to 3 in. long, flat or undulate, very rigid and not white underneath. Flower-heads terminal, closely surrounded by flower leaves longer than the flowers. Involucres broadly ovoid or almost globular, 7 to 8 lines long, the outer bracts linear-lanceolate and tomentose, the inner ones narrow-linear. Perianth 1¼ to 1½ in. long, the tube woolly-tomentose above the glabrous base, the limb glabrous. Style scarcely exceeding the perianth, the stigmatic end slender and not very distinct. Capsule "1-seeded by abortion, the abortive ovule forming a wing-like appendage to the interseminal plate."—Hemiclidia baxteri, R. Br. Prot. Nov. 40; Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. i. 601, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 482; Bot. Reg. t. 1455.

W. Australia. King George's Sound or to the eastward, R. Brown, Baxter, Drummond, 4th coll. n. 321; near Cape Riche, Preiss, n. 527.

I have not succeeded in finding any capsules in any of our sets of Baxter's or of Drummond's specimens, but as far as I can understand the characters given, the difference in the fruit upon which the genus Hemiclidia was founded is merely the result of the abortion of one ovule, which occurs occasionally or perhaps constantly in one or two other species of Dryandra. The foliage and inflorescence of D. falcata are precisely those of D. armata, from which I am unable to distinguish flowering specimens except by the glabrous perianth-limb.

5. D. armata, R. Br. in Trans. Linn. Soc. x. 212, Prod. 397. A much-branched shrub of 2 to 4 ft., the young branches tomentose. Leaves 2 to 3 in. long, deeply pinnatifid with lanceolate or triangular pungent-pointed lobes, very rigid, flat or undulate, veined reticulate and sometimes slightly tomentose underneath. Flower-heads terminal, closely surrounded by floral leaves longer than the flowers. Involucre broadly ovoid or almost globular, about ¾ in. long; the bracts at first villous at length becoming glabrous, the outer ones broad, the inner narrow. Perianth above 1 in. long, more or less villous, the limb narrow, obtuse, becoming glabrous at the end but not entirely so as in that species. Style exceeding the perianth, with a very narrow furrowed stigmatic end of about 1½ lines. Capsule "ripening both seeds imbedded normally in the interseminal plate."—Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. i. 590, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 468; Bot. Mag. t. 3236; D. favosa, Lindl. Swan Riv. App. 33.

W. Australia. King George's Sound or neighbouring districts, R. Brown, Baxter, Drummond, n. 1, and 5th coll. n. 421; Swan river, Preiss, n. 519; Blackwood river and Toodyay, Oldfield; Mount Melville and sources of the Kalgan river, F. Mueller; summit of Cape Arid, Maxwell. I have not seen ripe capsules of this species.

6. D. longifolia, R. Br. in Trans. Linn. Soc. x. 215, Prod. 398. A tall shrub, with tomentose branches. Leaves narrow, 6 in. to 1 ft. long, pinnatifid with lanceolate or triangular rigid acute lobes, contiguous or distant, 2 to 3 lines long or longer when narrow, the undivided rhachis 1 to 2 lines broad, the margins revolute, the under surface hoary or white. Flower-heads large, terminating short branches, surrounded by long flower leaves. Involucre broad, 1½ in. long, the outer bracts with a short broad base and subulate recurved points, the inner ones linear-lanceolate and shortly acuminate but variable in breadth. Perianth silky-pubescent, 1½ in. long, the limb hirsute with a few longer hairs, narrow, 2½ lines long. Style shortly exceeding the perianth, the stigmatic end scarcely distinct, slightly angular.—Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 477; Bot. Mag. t. 1582; Sweet, Fl. Austral. t. 3; Paxt. Mag. iii. 171, with a fig.

W. Australia. Lucky Bay(?), R. Brown, Baxter; summit of Cape Arid, Maxwell.

7. D. Fraseri, R. Br. Prot. Nov. 39. An erect shrub of 2 or 3 ft., the young branches tomentose. Leaves narrow, 2 to 4 in. long, divided to the midrib into rather distant linear segments rigid and pungent-pointed, divaricate or recurved, 3 to 4 longs long, the margins revolute and narrowly decurrent to near the next segments. Flower-heads rather large and terminal or a few smaller ones on short axillary branches, all closely surrounded by flower leaves longer than the flowers. Involucre ¾ to 1 in. long, tomentose, the outer bracts broad at the base, tapering into long slender hairy points, the innermost linear. Perianth slightly silky except the glabrous base, 1¼ in. long, the limb narrow, about 2 lines long. Style exceeding the perianth, curved, the stigmatic end not thickened and only distinguishable by a somewhat darkened colour.—Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. i. 596, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 476.

W. Australia. Swan river, Charles Fraser, Drummond, n. 129, and 1st coll. n. 642; York district, Preiss, n. 517; Dundaragan and Port Gregory, Oldfield.

Series 2. Floribundæ.—Flower-heads small, mostly terminal, the floral leaves either shorter than the flowers or few and spreading, leaving the flowers more exposed than in any other series. Involucres broad. Perianths under 1 in. long. Stigmatic end of the style small, but thickened and distinct. Leaves with prickly or rigid teeth or lobes.

8. D. floribunda, R. Br. in Trans. Linn. Soc. x. 212, Prod. 397. A bushy shrub of 4 to 8 ft., the young shoots more or less silky-hairy. Leaves sessile or nearly so, obovate to cuneate, more or less undulate and prickly-toothed, especially towards the end, otherwise flat, neither prominently veined nor white underneath, all under 1 in. in some specimens, 2 in. long or even more in others. Flower-heads terminal, usually numerous, closely surrounded by floral leaves not exceeding the flowers. Involucre campanulate, under ½ in. long, pubescent; bracts not very acute, the outer ones lanceolate, the inner very narrow. Perianth not quite 1 in. long, the tube silky-pubescent above the glabrous base, the limb obtuse, almost glabrous. Style thickened and bulbous-like above the base, scarcely exceeding the perianth, the stigmatic end short, slightly clavate. Capsule obovate-falcate, ½ in. long in some specimens, smaller in others.—Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. i. 589, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 468; Josephia sessilis, Knight, Prot. 110.

W. Australia. King George's Sound, R. Brown, Baxter, and thence to Swan River, Charles Fraser, Drummond, n. 118, 1st coll. n. 638, 639, 2nd coll. n. 344, Preiss, n. 520, 521, Oldfield; Champion Bay, Oldfield.

Var. major. Branches more tomentose and hairy. Leaves 2 to 2½ in. long, more frequently cordate; flowers larger.—Bot. Mag. t. 1581.—Cape Naturalist, Oldfield.

