Flora of Northumberland and Durham

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TRANSACTIONS

OF THE

NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY,

&c. &c. &c.



No. I.—Flora of Northumberland and Durham. By Nathaniel John Winch.


PART I.

PHAENOGAMOUS PLANTS.

MONANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

1. SALICORNIAWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Salicornia

I. S. herbaceaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Salicornia europaea. Marsh Samphire, Jointed-glasswort.

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 2; Hook. Fl. Scot. 1; Berwick Flora, 2; S. annua, Eng. Bot. 413.

β S. procumbens. Procumbent Jointed-glasswort.

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 2; Eng. Bot. 2475.

α On the muddy sea shores and salt marshes of Tyne, Wear, Tees, &c., also at Holy Island. β in salt marshes at Saltholme, Hartlepool, D.—Mr. J. Backhouse.

In the north, where the true Samphire is not known, the Glasswort is sold under that name.

2. HIPPURISWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Hippuris.

1. H. vulgarisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Hippuris vularis. Mare's-tail.

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 4; Eng. Bot. 763; With. ii. 6; Curt. Fasc. iv. t. 1; Gr. Fl. Eds. 1.

At Prestwick Carr, N. In the Skern near the bridge at Darlington, and at Hell-kettles, D. In stells about Thorp, Norton, and Stockton, D.—John Hogg, Esq.


DIANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

3. LIGUSTRUMWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Ligustrum.

1. L. vulgareWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Ligustrum vulgare. Privet, Print.

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 13; Eng. Bot. 764; With. ii. 11; Curt. Fasc. v. t. 1; Hook. Fl. Scot. 3; Berwick Flora, 5.

In woods and hedges between Sunderland and Castle Eden, and on Limestone rocks on the coast, D.— About Greatham and Thorpwood, D.—John Hogg, Esq. Naturalized in hedges about Berwick.—Dr. G. Johnston.

The Privet is truly indigenous only in our Magnesian Limestone district, though straggling plants may be occasionally met with throughout the north of England.

4. FRAXINUSWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Fraxinus.

1. F. excelsiorWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Fraxinus excelsior. Common Ash.

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 14; Eng. Bot. 1692; Hook. Fl. Scot. 3.

β F. hetrophyllaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Fraxinus excelsior. Simple-leaved Ash.

Sm. Eng. Fl. 14; Eng. Bot. 2476.

α In woods and hedges. β in plantations.

A variety of the ash with leaves mostly simple.

5 CIRCAEAWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Circaea.

1. C. lutetianaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Circaea lutetiana. Common Enchanter's-nightshade.

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 15; Eng. Bot. 1056; With. ii. 11; Hook. Fl. Scot. 4; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iii. t. 3; Berwick Flora, 6.

In moist shady woods and hedges, but not very common, N. and D. Near Wooler and below Langley Ford, N.—Dr. G. Johnston. At Wallington, N.—W.C. Trevelyan, Esq.

2. C. alpinaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Circaea alpina. Mountain Enchanter's-nightshade.

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 16; Eng. Bot. 1057; With. ii. 12; Hook. Fl. Scot. 4; C. lutetiana β, Gr. Fl. Eds. 2.

Near Featherstone Castle.—W.C. Trevelyan, Esq. In Hulne Woods near Alnwick.—Mr. J. Embleton. By the Roman Wall, near Haltwhistle, N. —Miss Dale, Sp.

Differing from Circaea lutetiana by its heart-shaped leaves.

6. VERONICAWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Veronica (plant).

1. V. serpyllifoliaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Veronica serpyllifolia. Smooth Speedwell, Paul's Betony.

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 20; Eng. Bot. 1075; Curt. Fasc. i. t. 3.

β V. humifusaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Veronica serpyllifolia subsp. humifusa, Dicks. Linn. Tr. ii. 288; With ii. 18.
In meadows, pastures, gardens, &c. β by rivulets on the sides of Cheviot, N.

2. V. BeccabungaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Veronica beccabunga. Brooklime.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 20; Eng. Bot. 655; Curt. Fasc. ii. t. 8; Hook. Fl. Scot. 6.
In rivulets and ditches.

3. V. AnagallisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Veronica anagallis-aquatica. Water Speedwell, Long-leaved Brooklime.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 21; Eng. Bot. 781; With. ii. 18; Curt. Fasc. v. t. 2; Gr. Fl. Eds. 3; Berwick Flora, 6.
In the Ousebourn, in ditches near Tynemouth, and at Prestwick Carr, N. In ditches near West Boldon and Harton, D. In Whitburn Moor Lane. — Rev. J. Symons; and near Norton, D.—John Hogg, Esq.

4. V. scutellataWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Veronica scutellata. Narrow-leaved Marsh Speedwell.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 21; Eng. Bot. 782; With. ii. 19; Curt. Fasc. v. t. 2; Gr. Fl. Eds. 3; Berwick Flora, 7.
In bogs at Prestwick Carr, and on Newcastle Town Moor, N. Below Calf Hill.—Thompson's Berwick Plants. In ditches near Twizell House. — Mrs. Selby. In Purdies Bog.—Miss Forster, delin.; and by ponds on Alnwick Moor, N.—Mr. J. Davison. At West Boldon, Harton, East Morton, Beamish, and by the Whey Syke and Cauldron Snout, Teesdale, D. Hill Close Carr Mr. E. Robson. Near Castle Eden, D.—Rev. J. Symons.

5. V. officinalisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Veronica officinalis. Male or Common Speedwell.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 22; Eng. Bot. 765; Curt. Fasc. iii. t. 1; Hook. Fl. Scot. 6; Berwick Flora, 7. On heaths, dry banks, &e. frequent.

6 V. ChamaedrysWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Veronica chamaedrys. Germander Speedwell, Wild Germander.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 23; Eng. Bot. 623; Curt. Fasc. i. t. 2; Hook. Fl. Scot. 7; Berwick Flora, 7.
In meadows, pastures, gardens, &c.

7. V. montanaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Veronica montana. Mountain Speedwell, Mountain Madwort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 23; Eng. Bot. 786; Curt. Fasc. iv. t. 2; Gr. Fl. Eds. 4.
In woods, but not very common.

8. V. agrestisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Veronica agrestis. Green Procumbent Speedwell, Germander Chickweed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 24; Eng. Bot. t. 783 and t. 2603; Curt. Fasc. i. t. 1; V. pulchella, Lam. and De Cand. v. 388, according to specimens from Thomas of Bex.
On cultivated ground everywhere.
Fries, a German Botanist, as well as the authors of the Supplement to the English Botany, have separated Veronica agrestris into two species (see 763 and 2603) though the plant with blue flowers, and the other with the lower petals variegated with white, are found constantly growing together, and can scarcely be considered as varieties. The seeds of both vary in number. Veronica politaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Veronica polita is the name assigned by them to the plant figured at 763.

9. V . filiformisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Veronica filiformis. Long-stalked Speedwell.[edit]

Lam. and De Cand. Fl. Fr. v.388 (excluding Sm. in Linn. Tr. ii. 195); Berwick Flora, 252, f. 1; V. agrestis β, Sm. Fl. Graec. t. 8; Prod. i. 9; V. Buxbaumii, Tenore Fl. Neap. i. p. 7, t. 10; Linn. Syst. Veg. Spreng. i. 75.
Naturalized in the dene near Twizell House, N. Indigenous at Whiterig, in Berwickshire, eight miles from Berwick. — Dr. G. Johnston.

10. V. arvensisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Veronica arvensis. Wall Speedwell, Speedwell Chickweed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 24; Eng. Bot. 734; Curt. Fasc. ii. t. 2; Hook. Fl. Scot. 7.
On dry banks, walls, &c.

11. V. hederifoliaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Veronica hederifolia. Ivy-leaved Speedwell, Small Henbit.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 25; Eng. Bot. 784; Curt. Fasc. ii. t. 1; Hook. Fl. Scot. 7; Berwick Flora, 7. On cultivated ground, frequent.

7. PINGUICULAWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Pinguicula.[edit]

1. P. vulgarisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Pinguicula vulgaris. Common Butterwort, Yorkshire Sanicle.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 28; Eng. Bot. 70; Hook. Lond. t. 140; Fl. Scot. 88; Berwick Flora, 8. In bogs on moors. There is a variety in mountainous boggy meadows, with a very large flower of a duller purple, and a remarkably long spur Wallis's Northumberland, vol. i. p. 222.

8. UTRICULARIAWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Utricularia.[edit]

1. U. vulgarisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Utricularia vulgaris. Common Bladderwort, Hooded Milfoil.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 30; Eng. Bot. 253; Gr. Fl. Eds.; Berwick Flora, 8; With. ii. 24. At Prestwick Carr, N. In the pond-field above Spindlestone. — Dr. G. Johnstone. In Newham Lough near Bamborough, N — Miss Pringle, Sp. At Hell. kettles and Polam, near Darlington, D. At Hardwick, near Sedgefield, D. — J. Hogg, Esq.

2. U. intermediaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Utricularia intermedia. Intermediate Bladderwort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 30; Eng. Bot. 2489; Hook. FI. Scot. 9.
At Prestwick Carr and in Bromley Lough, N. But never observed to flower.

3. U. minorWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Utricularia minor. Lesser Bladderwort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 31; Eng. Bot. 254; Hook. Fl. Scot. 9; Gr. Fl. Eds. 5; With. ii. 24. In bogs on Plainmeller Fell, opposite Haltwhistle, N. —Miss Dale, Sp.

9. LEMNAWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Lemna.[edit]

1. L. trisulcaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Lemna trisulca. Ivy-leaved Duckweed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 32; Eng. Bot. 926; Hook. Lond. t. 119; Fl. Scot. 10; Berwick Flora, 9.
In clear stagnant pools near Newcastle. In ditches near Sunderland, and at Hell-kettles near Darlington, D. In stells in the Billingham Vale, D John Hogg, Esq. In ditches on Boldon Hills. — Rev. J. Symons.

2. L. minorWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Lemna minor. Lesser Duck-weed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 32; Eng. Bot. 1095; Hook. Lond. t. 120; Fl. Scot. 11.
In ponds and ditches, everywhere.

10. LYCOPUSWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Lycopus.[edit]

1. L. europaeusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Lycopus europaeus. Water Horehound, Gypsywort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 34; Eng. Bot. 1105; Curt. Fasc. iii. t. 2; Hook. Fl. Scot. 9. At Prestwick Carr, and in the Ouse-bourn, N. On the banks of Team, near Urpeth Mill, Team Bridge, and Lamesley, D. ====11. SALVIAWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Salvia. ====

1. S. verbenaca. Wild English Clary.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 35; Eng. Bot. 154; Curt. Fasc. vi. t. 1; With. ii. 27; Gr. Fl. Eds. 6; Berwick Flora, 9.
By the waggon-way near Newburn, and on the banks below Tynemouth Castle. On the ruins of the Abbey of Lindisfern and Norham Castle, N., where it was noticed by Wallis, who mistook it for Salvia pratensisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Salvia pratensis. On ballast hills below Gateshead, and on the banks of Hawthorn Dene, near Sailor's Hall, D.

12. CLADIUMWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Cladium.[edit]

1. C. Mariscus. Prickly Twig-rush.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 3G; Hook. Fl. Scot. 11; Schoenus Mariscus, Eng. Bot. 950; Robson's Flora, 238; With. ii. 119.
In Hell kettles near Darlington, D.
Very rare in the north of England, and but one locality for it mentioned in Hooker's Flora Scotica.


DIANDRIA DIGYNIA.[edit]

13. ANTHOXANTHUM.[edit]

1. A. odoratumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Anthoxanthum odoratum. Sweet-scented Spring-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 37; Eng. Bot. 647; Curt. Fasc. i. t. 4; Hook. Fl. Scot. 11.
In meadows, pastures, &c.

TRIANDRIA MONOGYNIA.[edit]

14. VALERIANA.[edit]

1. V. rubraWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Centranthus ruber. Red Valerian.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 42; Eng. Bot. 1531; With. ii. 98; Hook. Fl. Scot. 14. Naturalized on the walls of Hulne Abbey near Alnwick, N.

2. V. dioicaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Valeriana dioica. Small or Marsh Valerian.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 43; Eng. Bot. 028; Curt. Fasc. iv. t. 3; Hook. Fl. Scot. 15; Berwick Flora, 13.
In boggy meadows.

3. V. officinalisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Valeriana officinalis. Great Wild Valerian.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 43; Eng. Bot. 698; Curt. Fasc. vi.t. 3; Hook. Fl. Scot. 15; Berwick Flora, 13.
In marshes and on the banks of rivers.

15. FEDIA.[edit]

1. F. olitoriaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Valerianella locusta. Corn-salad, Lamb's Lettuce.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl.i. 45; Hook.Fl. Scot. 15; Valeriana Locusta, Eng. Bot. 811; Curt. Fasc. v. t. 4; Berwick Flora, 13.
In Heaton Dene, and in corn fields near Benwell, N. Below the Union Bridge, and above Waren.—Dr. G. Johnston. About Alnwick, N.— Mr. J. Davison. Near Whitburn and Boldon, D. At Norton, Wynyard, and Seaton, D.—J. Hogg, Esq.

2. F. dentataWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Valerianella dentata. Oval-fruited Corn-salad.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 45; Gr. Fl. Eds. 8; Valeriana dentata, Eng. Bot. 1370; With. ii. 101.
On Fulwell Hills and at Cocken, D. Fields near Crowhall, opposite Ridley Hall, N.— Mr.J. Thompson. Near Twizell House, N.—Mrs. Selby.

16. IRISWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Iris.[edit]

1. I. Pseud-acorusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Iris pseudacorus. Yellow Iris, Water Flower-de-luce.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 48; Eng. Bot. 578; Curt. Fasc. iii. t. 4; Hook. Fl. Scot. 16; Berwick Flora, 14.
In ditches, pools, and by rivers.

2. I. foetidissimaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Iris foetidissima. Stinking Iris, Gladwyn.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 49; Eng. Bot. 596; With. ii. 106.
At Jolby, D.—Mr. E. Robson.
Its most northern British locality, no mention being made of the plant in Hooker's Flora Scotica.
Blue-flowered Iris, Iris germanica, Wallis's Northumberland, i. 241. Robson's Flora, 144. In boggy places, but not common. What plant Wallis mistook for so showy a species it is difficult to imagine, but the error began with the historian of Northumberland, and was copied by Stephen Robson in his Flora.

17. SCHOENUSWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Schoenus.[edit]

1. S. nigricansWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Schoenus nigricans. Black Bog-rush.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 51; Eng. Bot. 1121; Hook. Fl. Scot. 16; Berwick Flora, 14; Cyperus nigricans, With. i. 118.
On the heath at Prestwick Carr, N. On moors and boggy places near Berwick, frequent. — Dr. G. Johnston. In hogs near Hartlepool, to the S.E. of Coatham near Darlington, and near Murton Moor, D. Near Norton, D.—John Hogg, Esq.

18. RHYNCHOSPORAWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Rhynchospora.[edit]

1. R. albaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Rhynchospora alba. White Beak-rush.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 52; Schoenus albus, Eng. Bot. 985; With. ii. 122; Hook. Fl. Scot. 16.
On the heath at Prestwick Carr, N. On Beamish Moor, D.

19. SCIRPUSWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Scirpus.[edit]

1. S. caespitosusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Trichophorum caespitosum. Scaly-stalked Club-rush.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 55;" Eng. Bot. 1029; Hook. Fl. Scot. 16.
On turfy moors, common.

2. S. pauciflorus. Few-flowered Club-rush.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 55; Eng. Bot. 1122; With. ii. 112; Hook. Fl. Scot. 17; Berwick Flora, 14; S. baeothryon, Roth. Germ. ii. 54.
In bogs at Willington Quay, and at Prestwick Carr, N. Bog in a field adjoining Spring Gardens near Berwick.—Dr. G. Johnston. Below Hilton Castle and near Darlington, D.

3.S. fluitansWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Eleogiton fluitans. Floating Club-rush.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 56; Eng. Bot. 216; With. ii. 113; Hook. Fl. Scot. 18; Berwick Flora, 15; Robson's Flora, 240.
In ditches near Cleadon and Darlington, D. At Prestwick Carr, and in the pond at Forest Hall, N. In Roadley Lake. — W.C. Trevelyan, Esq. On the moor west of Belford, N.—Thompson's Berwick Plants.

4. S. lacustrisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Schoenoplectus lacustris. Bull-rush.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 56; Eng. Bot. 666; Hook. Fl. Scot. 18; Lond. t. 91.
β S. glaucus. Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 57; Eng. Bot. 2321; S. lacustris β, Hudson. 19; Sm. Fl. Brit. 52; Hook. Fl. Scot. 18. α By rivers, lakes, and ponds. β in marshes near Dyke House, in the neighbourhood of Hartlepool, D.— Mr. J. Backhouse.

5. S. setaceus, Least Club-rush.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 58; Eng. Bot. 1693; Hook. Lond. 97; Fl. Scot. 19; Berwick Flora, 15; Isolepis setacea, R. Br. Lindley Syn. 283.
On boggy moors, frequent.

6. S. caricinus. Compressed Club-rush.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 58; Berwick Flora, 15; Schoenus compressus, Eng. Bot. 791; With. ii. 121; Hook. Fl. Scot. 16.
On the banks of Tyne at Chollerford and Low Park End, and on the Links at Holy Island and Bamborough, N. Near Gallowhill. — Thompson's Berwick Plants. In bogs at Ryehope, and on the banks of Tees near Middleton, D. Near Darlington. — Robson's Flora.

7. S. rufus. Brown Club-rush.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 59; Schoenus rufus, Eng. Bot. 1010; Hook. Fl. Scot. 17; With i. 122.
In marshes on the Wear below Southwick, D. Near Hartlepool, D — Rev. J. Dalton.