The arborescent form mentioned by F. Mueller, Fragm. vi. 92, and vii. 50. is Banksia ilicifolia.

9. D. carduacea, Lindl. Swan Riv. App. 33. A tall shrub attaining sometimes 12 ft., the young branches slightly tomentose or glabrous. Leaves mostly sessile, linear-cuneate or lanceolate, undulate, deeply prickly-toothed or pinnatifid with pungent-pointed lobes, 1 to 2 or rarely 3 in. long, hoary or whitish underneath, but the margins not revolute. Flower-heads rather small, terminal, the floral leaves not exceeding the flowers. Involucre campanulate, about ½ in. long, the bracts very numerous, lanceolate or linear, with recurved tips. Perianth under 1 in. long, the limb about 1 line long, silky-hairy as well as the tube. Style scarcely exceeding the perianth, with a small slightly thickened stigmatic end. Capsule rounded, about 5 lines long and broad, 1-seeded by abortion in the one examined.—Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. i. 591, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 469; Bot. Mag. t. 4317.

W. Australia. Swan river, Drummond, 1st coll., Preiss, n. 516; Williams river and Toodyay, Oldfield. Some of Drummond's specimens belong to a form with longer and less prickly leaves and rather larger flower-heads, with the involucral bracts less squarrose, approaching in some respects D. falcata and D. armata, but with the habit and shorter floral leaves of the Floribundæ.

10. D. carlinoides, Meisn. in Pl. Preiss. ii. 267, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 479. An erect shrub, with the branches often almost verticillate round the old flower-heads (proceeding from the axils of some of the leafy bracts). Leaves linear or lanceolate, rigid and pungent-pointed, entire or with 1 or 2 prickly teeth on each side near the end, the margins revolute, tapering at the base, ¾ to 1 in. long, hoary or white underneath. Flower-heads terminal, usually numerous. Involucre hemispherical or nearly globular, ¾ to 1 in. diameter, more or less villous, with a few outer leafy bracts, longer than the flowers, but spreading and not enclosed in floral leaves, mostly dilated at the base and passing into the imbricate bracts, which are very numerous, lanceolate with long narrow points. Paleæ plumose with long woolly hairs. Perianths glabrous, about 7 lines long, the limb narrow, mucronate, 1½ lines long. Style rather longer than the perianth, the stigmatic end short, slightly thickened and angular. Capsules scarcely above ¼ in. long.

W. Australia, Drummond, 2nd coll. n. 345.

11. D. polycephala, Benth. Branches rather slender, glabrous or nearly so. Leaves narrow, divided to the midrib into small rather distant segments, the lower leaves 3 to 6 in. long with short broad obtuse segments, those of the flowering branches 1 to 2 in. long, very spreading or recurved, with narrow acute segments of 1 to 2 lines; all the segments very rigid, with recurved margins decurrent along the rhachis to the next segment. Flower-heads small, numerous, terminating lateral branches or crowded at the end of the principal ones, the floral leaves few and spreading. Involucre broadly campanulate, 3 to 4 lines long, the bracts numerous, narrow, with subulate usually recurved points. Perianth-tube about ½ in. long, silky-villous except the minute glabrous base, the limb glabrous, about 1 line long. Style longer than the perianth, with a small but distinct clavate stigmatic end. Capsule broadly obovate, not 3 lines long.—D. squarrosa, Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. ii. 266, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 474, not of R. Br.

W. Australia. Drummond, 1st coll., 2nd coll. n. 342.

12. D. Kippistiana, Meiss. in Hook. Kew Journ. vii. 122. and in DC. Prod. xiv. 473. An erect shrub of 2 or 3 ft., the branches loosely hoary-tomentose, the young shoots often hairy. Leaves narrow, 1½ to 4 in. long, pinnate; segments divided to the midrib, numerous, obliquely triangular, obtuse or acute, 1 to 2 lines long, the margins revolute, decurrent along the rhachis, but shortly so the segments being much closer than in B. polycephala, usually white underneath. Flower heads scarcely larger than in D. polycephala, terminal with a few also on very short axillary branches, the floral leaves few and spreading. Involucre broadly campanulate, under ½ in. long, the bracts not numerous, broad and tomentose at the base, tapering into fine points ciliate with long hairs. Perianth-tube nearly ½ in. long, loosely hairy above the glabrous base, the limb narrow, above 1 line long, densely villous with longer hairs. Style longer than the perianth, with a small but distinct dark-coloured obtuse stigmatic end.—D. foliolata, Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. ii. 266, not of R. Br.

W. Australia, Drummond, 4th coll. n. 343; near Dundaragan, Oldfield.

Series 3. Concinnæ.—Flower-heads small, broad, axillary, the bracts narrow, the floral leaves usually spreading. Perianth under ¾ in. long. Stigmatic end of the style small but thickened and distinct. Leaves flat or nearly so, tomentose underneath, semipinnatifid with short acute mucronate or rarely pungent-pointed lobes.

This series has the flower-heads of the Floribundæ but axillary, with the leaves of the Plumosæ but less deeply divided.

13. D. squarrosa, R. Br. Prot. Nov. 38. A shrub with rather slender branches, at first tomentose but soon becoming glabrous. Leaves narrow, the lower ones 4 to 8 in. long, those of the flowering branches usually about half that length, notched, prickly-toothed or pinnatifid, with short pungent-pointed or angular rather distant teeth or lobes rarely reaching half-way to the midrib, the entire centre of the leaf of a uniform breadth of 1½ to 2½ lines, the whole leaf flat or undulate, hoary or tomentose underneath. Flower-heads small, often numerous, mostly axillary surrounded by a few spreading floral leaves. Involucre broadly campanulate, under ½ in. long, the bracts numerous, narrow, acute or with subulate often recurved points. Perianths silky-villous, about 7 lines long, the limb about 1 line long, villous with longer hairs. Style longer than the perianth, with a small slightly thickened stigmatic end.—Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 474, as to Baxter's specimens only.

W. Australia. King George's Sound or to the eastward, Baxter, Harvey.

14. D. serra, R. Br. Prot. Nov. 38. An erect shrub, from 5 to 10 or even 15 ft. high. Leaves 2 to 6 in. long, divided halfway to the midrib into numerous broadly triangular regular lobes, mucronate with short rigid points, flat, reticulate above, tomentose underneath. Flower-heads small, on very short axillary peduncles or branches, surrounded by a few spreading floral leaves. Involucral bracts not very numerous, lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, acute, usually dark-coloured with densely ciliate margins, the inner ones 3 to 4 lines long. Perianths about 7 lines long, slender, silky-villous, the limb small, oblong, obtuse. Style about ¾ in. long, with a small but thickened stigmatic end. Capsule falcate, often ½ in. long.—Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. i. 581, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 470.

W. Australia. King George's Sound or neighbouring districts, Baxter, Drummond, n. 172, 3rd coll. n. 296, Preiss, n. 513; Wuljenup, Maxwell.

15. D. concinna, R. Br. Prot. Nov. 38, not of Meissn. A shrub, probably tall, with tomentose branches, Leaves 2 to 4 in. long, pinnatifid with triangular finely pointed lobes, reticulate above and tomentose underneath as in D. serra, but the leaf usually rather broader, with fewer labes reaching about halfway to the midrib. Flower-heads small, globular, on very short axillary peduncles surrounded by spreading floral leaves as in D. serra, but the bracts more numerous, oblong or oblong-linear, very obtuse and tomentose all over, the inner ones 3 to 4 lines long. Perianths more villous than in D. serra, otherwise apparently the same but only seen withered. Capsule nearly ½ inch long, oblique but not so falcate as in D. serra.

W. Australia. King George's Sound or to the eastward, Baxter, Drummond, n. 101.

16. D. foliolata, R. Br. Prot. Nov. 38. Apparently a tall shrub, the branches tomentose and hirsute with spreading hairs or nearly glabrous. Leaves 3 to 6 in. long, ½ to 1 in. broad, divided mare than halfway to the midrib into obliquely ovate-triangular lobes, acute or mucronate, flat or nearly so, reticulate above, tomentose and transversely veined underneath. Flower-heads small, globular, on very short axillary peduncles or branches, surrounded by spreading floral leaves. Involucral bracts not very numerous, linear, softly villous, 3 or 4 lines long, mostly expanded at the end into a small lamina. Perianths very villous, about ½ in. long. Style ¾ in. long, with a small but thickened stigmatic end. Capsule obliquely rounded, about 5 lines broad.—Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 471; D. mutica, Meissn. l.c.

W. Australia. King George's Sound or neighbouring districts, Baxter, Drummond, 4th coll. n. 309; Stirling Range, Oldfield, F. Mueller.

Series 4. Formosæ.—Flower-heads usually large, broad, terminal or axillary, surrounded by long floral leaves. Involucral bracts broad, villous. Styles long with a long narrow stigmatic end. Leaves flat or nearly so, tomentose underneath, pinnatifid or pinnate, with numerous contiguous triangular lobes or segments, acute or mucronate but not pungent-pointed.

The inflorescence and flowers are nearly those of the Armatæ, but the foliage gives a very different aspect to the specimens.

17. D. stupposa, Lindl. Swan Riv. App. 33. A shrub of about 10 ft., closely resembling D. formosa, but the leaves are not divided to the midrib, the lobes often larger and more acute, and the flower-heads, either terminal or on short lateral branches, are rather larger. Perianth nearly 1½ in. long, woolly-villous above the glabrous base, the upper part of the tube and limb silky-villous. Style longer than the perianth, with a narrow furrowed stigmatic end.—Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. i. 591, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 470.

W. Australia. Swan River, Drummond, 1st coll. n. 643; near Grantham, Preiss, n. 502 (the latter specimen not seen).

18. D. nobilis, Lindl. Swan Riv. App. 33. A shrub of 4 to 7 ft. very nearly allied to D. formosa. Leaves longer, the lobes broader, separated by more open sinuses and not always divided to the midrib. Flower-heads still larger than in D. formosa, but the involucre rather small, and all on exceedingly short lateral branches, surrounded by numerous floral leaves. Perianths 1½ in. long, woolly-villous above the glabrous base, then silky-villous. Styles nearly 2 in. long.—Meissn, in Pl. Preiss. i. 592, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 469; Bot. Mag. t. 4633, copied into Lem. Fl. Jard. t. 226, and into Fl. des Serres. vii. t. 728.

W. Australia. Swan River, Drummond, 1st coll. n. 646; near Wicklow, Preiss, n. 523 (Meissn.).

19. D. mucronulata, R. Br. in Trans. Linn. Soc. x. 213, Prod. 398. A shrub very closely allied to D. nobilis and D. formosa. Branches tomentose and villous. Leaves very long and narrow, with very numerous traingular-falcate rigid acute lobes which as in D. nobilis do not reach the midrib, all nearly flat and tomentose underneath. Flower-heads on very short axillary branches or almost sessile, surrounded by numerous floral leaves, smaller than in D. formosa. Outer involucral bracts ovate acuminate, the inner ones oblong-linear, obtuse, nearly 1 in. long and 2 lines broad, silky-villous. Perianths 8 to 10 lines long, woolly-villous above the glabrous base, the remainder silky-villous but the hairs not so long and fulvous as in D. formosa. Style under 1 in. long. Capsule nearly ¾ in. broad.—Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 470.

W. Australia. King George's Sound or the neighbouring districts, R. Brown, Baxter, Drummond, 4th coll. n. 311; Gordon plains, Maxwell; summits of Stirling Range, F. Mueller.

20. D. formosa, R. Br. in Trans. Linn. Soc. x. 213, t. 3, Prod. 397. An erect shrub attaining 8 to 15 ft., the branches tomentose and often hirsute with long fine spreading hairs. Leaves 4 to 8 in. long, regularly divided to the midrib into obliquely triangular or broadly falcate segments, 2 to 3 lines long and broad, mostly acute, flat and not very thick, tomentose underneath. Flower-heads terminal, broad, surrounded by floral leaves longer than the flowers, the inner ones dilated at the base and passing into the involucral bracts. Involucre hemispherical, 1 to 1½ in. diameter, the outer bracts ovate acuminate, the inner ones narrow and obtuse, all tomentose-villous. Perianths 1¼ to 1½ in. long, woolly-villous above the short glabrous base, the remainder silky-villous, the limb narrow acuminate, about 2 lines long, densely villous, with long often fulvous hairs. Style scarcely longer than the perianth, with a narrow furrowed stigmatic end. Capsule about 5 lines long and 3 lines broad.—Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. i. 593 and in DC. Prod. xiv. 471; Sweet, Fl. Austral. t. 53; Bot. Mag. t. 4102.

W. Australia. King George's Sound, R. Brown, Charles Fraser, Drummond, 3rd coll. n. 293, Preiss, n. 501, and many others. The flower-heads and flowers vary in size, even on the same specimens; some specimens from Barker and from Oldfield have them all smaller than usual. The capsules appear to be always small.