8. S. carinatus. Blunt-edged Club-rush.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 60; Eng. Bot. 1983; Hook Lond. t. 79; S. lacustris β, Hudson, 19.
By the Tees near Stockton, D.—G. T. Fox, Esq.

9. S. maritimus. Salt-marsh Club-rush.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 61; Eng. Bot. 542; Curt. Fasc. iv. t. 4; Hook. Fl. Scot. 19; Berwick Flora, 16.
On the salt marshes of Tyne, Wear, Tees, N. and D. Sea coast near Beal, N. — Thompson's Berwick Plants.

10. S. sylvaticus. Wood Club-rush, or Millet Cyperus-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 62; Eng. Bot. 919; With. ii. 116 Hook. Fl. Scot. 19; Berwick Flora, 16.
On the banks of Pont and of Till, also in Scotswood, Denton, and Walbottle Denes, N. By the Tweed between the Union Bridge and Horncliffe. — Dr. G. Johnston. On the banks of Team, and in Ravens- worth and Cawsey Woods, D.

20 ELEOCHARIS.[edit]

1. E. palustris. Creeping Spike-rush. Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 63; Scirpus palustris, Eng. Bot.131; Hook. Fl. Scot. 18.
By rivulets, lakes, and on boggy ground.

2. E. multicaulis. Many-stalked Spike-rush.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 64; Scirpus multicaulis, Eng. Bot. 1187; With. ii. 111, S. palustris β, Hook. Fl. Scot. 18; Wahl. Fl. Lapp. 14.
On the heath at Prestwick Carr, N.

21. ERIOPHORUM.[edit]

1. E. vaginatum. Hare's-tail Cotton-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 66; Eng. Bot. 873; Curt. Fasc. iv. t. 10; Hook. Fl. Scot. 20; Berwick Flora, 16.
On turfy bogs, on moors, &c.

2. E. angustifolium. Narrow-leaved Cotton-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 69; Eng. Bot. 564; Berwick Flora, 17; E. polystachion, Hudson, 21; Curt. Fasc. iv. t. 9. β E. polystachion, Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 67; Eng. Bot 563; Berwick Flora, 16; E. nivale, G. Don. Sp.
On turfy moors and in boggy meadows. β on moors with var. α, not rare. Below Allerton Mill near Berwick. — Dr. G. Johnston.
In β the stalks of the spikes are long as represented by the figure in Eng. Bot., and the stem frequently puts out lateral branches from the sheathes of its leaves.

3. E. pubescens. Downy-stalked Cotton-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i 68; Berwick Flora, 17; Hook. Br. Fl. 25; E. polystachion, Northumberland and Durham Guide, i. 6; E. latifolium, Schrad. Germ. 154.
β E. gracile, Sm. Eng. Fl. 69; Eng. Bot. 2402; Wahl. Fl.Lapp. 19; E. triquetrum, Hoppe, Fasc. 1800. α Near the Widdy Bank, on Teesdale Moors, and in Waskerly Park near Wolsingham, also on boggy ground below Hilton Castle, D. Near Haly pike Lough, N. On the Wallington Moors. — W. C. Trevelyan, Esq. Near Berwick, N. — Dr. G. Johnston. β on the Teesdale and Wolsingham Moors. D. On Redpath Moors, N.—W. C. Trevelyan, Esq.
This species of Cotton-grass is easily recognised by its soft grass-like leaves and the downy stalks of its spikes. β is only a slender variety. I suspect that slender specimens both of Eriophorum angustifolium, and Eriophorum pubescens pass under the name of Eriphorum gracile. For the correctness of the quotations of the synonyms from Wahlenberg's Fl. Lapp, and Hoppe Fasc., I rest upon the authority of specimens from the late Dr. Swartz and Mr. Thomas of Bex.

22. NARDUS.[edit]

1. N. stricta. Mat-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 70; Eng. Bot. 290; Hook. Fl. Scot. 21; Berwick Flora, 18.
On moors and commons.


TRIANDRIA DIGYNIA.[edit]

23. PHALARIS.[edit]

1. P. canariensis. Manured Canary-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 74; Eng. Bot, 1310; Berwick Flora, 18; Hook. Fl. Scot. 23.
On the ballast-hills of Tyne and Wear, N. and D.

2. P. arundinacea. Reed Canary-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 74; Eng. Bot. 402, and 2160, f. 2; Arundo colorata, Sm. Fl. Brit. 147; Hook. Fl. Scot. 23; Berwick Flora, 18.
On the banks of rivers and margins of pools.

24. PHLEUM.[edit]

1. P. pratense. Common Cat's-tail-grass, Timothy-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 75; Eng. Bot. 1076; Hook. Fl. Scot. 23.
γ P. nodosum, Linn. Sp. Pl. i. 88; Alopecurus bulbosus, Dick. Hort. Sic. Fasc. xii. 4.
α In moist meadows; γ on dry barren ground.

2. P. arenarium. Sea Cat's-tail-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 78; Hook. Lond. t. 7; Hook. Fl Scot, 24; Berwick Flora, 19; Phalaris arenaria Eng. Bot. 222; With. ii. 166. On the sea-coast of N. and D., frequent. On the links at Holy Island, N.

25. ALOPECURUS.[edit]

1. A. pratensis. Meadow Fox-tail-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 79; Eng. Bot. 759; Curt. Fasc. v. t. 5; Hook. Fl. Scot. 21; Berwick Flora, 19.
One of the best and most abundant of the meadow grasses.

2. A. agrestis. Slender Fox-tail-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 80; Eng. Bot. 848; Hook. Fl. Scot. 22.
In cultivated fields, chiefly in the Magnesian Limestone district.

3. A. bulbosus. Bulbous Fox-tail-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 81; Eng. Bot. 1249; With. ii.; Hook. Br. Fl. 28.
Near Seaton and Hartlepool, D.—Mr. Backhouse.

4. A. geniculatus. Floating Fox-tail-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 82; Curt. Fasc. v. t. 6; Eng. Bot. 1250; Berwick Flora, 19; Hook. Fl. Scot. 22.
By ditches, ponds, &c.

26. POLYPOGON.[edit]

1. P. monspeliensis. Annual Beard-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl i. 85; Agrostis panicea, Eng. Bot.; Alopecurus monspeliensis, With. ii. 177.
On Sunderland ballast hills, D.—W. Weighell's Herb.

27. MILIUM.[edit]

1. M. effusum. Millet-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 87; Eng. Bot. 1106; Curt. Fasc. iv. t. 12; Hook. Fl. Scot. 24.
In shady woods, common.

28. AGROSTIS.[edit]

1. A. Spica-venti. Silky Bent-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 89; Eng. Bot. 951; With. ii. 180.
On the Windmill Hills, near Gateshead; and close to Beamish mill, D. In Heaton Dene, near Rennoldson's mill; also by the road side near St. Anthon's, and North Shields, N. Introduced among corn. This grass is not mentioned in Hooker's Flora Scotica.

2. A. canina. Brown Bent-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 90; Eng. Bot. 1856; Hook. Fl. Scot. 24. β Hudson 30; A. tenuifolia, Curtis Br. Gr. 42.
On the heath at Prestwick Carr, N. On Gateshead Fell, and in Waskerly Park, D. At Birch Barr, near Darlington.—Mr. Backhouse.
In autumn this grass puts out long shoots, which take root at every joint. In this state it is Agroslis fascicularis of Curtis and Davy's Agricultural Chemistry, 2d Ed. p. 162. In common with other stoloniferous grasses it produces but few seeds.

3. A. vulgaris. Common Bent-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 91; Eng. Bot. 1671. Hook. Fl. Scot. 25; Berwick Flora, 19.
β Fl. Brit. i. 80.
γ Fl. Brit. i. 80, A. pumila, Willd. Sp. Pl. i. 371; Lightfoot, 1081.
δ Fl. Brit. i. 80.
α In fields, frequent. β and δ in fields, &c. less common. γ in Teesdale Forest, and alpine pastures near Knitsley and Hamsterley, D. Probably a distinct species.

4. A. alba. Marsh Bent-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 93; Eng. Bot. 1139; Hook. Fl. Scot. 25; Berwick Flora, 20. β A. stolonifera, Linn. Sp. Pl. i. 93; Eng. Bot. 1532; Fl. Brit. 80; Florin Grass of Dr. Richardson. γ A. sylvatica, Hudson, 1st Ed. 28; Willd. Sp. Pl. i. 371.
α In wet meadows, β by the Tyne, Wear, and Tees. γ in woods, but not common.
When growing in salt marshes, but especially by springs close to the sea, as at the foot of Tynemouth Castle rock, this grass attains a remarkable size, and in that state it used to be considered a distinct species, and described under the name of Agrostis stolonifera.

29. DIGITARIA.[edit]

I. D. sanguinalis. Cock's-foot Finger-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 96. Panicum sangninale, Eng. Bot. 489; Curt. Fasc. iv. t. 7; Hook. Fl. Scot. 21; With. ii. 169.
On Sunderland ballast hills, D.-W. Weighell's Herb.