21. D. Baxteri, R.Br. Prot. Nov. 38. A shrub of 4 to 6 ft., the branches densely tomentose. Leaves very narrow, often above 1 ft. long, divided to the midrib into very numerous small triangular-falcate rigid acute segments, the largest scarcely 2 lines long and broad, all with recurved margins and white underneath. Flower-heads almost sessile in the axils, surrounded by long floral leaves. Involucre hemispherical, above 1 in. broad, densely ferruginous-villous, the bracts lanceolate, acuminate, the inner ones ¾ to 1 in. long. Perianths nearly 1 in. long, woolly near the base, then silky-villous, the limb 2 lines long, narrow, acute, tipped with a tuft of long fine hairs. Style exceeding the perianth, the slender stigmatic end scarcely distincts.—Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. i. 593, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 471.

W. Australia. King George's Sound or to the eastward, Baxter, Drummond, Preiss, n. 500.

Series 5. Niveæ.—Low shrubs with a creeping trunk and very short ascending flowering stems bearing one or few ovoid flower-heads surrounded by long floral leaves. Leaves pinnate with numerous rigid segments, the margins usually but not always revolute and white underneath.

The species here enumerated differ in habit from all except some states of D. vestita and two species of the section Aphragmia, which require further comparison with D. Preissii as to their carpological characters.

22. D. nivea, R. Br. in Trans. Linn. Soc. x. 214, Prod. 398. A dwarf shrub, the stems sometimes scarcely any besides the underground or creeping trunk, rarely ascending to nearly 1 ft. Leaves 4 to 8 in. long, pinnate, divided almost or quite to the midrib into numerous regular triangular or falcate segments, obtuse or rarely acute, 1 to 3 lines long, verying in breadth, those towards the end of the leaf usually separated by acute sinuses, the lower ones more distant and decurrent, or all different in this respect in different leaves, all rather thick, with revolute margins, white underneath. Flower-heads terminal, closely surrounded by long floral leaves. Involucre ovoid, usually about 1 in. long; bracts numerous, narrow, glabrous or minutely ciliate, or with the ends more or less woolly, the outer short ones sometimes subulate, the inner ones obtuse or scarcely acute. Perianths about as long as the involucre, loosely villous except the undivided base, the limb scarcely 1½ lines long. Style considerable longer than the perianth, with a small narrow stigmatic end slightly thickened at the base. Capsule obovate-falcate, about ½ in. broad.—Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. i. 594, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 472; Banksia nivea, Labill. Voy. i. 411, t. 24; Josephia rachidifolia, Knight, Prot. 111.

W. Australia. King George's Sound, R. Brown, and many others; eastward to Cape Legrand, Labillardière; northward to Vasse, Swan, Moore and Murchison rivers, Drummond, Preiss, Oldfield, and others.

This species, evidently widely spread in the sandy plains of W. Australia, includes Drummond's, n. 64, 125, 134, 1st coll. n. 640, 641, 645, 2nd coll. n. 346, 5th coll. n. 419, and Preiss's n. 506, 510, and (according to Meissner) 504 and 508, besides numerous specimens from other collectors. Drummond's 4th coll. n. 313, with rather longer flowers (D. brownii, Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. i. 595, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 472), Preiss's n. 511, from near Pointwater, with the involucral bracts rather more woolly at the end (D. Lindleyana, Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. i. 598, and in DC. l.c.); and Drummond's 6th coll. n. 212, from between Moore and Murchison rivers, with the leaf-segments rather narrower and more distinct than usual (D. stenoprion, Meissn. in Hook. Kew Journ. vii. 122, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 473), appear to me to be scarcely distinguishable from specimens of the commoner forms even as marked varieties.

23. D. arctotodis, R.Br. Prot. Nov. 39. A dwarf shrub with the habit of D. nivea. Leaves much more rigid, 4 to 8 in. long, deeply divided into numerous linear-falcate rigid acute lobes, 2 to 4 lines long, separated by broad sinuses, with revolute margins, white underneath. Flower-heads rather large, terminal, surrounded by numerous long floral leaves ciliate at the base with long spreading hairs. Involucre ovoid, above 1 in. long, the bracts numerous, oblong-lanceolate or the inner ones almost linear, nearly glabrous except the densely ciliate margins. Perianths 1¼ in. long, the undivided glabrous base longer than in most species, the remainder loosely villous. Style nearly 2 in. long, with a small narrow dark-coloured stigmatic end.—Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. i. 595, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 475; Bot. Mag. t. 4035.

W. Australia. King George's Sound or neighbouring districts, Baxter, Drummond, 5th coll. n. 418; Mount Manypeak, Preiss, n. 515.

Var. tortifolia. Leaf-lobes narrower and more rigid, not so white underneath.—D. tortifolia, Kipp. in Hook. Kew Journ. vii. 121; Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 475.—Between Moore and Murchison rivers, Drummond, 6th coll. n. 211. A specimen of Drummond's 3rd coll. suppl. n. 101, is intermediate as it were between this and the typical form as to foliage, but is not in flower.

24. D. nana, Meissn. in Hook. Kew Journ. vii. 121. and in DC. Prod. xiv. 475. A dwarf or creeping shrub with the habit of D. nivea. Leaves 2 to 4 in. long, crowded round the flower-heads on very short ascending stems, divided almost to the midrib into linear-lanceolate acute lobels, all very spreading and often falcate, 2 to 3 lines long, the margins not revolute, scarcely white underneath, with prominent primary veins. Involucre closely sessile within the leaves, ovoid, under ½ in. long, the bracts narrow-lanceolate, silky-villous, the outer ones with subulate points, the inner ones acute. Perianths with the entire base about ½ in. long villous towards the end, the divided portion of the tube about as long, the limb ovoid, reflexed before opening, slightly hairy. Style hairy, very long, doubled down to the limb until released, and then straightening to a length of about 3 in., with a large thick ovoid stigmatic end.

W. Australia. Near Dundaragan, Drummond, 6th coll. n. 210. With the habit of the Niveæ, this species has a somewhat different foliage, and differs from the whole genus in the remarkable style.

25. D. Preissii, Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. i. 599, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 480. A dwarf shrub with short procumbent stems tomentose and with linear-lanceolate scales on the base of each year's growth. Leaves rarely above 6 in. long, pinnate; segments numerous, linear, acute or mucronate, rigid, with revolute margins, entire or pinnatifid, the larger ones above 1 in. long, but often all under ½ in., tomentose underneath. Flower-heads terminating the short ascending stems, with a few long floral leaves round them. Involucre ovoid, about 1 line long, the bracts numerous, all narrow, the outer ones with a short broader base and long subulate ends, the others linear or linear-lanceolate, flat and rigid, glabrous or loosely tomentose. Perianths about 1 in. long, loosely hirsute, the tube very slender, the limb broader, about 1 line long. Style 1¼ in. long, the stigmatic end small, narrow-conical. Fruit unknown.