30. PANICUM.[edit]

1. P. verticillatum. Rough Panick-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 98; Eng. Bot. 874; Curt. Fasc. iv. t. 6; With. ii. 168.
On Sunderland ballast hills, D.-W. Weighell's Herb.

2. P. viride. Green Panick-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 99; Eng. Bot. 875; Curt. Fasc. iv. t. 5; With. ii. 168.
On the ballast hills of Tyne and Wear, N. and D.

31. AIRA.[edit]

1. A. cristata. Crested Hair-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 101; Eng. Bot. 648; Hook. Fl. Scot. 29; Berwick Flora, 20; Poa cristata, With. ii. 205.
In Castle Eden Dene; in Limestone pastures near Sunderland; at Baydales, near Darlington; and near Eglestone, D, Near the Spanish Battery, at Tynemouth, and on the Links at Dunstanborough, Bamborough, and Holy Island, N. Near Berwick, not uncommon.—Dr. G.Johnston.

2. A. aquatica. Water Hair-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 101; Eng. Bot. 1557; Berwick-Flora, 20; Curt. Fasc. i. t. 5; Hook. Fl. Scot. 29.
By ditches, pools, and rivers.

3. A. caespitosa. Turfy Hair-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 102; Eng. Bot. 1453; Hook. Fl. Scot. 29; Berwick Flora, 20.
In woods and on the borders of fields, abundant.

4. A. alpina. Smooth Alpine Hair-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 103; Hook. Fl. Scot. 29; A. laevigata, Eng. Bot. 2102.
On the banks of Wear above Low Pallion, D. The viviparous variety.—Mr. Wilkinson, Sp.

5. A.flexuosa. Wavy Mountain Hair-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 104; Eng. Bot. 1519; Hook. Fl. Scot. 30; Berwick Flora, 21.
On moors and hilly pastures.

6. A. praecox. Early Hair-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 105; Eng. Bot. 1296; Curt. Fasc. iii. t. 7; Hook, Fl. Scot. 30; Berwick Flora, 21.
On moors and in barren pastures.

7. A. caryophyllea. Silver Hair-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 105; Eng. Bot. 812; Curt. Fasc. vi. t. 6; Hook. Fl. Scot. 30; Berwick Flora, 21.
In barren pastures, and on moors.

32. HOLCUS.[edit]

1. H. lanatus. Meadow Soft-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 107; Eng. Bot. 1169; Curt. Fasc. iv. t. 1 1; Hook. Fl. Scot. 28.
In meadows and pastures, abundant.

2. H. mollis. Creeping Soft-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 108; Eng. Bot. 1170; Curt. Fasc. v. t. 8; Hook. Fl. Scot. 28.
In woods and hedges.

2. H. avenaccus. Oat-like Soft-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 108; Eng. Bot. 813; Hook. Fl. Scot. 28.
In hedges, fields, and woods.

33. MELICA.[edit]

1. M. uniflora. Wood Melic-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 112; Eng. Bot. 1058; Curt. Fasc. v. t. 10; Hook. Fl. Scot. 31; Berwick Flora, 22.
In woods, frequent.

2. M. nutans. Mountain Melic grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 112; Eng. Bot. 1059; Curt. Fasc. vi. t. 4; Hook. Fl. Scot. 30; With. ii. 196.
In Tecket-wood near Simonburn, N. On the banks of Irthing at Gilsland, N.—Mr. J. Thompson. In Castle Eden Dene, and woods near Middleton in Teesdale, D, In Cocken woods, D.—Rev. J. Symons.

3. M. caerulea. Purple Melic-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 113; Eng. Bot. 750; Curt. Fasc. v. t. 11; Hook. Fl. Scot. 31; Berwick Flora, 22.
On moors and heathy places, common.

34. SESLERIA.[edit]

1. S. caerulea. Blue Moor-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 114; Eng. Bot. 1613; With. ii. 198; Hook. Fl. Scot. 31.
On Limestone rocks and in dry pastures, on both sides of the Wear, above Sunderland, and on the banks of Tees, from Eglestone to the Cauldron Snout, D.

35. GLYCERIA.[edit]

1. G. aquatica. Reedy Sweet-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl.i. 116; Poa aquatica; Eng. Bot. 1315; Curt. Fasc. v. t. 12;; Hook. Fl. Scot. 32.
By rivers, pools, &c., frequent.

2. G.fluitans. Floating Sweet-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 116; Br. Prod. N. Holl. 179; Berwick Flora, 22; Poa fluitans, Eng. Bot. 1520; Hook. Fl. Scot. 32; Festuca fluitans, Curt. Fasc. i. t. 7.
In pools and slow streams.
One of the few British plants which is also indigenous in Australia.

3. G. distans. Reflexed Sweet-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 118; Poa distans, Eng. Bot. 986; Hook. Fl. Scot. 33; With. ii. 199; Poa retroflexora (an excellent name), Curt. Fasc. vi. 1. 10.
In lanes near Darlington, and in fields near Painsher and Whitburn; also by the road side near Castle Eden, and on walls at Hartlepool, D. On the sea coast at Cullercoats, and on St. Anthon's ballast quay, N.

4. G. maritima. Creeping Sea Sweet-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. i. 118; Berwick Flora, 23; Poa maritima, Eng. Bot. 1140; With. ii. 207; Hook. Fl. Scot. 33.
On the shores of Tyne and Wear; near the sea. Rocks at Dunstanborough Castle and Landisfern, N. On the coast near Berwick, and by the Tweed above the bridge.—Dr. G. Johnston. On the Fern Islands —P.J. Selby, Esq. At Hartlepool, D. By the Tees at Portrack, D.—J. Hogg, Esq.

5. G. procumbens. Procumbent Sea Sweet-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 119; Berwick Flora, 23; Poa procumbens, Eng. Bot. 532; Hook. Fl. Scot. 33; Curt. Fasc. vi. t. ii.; Poa rupestris, With. ii. 207, t. 26.
On the sea coast near Cullercoats, N. Between Hendon Lodge and the sea near Sunderland, and on Sunderland Moor; also at Fulwell, in Byers's quarry near Whitburn, and on the quay above South Shields, D. Near Hartlepool, D.— Mr. E. Robson. On the Fern Islands, N.—P.J. Selby, Esq.

6. G. rigida. Hard Sweet-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 119; Berwick Flora, 23; Poa rigida, Eng. Bot. 1371; Curt. Fasc. ii. t. 4; With. ii. 206; Hook. Fl. Scot. 33.
On the Magnesian Limestone in the vicinity of Sunderland and Hartlepool, and at the Lizards, near Whitburn, D. On the Heugh at Holy Island, N.

36. POA.[edit]

1. P. compressa. Flat-stalked Meadow-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 121; Eng. Bot. 365; With. ii. 206; Hook. Fl. Scot. 34.
Near the White-lead Factory, W. of Newcastle, N.—Mr. Win. Robertson. At Hartlepool, and between East Boldon and Cleadon, D.

2. P. trivialis. Roughish Meadow-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 124; Eng. Bot. 1072; Curt. Fasc. ii. t. 6; Hook. Fl. Scot. 35.
In meadows and pastures. An excellent pasture-grass.

3. P. pratensis. Smooth-stalked Meadow-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 125; Eng. Bot. 1073; Curt. Fasc. ii. t. 6; Hook. Fl. Scot. 35.
γ P. subaerulea, Eng. Bot. 1004; P. humilis, With, ii. 202.
α. An excellent grass, common in meadows, &c. γ on Fulwell Hills, and on the coast north of Sunderland Pier, D. Near Benton, N.

4. P. annua. Annual Meadow-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 127; Eng. Bot. 1141; Curt. Fasc. i. t. 6; Hook. Fl. Scot. 35.
In lowland situations everywhere.

5. P. nemoralis. Wood Meadow-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 129; Eng. Bot. 1265; Hook. Fl. Scot. 35.
In woods near Darlington. — Mr. E. Robson. Cocken Woods, D.—Rev. J. Symons. Tecket Wood, N.
A rare grass in these counties.

37. TRIODIA.[edit]

1. T. decumbens.[edit]

Decumbent Heath-grass. Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 131; Berwick Flora, 24; Poa decumbens, Eng. Bot. 792; Hook. Fl. Scot. 36; Festuca decumbens, Linn. Sp. Pl. i. 110; Hudson, 47.
On moors and barren heaths, frequent. On Gateshead Fell, D., and Newcastle Town Moor, N. Near Berwick.—Dr. G. Johnston.

38. BRIZA.[edit]

1. B. media. Common Quaking-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl i. 133; Eng. Bot. 340; Hook. Fl. Scot. 37; Berwick Flora, 25.
In pastures, &c., frequent.

38. DACTYLIS.[edit]

1. D. glomerata. Rough Cock's-foot-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 134; Eng. Bot. 335; Hook. Fl. Scot. 37.
In meadows, pastures, and by hedges. A productive, but coarse grass.

40. CYNOSURUS.[edit]

1. C. cristatus. Crested Dog's-tail-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl i. 137; Eng. Bot. 316; Hook. Fl. Scot. 37.
In meadows and pastures on a dry soil everywhere.

2. C. echinatus. Rough Dog's-tail-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 137; Eng. Bot. 1333; With. ii. 212.
On the ballast hills of Tyne and Wear, N. and D., rare. On St. Anthon's ballast hills, N Mr. John Thornhill and Mr. R. Waugh.

41. FESTUCA.[edit]

1. F. ovina. Sheep's Fescue-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 139; Eng. Bot. 585; Hook. Fl. Scot. 38.
β F. rubra, With. ii. 153, according to Smith.
γ F. caesia, Eng. Bot. 1917.
δ F. tenuifolia, Sibth. 44.
In upland pastures, and on moors. δ at Prestwick Carr, N.

2. F. vivipara. Viviparous Fescue-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 140; Eng. Bot. 1355; Berwick Flora, 25 . With. ii. 216; F. ovina β, Gr. Fl. Eds. 25; F. ovina γ, Hook. Br. Fl. 45.
Near Eglestone, D. Near Crow Hall, opposite Ridley Hall, on the Tyne. — Mr. J. Thompson. On Cheviot, N.
Most probably a variety of Festuca ovina.

3. F. duriuscula. Hard Fescue-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 141; Eng. Bot. 470; Hook. Fl. Scot. 38.
β F. dumctorum, Linn. Sp. Pl. i. 109.
α In dry meadows. β in woods.

4. F. rubra. Creeping Fescue-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 141; Eng. Bot. 2056.
δ F. qlauca. Sm. Eng. FL 142; Northumberland and Durham Guide, vol. ii. Preface 2 and 19, No. 1102; Berwick Flora, 26.
α. On the coast at Holy Island, N. δ on rocks below Tynemouth Castle, and at Hartley, N. At Whitburn and Hartlepool, D. On Spittle Sands. — Thompson's Berwick Plants.

5. F. bromoides. Barren Fescue-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 142; Eng. Bot. 1411; Hook. Fl. Scot. 39; Berwick Flora, 26.
On walls and in sterile places.

6. F. Myurus. Wall Fescue-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. FL i. 143; Eng. Bot. 1412; Hook. Fl. Scot. 39.
Not common about Newcastle. On St. Anthon's ballast hills, N. On Hebburn and Sunderland ballast hills, D. On dykes about Berwick, frequent.— Dr. G. Johnston.

7. F. gigantea. Giant Fescue-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 144; Eng. Bot. 1820; Hook. Fl. Scot. 39; Bromus giganteus, Curt. Fasc. v. t. 7.
In moist woods and hedges.

8. F. loliacca. Spiked Fescue-grass.[edit]

Sm. Fl. i. 146; Eng. Bot. 1821; Curt. Fasc. vi. t. 9; Hook. Fl. Scot. 40; Berwick Flora, 26.
In meadows near Team; near Darlington; and in Lambton Park, D. By the sides of the Tweed, near Berwick. — Dr. G. Johnston.

9. F. pratensis. Meadow Fescue-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 147; Eng. Bot. 1592; Curt. Fasc. vi. t. 7; Hook. FL Scot. 40.
A valuable grass, but not very abundant in our mea- dows and pastures.

10. F. elatior. Tall Fescue-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 148; Eng. Bot. 1593; Curt. Fasc. vi. t. 8; Berwick Flora, 27.
In damp woods and moist meadows, N. and D. Near Berwick.—Dr. G. Johnston.

11. F. sylvatica. Slender Wood Fescue-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 149; Hudson, 1st ed. 38; Hook. Fl. Scot. 40; Berwick Flora. 27; Bromus sylvaticus, Eng. Bot. 729; Fl. Brit. i. 136.
In woods and hedges, common.

42. BROMUS.[edit]

1. B. secalinus. Smooth Rye Brome-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 151; Eng. Bot. 1171; With. ii. 224; Hook. Fl. Scot. 41.
In corn fields near Gateshead and Sunderland, D. Near Darlington, D.—Mr. Backhouse. Near Reedsmouth, N.

2. B. velutinus. Downy Rye Brome-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 152; Hook. Fl. Scot. 41; B. multiflorus, Eng. Bot. 1884; With. ii. 225.
Near Seaton, D.—Mr. Backhouse. In fields at Norwood, near Ravensworth, D.

3. B. mollis. Soft Brome-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 153; Eng. Bot. 1078; Curt. Fasc. i. t. 8; Hook. Fl. Scot. 41.
In fields, common.

4. B. racemosus. Smooth Brome-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 154; Eng. Bot. 1079; Hook. Fl. Scot. 41; With. ii. 226; B. pratensis, Eng. Bot. 1984, at the bottom. Sm. Comp. 19. B. arvensis, Eng. Bot. 920.
In fields near Sunderland, Hartlepool, and Darlington, D. On St. Anthon's ballast hills, N.

5. B. arvensis. Taper Field Brome-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 156; Eng. Bot. 1984; Hook. Fl. Scot. 42. B. spiculi-tenuata, Knapp. t. 81.
At Hartlepool, towards Seaton, D.—Mr. Backhouse.

6. B. asper. Hairy Wood Brome-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 158; Eng. Bot. 1172; Hook. Fl. Scot. 42. B. B. hirsutus, Curt. Fasc. ii. t. 8.
In damp woods and hedges.

7. B. sterilis. Barren Brome-grass.[edit]


Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 159; Eng. Bot. 1030; Curt. Fasc. i. t. 9; Hook. Fl. Scot. 43.
In fields, hedges, and on old walls.

8. B. diandrus. Upright Annual Brome-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 160; Eng. Bot. 1006; Curt. Fasc. vi. t. 5; With. ii. 228; Hook. Fl. Scot. 43.
On Sunderland ballast hills, D.—W. Weighell's Herb.

43. AVENA.[edit]

1. A. fatua. Wild Oat, or Haver.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i 162; Eng. Bot. 2221; Berwick Flora, 28; With. ii. 233; Hook. Fl. Scot. 43.
In corn fields on the Magnesian Limestone, near Sunderland, Easington, and Castle Eden, D. About Darlington, D. — Mr. Backhouse. In corn fields, near Berwick. — Dr. G. Johnston.
About Newcastle, not frequent.

2. A. strigosa. Bristle-pointed Oat.
[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 163; Eng. Bot. 1266; With. ii. 234.
In corn fields near Sunderland, Castle Eden, Tanfield, and Burnupfield, D. Near West Pitts, D.—Mr. Backhouse.

3. A. pubescens. Downy Oat-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 164; Eng. Bot. 1640; With. ii. 233; Hook. Fl. Scot. 43; Berwick Flora, 28.
On the Magnesian Limestone near Whitburn, Fulwell, Sunderland, and Castle Eden, and on the Encrinal Limestone near New House, Weardale, D. In fields near Haddrick's Mill, N. On the sea coast and the banks of the Tweed, near Berwick. — Dr. G. Johnston.

4. A. pratensis. Narrow-leaved Oat-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 164; Eng. Bot. 1204; Berwick Flora, 28; With. ii. 234; Hook. Fl. Scot. 43.
In Magnesian Limestone pastures about Cleadon, Sunderland, and Castle Eden, D. Near Spittal, Gull-hole, and by the river banks near Berwick on the Encrinal Limestone. —Dr. G. Johnston.

5. A. flavescens. Yellow Oat-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 166; Eng. Bot. 952; Curt. Fasc. iii. t. 5 ; Hook. Fl. Scot. 44.
In every field.

44. ARUNDO.[edit]

1. A. Phragmites. Common Reed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i, 168; Eng. Bot. 401; Hook. Fl. Scot. 27.
In marshy places, by rivers, &c.

2. A. epigejos. Wood Reed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 169; Eng. Bot. 403; With. ii. 236; A. Calamagrostis, Lightfoot, 106; Hook. Fl. Scot. 27 Calamagrostis lanceolata, Hook. Br. Fl. 32.
At the foot of the north branch of Castle Eden Dene, and by the Tyne above Hebburn Quay, D. On the banks of North Tyne, near Warden Mill, and in woods near Gilsland wells, N.

3. A. arenaria. Sea Reed, Marram, Sea Mat-weed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 171 ; Eng. Bot. 520; Hook. Fl. Scot. 27; Berwick Flora, 29. Ammophila arundinacea, Lindley Syn. 303.
On the sea beach of Northumberland and Durham.

45. LOLIUM.[edit]

1. L. perenne. Perennial Darnel, Red Darnel, Raygrass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 173; Eng. Bot. 315; Hook. Fl. Scot. 45; Lond. Fasc. i. t. 18.
β L. tenue, Willd. Sp. Pl. i. 462.
δ Sm. i. 173.
α In meadows and pastures every where. β and δ much less common.

2. L. temulentum. Bearded Darnel.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 174 ; Eng. Bot. 1124 ; Hook. Fl. Scot. 45 ; Berwick Flora, 30.
In corn fields near Cleadon, Sunderland, Castle Eden, and Darlington, D. Less frequent in Northumberland. On Shoreswood farm near Berwick. — Dr. G. Johnston.