W. Australia. Drummond, 2nd coll. n. 301; Gordon river, Preiss, n. 528; Stirling range and Hay river, F. Mueller. This species is placed next to D. bipinnatifida by Meissner on account of the foliage; the inflorescence and involucre, usually more indicative of true affinity, are more those of the Niveæ. The sectional character and consequently the real place cannot be ascertained until the fruit shall have been examined.

Series 6. Obvallatæ.—Flower-heads axillary, ovoid or small, enveloped in long floral leaves. Leaves either pinnate with very small rigid segments or more frequently pinnatifid with very rigid pungent-pointed lobes.

26. D. sclerophylla, Meissn. in Hook. Kew Journ. vii. 123. and in DC. Prod. xiv. 474. Apparently a low but erect shrub, not much branched. Leaves under 3 in. long, pinnate; segments numerous, triangular, acute, rarely 2 lines long, rigid, with revolute margins shortly decurrent to the next segments. Flower-heads not numerous, axillary or sometimes terminal, closely surrounded by numerous floral leaves of 2 or 3 in. Involucre 7 to 8 lines long, the bracts lanceolate, tapering into plumose points. Perianth about ¾ in. long, silky-villous, the oblong obtuse limb becoming almost glabrous. Style rather longer than the perianth, with a slightly thickened stigmatic end.

W. Australia. Between Moore and Murchison rivers, Drummond, 6th coll. n. 209. The species is very nearly allied to D. pulchella.

27. D. pulchella, Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 473. Apparently a low but stout and erect shrub, the branches scarcely tomentose. Leaves 3 to 6 in. long, crowded, pinnate, with numerous rigid spreading acute or pungent-pointed segments rarely above 1 line long, the margins revolute and decurrent to the next segment. Flower-heads on short axillary branches closely surrounded by floral leaves. Involucre small, oboid; bracts not numerous, the outer ones more or less leafy, the inner ones narrow, with long points. Perianth about 1 in. long, the tube slightly silky, the limb oblong, covered with rather long silky hairs. Style when set free nearly 1½ in. long, with a narrow but distinct stigmatic cone.

W. Australia. Drummond, 4th coll. n. 312.

28. D. plumosa, R. Br. in Trans. Linn. Soc. x. 214, Prod. 398. A shrub of about 2 ft., the branches tomentose and sometimes densely villous with fine spreading hairs. Leaves 6 in. to 1 ft. long, deeply pinnatifid with triangular rigid acute lobes, the larger ones 2 to 3 lines long and broad, the sinuses broad, the margins recurved, tomentose underneath. Flower-heads small, sessile in the axils, surrounded by a few small floral leaves. Involucre 1 in. long, or rather more, the bracts narrow, with long filiform plumose-hairy points. Perianth ½ in. long, densely woolly-villous, the limb obling, about 1 line long. Style longer than the perianth, with a small slightly furrowed stigmatic end. Capsule about 7 lines broad.—Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. i. 592, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 470.

W. Australia. King George's Sound and neighbouring districts, R. Brown, Baxter, Drummond, 4th coll. n. 310, Preiss, n. 507, Maxwell.

29. D. seneciifolia, R.Br. Prot. Nov. 38. A shrub of 2 or 3 ft., with stout erect tomentose stems, sometimes nearly simple. Leaves crowded, 2 to 4 in. long, deeply pinnatifid with rather distant linear or lanceolate pungent-pointed lobes 1 to 2 or rarely 3 lines long, the margins revolute, white underneath. Flower-heads small, narrow, sessile in the axils and buried in the numerous floral leaves. Involucral bracts, many of them leafy, the inner ones linear-subulate, with plumose-villous points, about ½ in. long. Perianth about 5 lines long, woolly-villous above the glabrous base, the limb glabrous or sprinkled with few silky hairs. Style scarcely exceeding the perianth, the stigmatic end not thickened and smooth. Capsule ovate, scarcely ¼ in. long.—Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 476; D. cryptocephala, Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. i. 596, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 479; Planch. Hort. Donat. t. 2.

W. Australia. King George's Sound or adjoining districts, Baxter, Drummond, 3rd coll. n. 297, 4th voll. n. 316; rocky ridges, Perongerup range, Maxwell.

30. D. vestita, Kipp. in Hook. Kew Journ. vii. 121. Stems in our specimens erect from a very thick woody trunk, ½ to 1½ ft. high, very rigid, hoary-tomentose or almost woolly. Leaves linear or linear-cuneate, 3 to 5 in. long, very rigid, bordered by distant teeth or lobes rarely reaching halfway to the midrib, all divaricate acute or pungent-pointed, 1 to 1½ lines long, the entire centre or rhachis 1½ to 3 lines broad, transversely reticulate underneath. Flower-heads axillary and terminal, closely surrounded by floral leaves. Involucre ovoid-oblong, softly villous, 1¼ to 1½ in. long; bracts numerous, narrow linear-lanceolate or linear, acuminate, articular above the base. Perianth above 1 in. long, woolly-villous above the glabrous base, the limb glabrous, 3 lines long. Style about as long as the perianth, the long stigmatic end scarcely distinguishable. Capsule oblique, above ½ in. long.—Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 477.

W. Australia. Drummond, n. 158, and 5th coll. suppl. n. 20. This species approaches the Niveæ in habit but is much more rigid and erect, with the thistle-like aspect of the Obvallatæ.

31. D. cirsioides, Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 476. Branches stout, tomentose and villous. Leaves crowded, 2 to 3 in. long, deeply pinnatifid, but not quite to the midrib; the lobes lanceolate, ¼ to nearly ½ in. long, very rigid and pungent-pointed, the margins slightly recurved, hoary or whitish underneath. Flower-heads axillary, enclosed in numerous floral leaves. Involucre ovoid, nearly 1 in. long, villous, the bracts numerous, linear-lanceolate or linear, rigid, appressed. Perianths (only seen very few in a withered state) above 1 in. long, slender, villous above the glabrous base, the limb very narrow, 3 lines long. Styles all fallen from our specimens, the stigmatic end according to Meissner slender.