3. L. arvense. White Darnel, Annual Beardless Darnell.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 174 ; Eng. Bot. 1125; Hook. Fl. Scot. 45; With. ii. 239; Berwick Flora, 30.
In fields between Darlington and Conniscliffe. — Mr. Backhouse. On the borders of corn fields at Whickham, D. In corn fields at Easington, near Belford, N. —Dr. G. Johnston.

46. ROTTBOLLIA.[edit]

1. R. incurvata. Sea Hard-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 175; Eng. Bot. 760; With. ii. 240; Hook. Fl. Scot. 46.
In Seaton pasture, D.— Mr. Backhouse. In the salt marshes of Tyne, Wear, and Tees, N. and D.

47. ELYMUS.[edit]

1. E. arenarius. Upright Sea Lime-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 177; Eng. Bot. 1672; Hook. Fl. Scot. 46; With. ii. 241.
On the coast near Castle Eden, Sunderland North Pier, and South Shields, D. At Seaton Snook.— John Hogg, Esq. South of Sunderland, D. — Mr. John Thornhill. At Cullercoats and Newbiggen, N.

2. E. europaeus. "Wood Lime-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 178; Eng. Bot. 1317; With. ii. 242: Hordeum sylvaticum, Hudson, 57; Knapp. t. 107
In Ramshaw Wood and Scotswood Dene, N. On the east bank of Wescrow Bourn, four miles north of Wolsingham, D. Between Rushyford and Ferry Hill, D.— Mr. E. Robson. This plant is not mentioned in Hooker's Flora Scotica. It appears more nearly allied to the genus Hordeum than to Elymus.

48. HORDEUM.[edit]

1. H. murinum. Wall Barley, Mouse Barley, Way Bennet.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 179; Curt. Fasc. v. t. 9; Eng. Bot. 1971; Hook. Fl. Scot. 46.
On old walls, and by way sides, common.

2. H. pratense. Meadow Barley.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 180; Eng. Bot. 409; Hook. Fl. Scot. 46 ; Berwick Flora, 31.
In meadows near Jarrow and Monkton, D. Near Ponteland, N. By no means a common grass in the north of England. In moist meadows near Berwick, rare.—Dr. G. Johnston.

5.H. maritimum. Sea Barley, Squirrel-tail-grass.[edit]


Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 180; Eng. Bot. 1205; With. ii. 244; Hook. Lond. i. t. 43; Fl. Scot. 46.
Near Seaton, D.—Mr. Backhouse. At Hartlepool, D.—Rev. J. Dalton. On Holy Island, opposite St. Cuthbert's Island, N.?—Thompson's Berwick Plants.

49. TRITICUM.[edit]

1. T.junceam. Sea Rushy Wheat-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 182; Eng. Bot. 814; Hook Fl. Scot. 44; Berwick Flora, 31.
On the sea shores of N. and D. abundant. Not very common on the coast near Berwick. — Dr. G. Johnston.

2. T. repens. Creeping Wheat-grass, Couch-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 182; Eng. Bot. 909; Hook. Fl. Scot. 44.
In hedges and fields, every where.

3. T. caninum. Fibrous-rooted Wheat-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 184.; Eng. Bot 1372; Hook. Fl. Scot. 44; Berwick Flora, 32.
In moist woods and hedges.

4. T. loliaccum. Dwarf Sea Wheat-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 185; Eng. Bot. 221; Hook. Fl. Scot. 45; With. ii. 246.
Near Seaton, D. — Mr. E. Robson; and Hartlepool, D Rev. J. Dalton. On the ballast hills of Tyne and Wear, N. and D.

TRIANDRIA TRIGYNIA.[edit]

50. MONTIA.[edit]

1. M. fontana. Water Chickweed, Blinks. Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 187; Eng. Bot. 1206; Curt. Fasc. iii. 8; Hook. Fl. Scot. 47; Berwick Flora, 32.
In springs and clear rills.

TETRANDRIA MONOGYNIA.[edit]

51. DIPSACUS.[edit]

1. D. fullonum. Manured or Fuller's Teasel.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 192; Eng. Bot. 2080; Hook. Fl. Scot. 49.
On Sunderland ballast hills, D.—W. Weighell's Herb.

2. D. sylvestris. Wild Teasel.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 193; Eng. Bot. 1032; Curt. Fasc. iii. t. 9; Hook. Fl. Scot. 49; Berwick Flora, 35.
In moist hedges, &c., frequent. By road sides near Berwick, rare. —Dr. G. Johnston.

3. D. pilosus. Small Teasel, Shepherd's Staff.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 193; Eng. Bot. 877; Curt. Fasc. i. t. 10; With. ii. 255; Hook. Fl. Scot. 49.
On the ballast hills, west of Bishopwearmouth, D.—Rev. J. S. Symons.

52. KNAUTIA.[edit]

1. K. arvensis. Field Knautia.[edit]

Hook. Br. Fl. 60; Scabiosa arvensis, Sm Eng. Fl. i. 195; Eng. Bot. 659; Curt. Fasc. iv. t. 13; Hook. Fl. Scot. 49; Berwick Flora, 35.
In corn fields and pastures, common.

53. SCABIOSA.[edit]

1. S. succisa. Devil's-bit Scabious.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 194; Eng. Bot. 878; Curt. Fasc. iii. 10; Hook. Fl. Scot. 49; Berwick Flora, 35.
In moist meadows, and by the edges of woods.

2. S. columbaria. Small Scabious.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 195; Eng. Bot. 1311; Hook. Fl. Scot. 50; Berwick Flora, 35.
In limestone fields near Fulwell, Sunderland, and Castle Eden, D. Near Durham, and in Embleton Dene, D. — John Hogg, Esq. Near Old Park, Weardale, D. — W.C. Trevelyan, Esq. On Warden hills, near Hexham, N. On the banks of Tweed, near West Ord House, on Spindlestone hills and above New Farm, near Berwick.—Dr. G. Johnston.
Indicative of a calcareous soil.

54. SHERARDIA.[edit]

1. S. arvensis. Blue Sherardia, or Little Field-Madder.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 196; Eng. Bot. 891; Curt. Fasc. v. 13; Hook. Fl. Scot. 50; Berwick Flora, 36.
Among corn, and in fallow fields.

55. ASPERULA.[edit]

1. A. odorata. Sweet Woodruff, or Woodroof.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 197; Eng. Bot. 755; Curt. Fasc. iv. 15; Hook. Fl. Scot. 50.
In every wood.

56. GALIUM.[edit]

1. G. cruciatum. Cross-wort, Mug-weed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 199; Eng. Bot. 143; Valantia Cruciata, Linn. Sp. Pl. 1491; Hudson, 441; Lightfoot, 663.
In hedges, and the borders of woods, frequent.

2. G. palustre. White Water Bed-straw.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 199; Eng. Bot. 1857; Hook. Lond. Fasc. i. t. 20; Gr. Fl. Eds. 36; Berwick Flora, 36. β Hook. Br. Fl. 62; G. Witheringii, Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 200; Eng. Bot. 2206; Hook. Fl. Scot. 51; With. ii. 261, t. xxviii; Berwick Flora, 37.
α In ditches and pools. β in situations comparatively dry, by no means common. At Polam, D.—Mr. J. Backhouse. At the base of Cheviot, below Langley-ford, N.—Dr. G. Johnston.

3. G. saxatile. Smooth Heath Bed-straw.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 201; Eng. Bot. 815; Hook. Fl. Scot. 51; Berwick Flora, 37; G. montanum, Hudson, 67; G. procumbens, With. ii. 261.
On moors and fells, abundant.

4. G. uliginosum. Rough Marsh Bed-straw.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 201; Eng. Bot. 1972; Hook. Fl. Scot. 51; Berwick Flora, 37; Lond. Fasc. i 21; With. ii. 262.
On the heath at Prestwick Carr, N. Near Berwick, not rare — Dr. G. Johnston. On Beamish Moor, near Medomsley, and near Winch-bridge, in Teesdale, D.

5. G. tricorne. Corn Bed -straw, Three-flowered Goose-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 205; Eng. Bot. 1641; With. ii. 264; G. spurium, Hudson, 68.
On Fulwell Hills.— Mr. E. Robson. In corn fields, near Seaton, and the mouth of Tees, D. — Mr. Backhouse.

6. G. verum. Yellow Bed-straw, Cheese-rennet.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 208; Eng. Bot. 66O; Curt. Fasc. vi. t. 13; Hook. Fl. Scot. 50; Berwick Flora, 36.
In dry hilly situations, and on the sands of the sea shore, common.

7. G. Mollugo. Great Hedge Bed-straw.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 208; Eng. Bot. 1673; With. ii. 264; Hook. Fl. Scot. 53.
In hedges and denes, frequent.

8. G. boreale. Cross-leaved Bed-straw.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 209; Eng. Bot. 105; Hook. Fl. Scot. 53; With. ii. 267.
On the banks of Tyne at Bywell, Wylam, Low Park End, and Warden-mill, and on the banks of the Irthing, near Wardrew, N. On the banks of Tees, at Winch Bridge, and near Eglestone, on the banks of the Skern, near Darlington, and in Cliffwood, D.