W. Australia. Drummond, 4th coll. n. 308.

32. D. Hewardiana, Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 477. Branches tomentose or nearly glabrous. Leaves from 3 or 4 in. to nearly 1 ft. long, pinnatifid, the lobes reaching more than half way to the midrib, obliquely lanceolate or triangular, rigid and pungent-pointed, often distance, 2 to 4 lines long, with recurved margins, white underneath. Flower-heads axillary, distant or crowded, surrounded by a few long floral leaves. Involucre campanulate, rarely above ½ in. long, the outer bracts rather broad and acute, the inner ones narrow, all tomentose or villous and some or all tapering into fine often recurved points. Perianths nearly 1 in. long, woolly-villous above the short glabrous base, the remainder densely silky-hairy except the glabrous limb. Style not much longer than the perianth, with a small slightly clavate stigmatic end. Capsule about ½ in. long, densely villous.

W. Australia. Drummond, 4th coll. n. 315. This and the following species have the involucres and flowers almost of the Concinnæ.

33. D. patens, Benth. A branching shrub, nearly allied to D. Hewardiana, but with the fewer more spreading floral leaves of the Concinnæ and a different involucre. Leaves 4 to 10 in. long, deeply pinnatifid, the lobes lanceolate or triangular, very rigid and pungent-pointed, mostly distant, with recurved margins, white underneath. Flower-heads axillary, sessile or shortly pedunculate. Involucre capanulate, under ½ in. long as in D. Hewardiana, but tomentose not villous, the bracts broader obtuse or rarely mucronate, all appressed. Perianth nearly 1 in. long, woolly-villous above the short glabrous base, then silky-hairy except the glabrous limb. Style scarcely exceeding the perianth, with a small slightly clavate stigmatic end.—D. concinna, Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. ii. 266, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 477, not of R. Br.

W. Australia. Drummond, 2nd coll. n. 341.

34. D. conferta, Benth. A shrub apparently low, but with the stout erect stems of D. circioides and its allies. Leaves crowded, narrow, 3 to 6 in. long, pinnatifid, the lobes rather distant, rigid, pungent-pointed, white underneath with revolute margins as in D. Hewardiana. Flower-heads axillary, closely surrounded by long floral leaves. Involucre ovoid, villous and perhaps somewhat viscid, nearly ¾ in.long, the bracts numerous, narrow-lanceolate or linear, obtuse or scarcely acute, closely appressed or inflexed after flowering. Perianths under 1 in. long, densely woolly-villous above the short glabrous base, the limb narrow, 1½ lines long, villous with a few long hairs, as well as the upper part of the tube. Style scarcely exceeding the perianth, with a small slender stigmatic end.

W. Australia. Drummond, 3rd coll. n. 295. These specimens referred by Meissner to D. patens (D. concinna, Meissn., not of R. Br.), with doubt in Pl. Preiss. ii. 266, more positively in DC. Prod. xiv. 477, appear to me to differ too much in the involucres and perianths to be united with that species.

There are other specimens from Drummond, n. 7, with the foliage of this and the preceding species, with glabrous lanceolate involucral bracts approaching those of D. serratuloides; the flowers are however all fallen away, and the species, if really distinct, cannot be accurately described.

35. D. horrida, Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 476. Branches thick, hoary-tomentose. Leaves crowded, narrow, 3 to 6 in. long, pinnatifid, the lobes distant, rigid, pungent-pointed, 1½ to 3 lines long, divaricate or incurved, the margins of the lobes and of the narrow rhachis closely revolute, the under surface hoary or white where open. Flower-heads axillary, closely surrounded by long floral leaves. Involucre narrow ovoid, the bracts linear or a few of the shorter ones lanceolate with long points, all villous with rather long soft hairs, the inner ones 1½ in. long, but the upper half reflexed when the flowers are open and falling away soon after. Perianths 1¼ in. long, shortly woolly-villous above the glabrous base, the limb narrow, 3 lines long, glabrous as well as the upper part of the tube. Style longer than the perianth, with a long stigmatic end scarcely distinguishable from the remainder.

W. Australia. Drummond, n. 156, 4th coll. n. 314.

36. D. serratuloides, Meissn. in Hook. Kew Journ. vii. 123. and in DC. Prod. xiv. 475. Branches hoary-tomentose. Leaves crowded, 2 to 3 in. long, deeply pinnatifid but not quite to the midrib, the lobels linear-lanceolate, often falcate, rigid and pungent-pointed, nearly flat, pale or scarcely white underneath, 2 to 4 lines long. Flower-heads axillary, closely surrounded by floral leaves. Involucre broadly ovoid or almost globular, about ¾ in. long, the bracts lanceolate or the outer ones ovate, obtuse, appressed, at first minutely ciliate, at length glabrous and smooth. Perianths about 1 in. long, silky-hairy except the glabrous base, and the hairs of the limb fewer and deciduous. Style considerably longer than the perianth, the stigmatic end not thicker but darker coloured and furrowed.

W. Australia. Moore river, Drummond, 6th coll. n. 213.

37. D. comosa, Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 478. Branches slightly tomentose, Leave 6 in. to above 1 ft. long, very narrow, rigid, flexuose, bordered by small pungent-pointed distant teeth or lobes, 1 to 1½ lines long, the margins of the teeth and rhachis revolute, leaving a narrow white under surface or channel between them and the broad midrib. Flower-heads axillary, with a few long floral leaves round them. Involucre broadly ovoid, 1¼ to 1½ in. long, the outer bracts ovate with short points, the inner ones lanceolate to linear, acute or the innermost almost obtuse, all glabrous or the margins minutely ciliate. Paleæ of the receptacle very slender but longer than in most species. Perianth-tube ¾ in. long, villous in the upper part of the undivided base, the limb narrow, about 2 lines long, silky-hairy. Style exceeding the perianth, the stigmatic end not thicker, but slightly furrowed.

W. Australia. Drummond, 4th coll. n. 313.

Series 7. Gymnocephalæ.—Flower-heads lateral, on very short scale peduncles without floral leaves outside the involucre. Involucral bracts very numerous and narrow, a few of them leaf-like in one species.

38. D. Shuttleworthiana, Meissn. in Hook. Kew Journ. vii. 122. and in DC. Prod. xiv. 474. Apparently a low shrub, the leafy branches hoary-tomentose. Leaves narrow, 2 to 4 in. long, divided almost to the midrib into numerous contiguous obliquely-triangular lobes of 1 to 2 lines, all rather obtuse, rigid, with recurved margins, white underneath. Flower-heads almost sessile on the main stem below the leafy branches and without floral leaves, the very short peduncle covered with small or subulate and recurved scales. Involucre campanulate, the bracts narrow, mostly linear, very numerous, the inner ones 1½ in. long, recurved or reflexed from the middle, the long filiform ends usually ciliate with long fine hairs. Perianths 1 in. long or rather more, woolly-villous above the glabrous base, the limb very narrow, 3 lines long, glabrous. Style not exceeding the perianth, the stigmatic end scarcely distinguishable from the remainder. Capsule obovate, nearly ¾ in. long, densely rufous-villous.

W. Australia. Between Moore and Murchison rivers, Drummond, 6th coll. n. 208.

39. D. speciosa, Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 479. Branches erect, tomentose. Leaves very narrow-linear, mucronate-acute, quite entire, with closely revolute margins, 3 to 5 in. long. Flower-heads very large, nodding, terminating very short leafy branches but not closely surrounded by floral leaves, the very short peduncles covered by small scales. Involucre very broad and above 2 in. long, the bracts very numerous, linear with fine points at first elegantly ciliate with spreading hairs which wear off. Perianth 1¼ to 1½ in. long and therefore shorter than the involucre, woolly-hirsute above the short glabrous base, the upper half glabrous, the limb very narrow, 4 lines long. Style scarcely exceeding the perianth, the stigmatic end not distinguishable from the remainder.

W. Australia, Drummond, 5th coll. suppl. n. 19.

40. D. tridentata, Meissn. in Hook. Kew Journ. vii. 120. and in DC. Prod. xiv. 479. Stems 6 in. to 1 ft. high from an underground creeping trunk. Leaves linear or linear-cuneate, mostly 3-toothed at the end, tapering into a very short petiole, 1 to 1½ in. long, flat, prominently reticulate underneath. Flower-heads large, on very short peduncles from below the foliage, leafless except a few narrow scales passing into the outer involucral bracts. Involucres broad, hemispherical, a few of the outer bracts leaf-like and longer than the flowers but mostly entire and dilated at the base, passing into ovate-lanceolate bracts with long narrow points and these again into the inner linear-lanceolate ones, the paleæ within the flowers few and very narrow. Perianths about 1 in. long, loosely villous, the limb narrow and acute. Style much longer, rarely quite straight, the slightly furrowed stigmatic end scarcely distinct. Capsule above ½ in. broad.

W. Australia. Near Dundaragan, Drummond, 6th coll. n. 207.

Sect. 2. Aphragmia.—Outer integuments of the 2 seeds in each capsule not connate or readily separable from each other, either remaining adnate to the seeds leave no loose plate between them, or separating from the seeds and forming two parallel plates between them. Involucres large, with numerous broad bracts.

As far as known the carpological differences between the two sections of Dryandra appear to be constant, but there are several species of both in which the seed has not been examined, and the characters they furnish are very little available for practical purposes. The involucres, however, give to the species here included in Aphragmia a different aspect from all others of the genus. The structure of the seeds is perhaps not so different in the two as would at first appear. In both the nucleus has a double integument, whilst the wing is apparently formed of a prolongation of the outer integument, only with a different venation in the inner and outer layer (the prolongation of the inner and outer faces of the seed) which occasions the ready separation of the two layers when ripe. In Eudryandra, as in Banksia, this outer integument, wing-like, detaches itself from the inner face of the seed, becomes or remains connate with the corresponding integument of the other seed, to the extent of the nucleus, the wing-like prolongations forming the two wings or lobes to the plate thus interposed between the ripe seeds, the wing-like prolongation of the outer integument on the outer face forming the simple wing to the seed. In Aphragmia the outer integument either remains adherent to the nucleus on both faces, the wing-like prolongations forming a double wing of which the external layer is deciduous and has been called an appendicular membrane, although the homologue of the wing in Eudryandra, or on the inner faces of the two seeds the respective outer integuments separate from the nucleus bearing with them their respective wing-like prolongations and forming two plates between the seeds. The species in which the latter peculiarity has been observed, D. bipinnatifida, has been separated on that account into a distinct section, Diplophragma, but in the few seeds that I have been able to examine, the separation of the integument from the nucleus when not consolidated with the corresponding integument of the other seed has not appeared to me to be at all constant. The whole question requires further investigation on the part of those who may have a sufficient supply of good fruits of the several species.

41. D. tenuifolia, R. Br. in Trans. Linn. Soc. x. 215, Prod. 398. A robust shrub, sometimes low and procumbent, sometimes erect bushy and attaining 3 or 4 ft., the branches nearly glabrous, with few narrow scales at the base of each year's shoot. Leaves very narrow, often 6 to 8 in. long, with closely revolute margins, tomentose underneath, rarely all entire, frequently toothed towards the end or in the upper half only, or in the typical forms regularly divided for more than half the length or quite to the base into short recurved lobes or teeth. Flower-heads large, lateral without any or with very few small linear floral leaves. Involucres at first ovoid, at length very broad, black and glabrous or when young slightly woolly, 1½ to 2 in. long; outer bracts broad, sometimes with short subulate points, inner ones broadly linear, obtuse. Perianths not exceeding the involucre, villous above the glabrous face, pubescent or glabrous towards the end, the limb very narrow, 3 lines long. Style not exceeding the perianth, with a slightly furrowed but not thickened stigmatic end. Capsule above ½ in. broad. Seeds (in the fruit examined perhaps not quite ripe) entirely separating without leaving any intermediate plate, the wing very thin though formed of two separable layers.—Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. i. 597, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 478; Bot. Mag. t. 3513; D. uncata, A. Cunn. Herb.

W. Australia. King George's Sound or to the eastward, R. Brown, Baxter, Drummond, 3rd coll. n. 294; Beaufort river, Preiss, n. 505; Tone river, Oldfield.—In Drummond's n. 294 the involucres are some of them as large as in D. proteoides.

Var. elegans. Leaves as in the typical form divided into numerous small segments with revolute margins white underneath; flower-heads and flowers smaller, the perianths more villous.—D. elegans, Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 473.—W. Australia, Drummond, 4th coll. n. 317, Maxwell. In the only capsule I could examine I found only one perfect seed with two equal wings, each formed of 2 plates, probably the outer integuments of both seeds had attained their full growth and become consolidated at the base, the nucleus of one of them having aborted.