9. G. Aparine. Goose-grass, or Cleavers.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl.i. 210; Eng. Bot. 816; Curt. Fasc. ii. t. 9; Hook. Fl. Scot. 53.
In hedges, common.

57. PLANTAGO.[edit]

1. P. major. Greater Plantain.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 213; Eng. Bot. 1558; Hook. Fl. Scot. 53; Curt. Fasc. ii. t. 11.
In meadows and pastures, everywhere.

2. P. media. Hoary Plantain.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 214; Eng. Bot. 1559; Curt. Fasc. iv. t. 14; Hook. Fl. Scot. 53; Berwick Flora, 38.
In pastures on the Magnesian Limestone, common. On dry pastures near Berwick, upon the Encrinal Limestone.

3. P. lanceolata. Rib-wort Plaintain.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 214; Eng. Bot. 507; Curt. Fasc. ii. t. 10; Hook. Fl. Scot. 54; Berwick Flora, 38.
In meadows and pastures, frequent. I have gathered the panicled variety mentioned by Smith, in meadows at Beamish, D.

4. P. maritima. Sea Plantain.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 215; Eng. Bot. 175; Hook. Fl. Scot. 54; Berwick Flora, 38.
On the sea coast, common. On Newcastle Town Moor, and near Bavington, N. Near the High Force of Tees, D. In the neighbourhood of Barnard Castle, D. — Mr. E. Robson.

5. P. Coronopus. Bucks-horn Plantain, Star of the Earth.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 216; Eng. Bot. 892; Hook. Fl. Scot. 54; Berwick Flora, 38.
On the sea coast, common.

58. SANGUISORBA.[edit]

1. S. officinalis. Great Burnet.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 218; Eng. Bot. 1312; Hook. Fl. Scot. 54.
In moist meadows and pastures, frequent.

59. CORNUS.[edit]

1. C. sanguinea. Wild Cornel-tree, Dog-wood.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 221; Eng. Bot. 249; Hook. Fl. Scot. 55.
On the Magnesian Limestone, in woods and hedges about Hetton-le-Hole and Castle Eden, D. Near Norton, D. — John Hogg, Esq.

2. C. Succica. Dwarf Cornel.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 221; Eng. Bot. 310; Hook. Fl. Scot. 55; With. ii. 278; Gr. Fl. Eds. 39; Berwick Flora, 39.
On the Cheviot Hills, N., first discovered by Dr. Penny, who died in 1568; again noticed by Thos. Willisellin 1670. — Ray's Letters, p. 68. Re-discovered by Dr. G. Johnston in 1828; on the east side of the mountain, two-thirds from the base, and close to the spring, where persons ascending generally rest themselves.

60. PARIETARIA.[edit]

1. P. officinalis. Pellitorv of the Wall.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 222; Eng. Bot. 879; Curt. Fasc. iv. t. 63; Hook. Fl. Scot. 56; Berwick Flora, 39.
On Newcastle town walls, Durham Abbey, and on the ruins of most old castles, N. and D. Also on the Magnesian Limestone rocks near Southwick, D. On the ramparts of Berwick, and dyke below the chain bridge. — Dr. G. Johnston.

61. ALCHEMILLA.[edit]

1. A. vulgaris. Common Ladies' Mantle.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 223; Eng. Bot. 597; Berwick Fl. 39; Hook. Fl. Scot. 56; β A. minor, Hudson, i. 59.
α In woods, meadows, and pastures; β in mountainous situations.

2. A. arvensis. Field Ladies' Mantle, Parsley-piert.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 224; Eng. Bot. 1011; Hook. Fl. Scot. 56; Berwick Flora, 39.
In barren situations, fallow fields, &c.

TETRANDRIA TETRAGYNIA.[edit]

62. ILEX.[edit]

63. I. Aquifolium. Holly-tree.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 227;"Eng. Bot. 496; Hook. Fl. Scot. 56; Berwick Flora, 39.
Remarkably luxuriant in the woods of Northumberland and Durham.

63. POTAMOGETON.[edit]

1. P. natans. Broad-leaved Pond-weed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 228; Eng. Bot. 1822; Hook. Fl. Scot. 57; Berwick Flora, 41.
In ponds and rivulets.

2. P. heterophyllum. Various-leaved, Pond-weed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 229; Eng. Bot. 1285; With. ii. 293; Hook. Fl. Scot. 57; Berwick Flora, 41.
In Prestwick Carr, N. In pools near Wescrow Bourn, in Waskerley Park, D.

3. P. perfoliatum. Perfoliate Pond-weed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 229; Eng. Bot. 168; Br. Prod. 343; Hook. Fl. Scot. 58; Berwick Flora, 41.
In a lake at Dudley Shield, near Netherwitton, N. In the Skern, near Darlington.— Mr. E. Robson. In the Tweed, and in large ponds near Berwick —Dr. G. Johnston. This appears to be a native of Australia by Brown's Prodromus.

4. P. densum. Close-leaved Pond-weed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 230; Eng. Bot. 397; Hook. Fl. Scot. 58.
In ponds at Walker, N. In a spring near Manhaven, on the coast north of Whitburn, also in ponds at Hebburn, and the Skern, near Darlington, D.

5. P. fluitans. Long-leaved floating Pond-weed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 230; Eng. Bot. 1286; Hook. Fl. Scot. 57; With. ii. 293; Gr. Fl. Eds. 40; P. rufescens, Hook. Br. Fl. 75.
In Whey Syke, on Teesdale Forest, D. In ditches communicating with Hell Kettles, near Darlington. Mr. E. Robson. In ponds on Alnwick, moor, N. — Mr. John Davison.

6. P. lucens. Shining Pond-weed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 231; Eng. Bot. 376; Hook. Fl. Scot. 58; Gr. Fl. .Eds. 41; Berwick Flora, 41.
In Prestwick Carr, Crag Lake, and the lake at Dudley Shield; also in the mill-race at Hexham, in the Tweed above the Union Bridge, and a little below Coldstream, N. In the Whey-syke on Teesdale Forest, the river Skern, and ponds near Darlington, D.

7. P. crispum. Curled Pond-weed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 233; Eng. Bot. 1012; Curt. Fasc. v. t. 15; Hook. Fl. Scot. 58; Berwick Flora, 41.
In ponds and rivulets.

8. P. compressum. Flat-stalked Pond-weed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 233; Eng. Bot. 418; Hook. Fl. Scot. 58; With. ii. 295.
In ponds at Wide-haugh, near Dilston, N. In stells near Seaton, and in a pond near Darlington, D. — Mr. Backhouse.

9. P. pusillum. Small Pond-weed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 235; Eng. Bot. 215; With. ii. 297; Gr. Fl. Eds. 41; Berwick Flora, 41.
In the loch at Holy Island, and in Prestwick Carr, N. In ponds at Lambton, and in Mordent Carr, D. About Norton and Stockton, D. — John Hogg, Esq. In the Aln, near Alnwick, N. — Mr. J. Davison.

10. P. pectinatum, Fennel-leaved Pond-weed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 236; Eng. Bot. 323; Gr. Fl. Eds. 41; Berwick Flora, 42; With. ii. 295; Hook. Fl. Scot. 59; P. marinum, Linn. Sp. Pl. 184; Hudson, 76.
At Hell Kettles, near Darlington; in the river Wear at Chester New Bridge, near Lambton Ferry, and above Sunderland, D. In salt-water ditches near the Tees. — John Hogg, Esq. In salt marshes near Hilton, D. — Rev. J. Symons. In a salt-water ditch called Meggy's Bourn, north of Seaton Sluice, N. In the Tweed and the lough at Holy Island, N Dr. G. Johnston.

64. RUPPIA.[edit]

1. R. maritima. Sea Ruppia, Tassel Pond-weed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 237; Eng. Bot. 136; Hook. Lond. t. 50; FL Scot. 59; Gr. Fl. Eds. 42; With. ii. 297.
In Meggy's Bourn, north of Seaton Sluice, N. Near Tees Mouth, D Mr. E. Robson.

65. SAGINA.[edit]

1. S. procumbens. Procumbent Pearl-wort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 238; Eng. Bot. 880; Curt. Fasc. iii. t. 12; Hook. Fl. Scot. 59; Berwick Flora, 42.
On walls and waste places, common. On the Fern Islands, N. — Dr. G. Johnston.

2. S. maritima. Sea Pearl-wort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 239; Eng. Bot. 2195; Hook. Lond. t. 115; Gr. Fl. Eds. 42; Berwick Flora, 42.
On Hartlepool Pier, D. On Seaton Moor, D. — Mr. Janson. Between Holy Island Castle and the Heugh, N. On the Fern Islands. — Dr. G. Johnston.

3. S. apetala. Annual Small-flowered Pearl-wort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 240; Eng. Bot. 881; Curt. Fasc. v. t. 14; Hook. Fl. Scot. 60; Berwick Flora, 43.
Near Sunderland, D. At Blackwell, D Mr. Backhouse. On the heights between Belford and Bamborough. — Thompson's Berwick Plants. On the walls at Fisher's Fort, Berwick. — Dr. G. Johnston.