42. D. proteoides, Lindl. Swan Riv. App. 33. Very near D. tenuifolia, the stems more scaly, the leaves longer, broader although always under ½ in. broad, more rigid, divided into triangular rigid lobes contiguous or distant, very acute or even pungent-pointed or rarely almost obtuse. Flower-heads larger than in D. tenuifolia, on short lateral peduncles covered with imbricated scales without floral leaves. Involucre broadly ovoid, with very numerous broad black glabrous bracts, the innermost rows very much longer than the others and often attaining 3 in. Perianths not exceeding the involucre, glabrous or nearly so, the limb four lines long. Style about as long as the perianth, with a faintly sulcate but not thickened stigmatic end.—Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. i. 598, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 478.

W. Australia. Swan river, Drummond, 1st coll., Preiss, n. 503.

Var. ferruginea. Leaf-lobes rather broader, less acute and most distant, but not always so.—D. ferruginea, Kipp. in Hook. Kew Journ. vii. 123; Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 478.—W. Australia, Drummond, 5th coll. n. 416.

43. D. runcinata, Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 469. A dwarf shrub, the stems scarcely any or the leafy branches scarcely above ½ ft. long. Leave 6 in. to nearly 1 ft. long, deeply divided into numerous triangular lanceolate or falcate acute lobes, the largest ½ in. long, with recurved margins, tomentose several-nerved and reticulate underneath. Flower-heads nearly sessile, terminal or lateral. Involucres ovoid, 2 in. long, entirely like those of D. obtusa, as well as the flowers and style.

W. Australia. Drummond, 4th coll. n. 318.

44. D. obtusa, R. Br. in Trans. Linn. Soc. x. 214, Prod. 398. Stems short and procumbent, tomentose-villous or concealed by imbricate scales. Leaves 6 in. to 1 ft. long, divided to the midrib or nearly so into numerous small triangular or oblong very obtuse segments, 1½ to 4 lines long, thick, with revolute margins, white underneath. Flower-heads terminal with a few floral leaves rather below them. Involucres ovoid, 2 in. long, the outer bracts short, ovate, passing into the long narrow inner ones, all obtuse, at first loosely tomentose, but soon quite glabrous turning black and finely striate like those of the three preceding species. Perianth nearly as long as the involucre, the tube slightly pubescent, the limb narrow, glabrous or hairy, 3 lines long. Style about as long as the perianth, the stigmatic end long narrow and furrowed.—Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 471; D. multiserialis, F. Muell. Fragm. v. 185.

W. Australia. King George's Sound or to the eastward (Lucky Bay?) R. Brown, Baxter, Drummond, 5th coll. n. 420; inland from Cape Legrand, Maxwell.

45. D. bipinnatifida, R.Br. Prot. Nov. 39. Stems very short or procumbent and ½ ft. long or rather more, densely woolly-villous but the base of each year's growth concealed by imbricate scales. Leaves 6 in. to 1 ft. long, pinnate with linear acute segments, entire or again pinnatifid as in D. Preissii, 1 to 2 in. long in some specimens, much smaller in others, all with revolute margins, reticulate and tomentose underneath. Flower-heads terminal but not closely surrounded by floral leaves. Involucre ovoid-oblong, 2 to 2½ in. long, the outer bracts ovate, the inner ones narrow-lanceolate, all obtuse, more or less woolly-villous or at length glabrous, but not black as in the preceding species, the paleæ within the head shorter and narrow. Perianth shorter than the involucre, about 1½ in. long, loosely villous or pubescent below the middle, glabrous towards the end, the very narrow limb ½ in. long. Style exceeding the perianth, with a long furrowed stigmatic end. Capsule about ½ in. broad.—Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. i. 599, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 480.

W. Australia. Swan river, Charles Fraser, Drummond, 1st coll. n. 644, Preiss, n. 522. In the only fruit I could examine the seed was destroyed by insects. According to R. Brown, the outer integuments of the inner faces of the two seeds are free from the seeds and from each others (or separable), forming a double plate between the seeds.

46. D. pteridifolia, R. Br. in Trans. Linn. Soc. x. 215, Prod. 399. Stems very short and thick, densely tomentose and villous. Leaves often above 1 ft. long, pinnately divided almost or quite to the midrib into numerous linear or lanceolate straight or falcate segments, ¾ to 1½ or even 2 in. long, often distant but usually dilated at the base and frequently confluent, all with recurved or revolute margins, more or less tomentose underneath, 1-nerved in some leaves, 3- to 5-nerved in other leaves on the same stem. Flower-heads large, terminal, closely surrounded by long floral leaves. Involucre hemispherical, the bracts densely villous, the outer ones ovate, the inner one lanceolate, ¾ to above 1 in. long. Perianths about 1¼ in. long, silky or loosely villous with long hairs, the limb 4 to 5 lines long. Style about as long as the perianth, with a long furrowed stigmatic end. Capsule about ¾ in. broad. Seeds in the two fruits examined quite separate without any intervening plate, each with a double wing, the inner one more transparent with flexuose fibres, the outer one (membranous appendage, R. Br.) more opaque.—Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 480; Bot. Mag. t. 3500; D. blechnifolia, R. Br. in Trans. Linn. Soc. x. 215, Prod. 399; D. nervosa, R. Br., in Sweet, Fl. Austral. 22, Prot. Nov. 39; Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. i. 600, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 481. Bot. Mag. t. 3063.

W. Australia. King George's Sound and adjoining districts, frequent, R. Brown, Baxter, A. Cunningham, Drummond, n. 131, 4th coll. n. 320, 5th coll. n. 423, Preiss, n. 512, and others; scrubby plains from Stirling to Phillips Ranges and to Cape Arid, Maxwell. The breadth of the leaf-segments and the size of the flower-heads do not appear to be sufficiently constant to establish distinct varieties.

47. D. calophylla, R.Br. Prot. Nov. 40. A low shrub, the villous stems either very short and thick or rather longer and prostrate. Leaves often above 1 ft. long, pinnate with numerous ovate-lanceolate or triangular-acute rigid segments; contiguous at the base and mostly separated by acute sinuses, pale, tomentose and several-nerved underneath, the larger ones 1 to 1½ in. long. Flower-heads terminal, closely surrounded by long floral leaves. Involucre broad, densely villous, a few of the outer bracts long and narrow, sometimes resembling reduced floral leaves, others broad and short, the inner ones linear-lanceolate. Perianths villous, at least 1¼ in. long, the limb 4 to 5 lines long. Style about as long as the perianth, with a long narrow furrowed stigmatic end. Capsule of D. pteridifolia, or rather larger.—Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 481; D. Drummondii, Meissn in Pl. Preiss. ii. 267, and in DC. l.c.

W. Australia. King George's Sound or neighbouring districts, Baxter, Drummond, 2nd coll. n. 299,300,301,4th coll. n. 319; Kalgan river, Oldfield.