66. MOENCHIA.[edit]

1. M. erecta. Upright Moenchia.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 241; M. glauca. Hook. Fl. Scot.; Sagina erecta. Eng. Bot. 609; Curt. Fasc. ii. 12; With, ii. 299.
In gravel pits on Durham Moor. — Rev. J. Symons. On Limestone hills, near Sunderland, D. — W. Weighell.

67. RADIOLA.[edit]

1. R. millegrana. Thyme-leaved Flax-seed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 24 - 3; Eng. Bot. 893; Berwick Flora, 43; Hook. Fl. Scot. 60; Linum Radiola, With. ii. 435; Linn. Sp. PI. 402.
On Newcastle Town Moor, by the road leading to Benton, N. — Rev. Jas. Birkett, Sp. Near Berwick. — Dr. G. Johnston.


PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.[edit]

68. MYOSOTIS.[edit]

1. M. palustris. Great Water Scorpion-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 249; Hook. Fl. Scot. 67; Berwick Flora, 51; Eng. Bot. 1973; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iii. 13.
In rivulets, mill-pools, ditches, &c.

2. M. caespitosa. Tufted Water Scorpion-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 250; Berwick Flora, 51; Eng. Bot. t. 2661; Hook. Br. Fl. 83.
In dry ditches, and by ponds near Wallington, N. — W. C. Trevelyan, Esq. In the lane below Unthank Colliery, near Berwick. — Dr. G. Johnston.

3. M. sylvatica. Upright Wood Scorpion-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 251; Hook. Fl. Scot. 66; Dill. Ray's Syn. 229, t. ix. f. 3 (good). Berwick Flora, 52.
In Castle Eden Dene, and near Middleton in Teesdale, D. Near Whitfield, also in Scotswood Dene and Twizell Castle woods N. In Wallington woods, N. — W. C. Trevelyan, Esq. In Horncliff Dene, N.— Dr. G. Johnston.

4. M. arvensis. Field Scorpion-grass.[edit]

Eng. Bot. 2629; Hook. Br. Fl. 85; Fl. Scot. 67; M. scorpioides α arvensis, Sm. Fl. Brit. i. 212.
β M. collina, Hook. Br. Fl. 85; M. arvensis, Eng. Bot. 2558; Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 252.
α On hedge banks, and in woods, frequent. β on walls and basaltic rocks, frequent.

5. M. versicolor. Yellow and blue Scorpion-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 253; Eng. Bot. 2558 and 480, f. i.; Hook. Fl. Scot. 67; Berwick Flora, 52.
On walls, and in fields near Newcastle, but not common. On Cloudy crags near Alnwick, N. — Mr. J. Davison.

69. LITHOSPERMUM.[edit]

1. L. officinale. Common Gromwell, Grey Mill, Grey Miller.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 254; Eng. Bot. 134; Hook. Fl. Scot. 68; With. ii. 308.
In Castle Eden and Hawthorn Dene, and Hilton woods, on the Magnesian Limestone, D.

2. L. arvense. Corn Gromwell, Bastard Alkanet.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 255; Eng. Bot. 123; Hook. Fl. Scot. 68.
In corn fields, frequent.
Linnaeus remarks, that the girls of the north of Europe paint their faces with the juice of the root, upon days of festivity.

3. L. maritimum. Sea Gromwell.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 256; Hook. Fl. Scot. 68; Gr. Fl. Eds. 44; Pulmonaria maritima, Eng. Bot. 368; Curt. Fasc. vi. t. 18.
At Scremmerston Mill, between the Salt Pans and Berwick. — Lawson. Dill, Ray's Syn. 228.
This elegant plant has not been observed on the coast of Northumberland for many years past. On the shores of Cumberland and Wales, it is by no means rare, and I have specimens from Fifeshire.

70. ANCHUSA.[edit]

1. A. officinalis. Common Alkanet.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 258; Eng. Bot. 662; With. ii. 310.
Naturalized on the links near Hartley Pans, N. Brought here in ballast from the Continent.

2. A. sempervirens. Evergreen Alkanet.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 258; Eng. Bot. 45; With. ii. 310; Berwick Flora, 53; Hook. Lond. t. 94; Fl. Scot. 68.
Naturalized near Berwick, in a hedge behind Ramsay's barn — Dr.Thompson. Near the Grieve's House. — Dr. G. Johnston.

71. CYNOGLOSSUM.[edit]

1. C. officinale. Common Hound's-tongue.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 260; Eng. Bot. 921; Curt. Fasc. iv. t. 16; Hook. Fl. Scot. 69; Berwick Flora, 53.
By road sides and on rubbish, particularly near the coast, but by no means common, N. and D. On the links at Scremmerston and Holy Island, N. — Dr. G. Johnston.

71. PULMONARIA.[edit]

1. P. officinalis. Common Lung-wort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. 261; Eng. Bot. 118; With. ii. 312; Gr. PI. Eds. 46.
In Cliff Wood, six miles west of Darlington, D. — Mr. E. Robson. Near the gate of the Slocking, in the neighbourhood of Alnwick, N. — Miss Pringle, Sp. In a wood near Howick. — Rev. J. Dodd. Probably naturalized in all these habitats.

72. SYMPHYTUM.[edit]

1. S. officinale. Common Comfrey.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 263; Eng. Bot. 817; Curt. Fasc. iv. 18; Hook. Fl. Scot. 69.
β S. patens, Sib. Fl. Ox. 70; With. ii. 315.
On the banks of Pont near Ponteland, in lanes at Benwell; and in Wall's End Dene, N. By hedges between South Shields and Jarrow, D. At Polam, near Darlington, D. — Mr. J. Backhouse. β On the banks of Pont, near Ponteland, N.

2. S. tuberosum. Tuberous-rooted Comfrey.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 263; Eng. Bot. 1502; Lightfoot, 1091; Gr. Fl. Eds. 46; With. ii. 315; Hook. Brit. Fl. 81.
Durham. — Mr. E. Robson, in Hooker's Flora. By the side of the Whiteadder, half-way between its mouth and the bridge within Berwick bounds.— Dr. G. Johnston.

73. BORAGO.[edit]

1. B. officinalis. Common Borage.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 264; Eng. Bot. 36; With. ii. 315; Hook. Fl. Scot. 70; Berwick Flora, 53.
Naturalized on the ballast hills of Tyne and Wear, N. and D. On the links between Hartlepool and the second wind-mill, D.— John Hogg, Esq. In fields at Hallidon, N.— Mr. A. Baird.

74. ASPERUGO.[edit]

1. A. procumbens. German Mad-wort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 265; Eng. Bot. 661; Hook. Fl. Scot. 70; Gr. Fl. Eds. 46; Berwick Flora, 54; With. ii. 316.
In the Holy Island, N.— Dill. Ray's Syn. 228. On Bamborough Castle, and on rubbish by the road side below it, N. — Miss Nevison and Miss Forster, Sp.

75. LYCOPSIS.[edit]

1. L. arvensis. Small Bugloss.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 267; Eng. Bot. 938; Curt. Fasc. v. t. 7; Hook. Fl. Scot. 70.
In corn-fieids and the links of the sea coast.

76. ECHIUM.[edit]

1. E. vulgare. Common Blue Viper's Bugloss.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl i. 268; Eng. Bot. 181; Hook. Fl. Scot. 70; Berwick Flora, 54.
In fields, on waste ground, and on the links on the sea coast, not very frequent.
I have gathered an elegant variety with white flowers, (not noticed by SMITH or WITHERING), on the western extremity of Box Hill, Surrey.

2. E. italicum. White Viper's Bugloss.[edit]

Sm. Fl. Brit. i. 221; Eng. Bot. 2081; With. ii. 371.
On Sunderland ballast hills, D.: at one time far from rare, but imported from the Continent, I make no doubt.

77. PRIMULA.[edit]

1. P. vulgaris. Primrose.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 270; Eng. Bot. 4; Hook. Fl. Scot. 71; P. acaulis, Curt. Fasc. vi. 16; Berwick Flora, 54.
β P. elatior. (Oxlip.) Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 270; Eng. Bot. 513; With. ii. 319; Hook. Fl. Scot. 71. γ P. veris. (Cowslip.) Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 271; Eng. Bot. 5; Hook. Fl. Scot. 71; Berwick Flora, 55.
α. In groves and thickets, and on the banks of hedges. Var. I; flowers of a brownish or dusky red. In Felton woods, on the banks of the Coquet, N. In Swansfleld plantations near Alnwick, N. — Bliss Pringle. Near Harperley, D. — John Hogg, Esq. β on the banks of Team near Urpeth, in meadows near Chester-le-street and Lambton, and in Dalton Dene, D. At Snipperley. — Rev. J. Symons. Near Norton and Stockton, D. — John Hogg, Esq. In Hulne woods, near Alnwick, N. Mr. J. Davison. Var. I; flowers tinged with red. In meadows near Castle Eden Dene, D. γ in meadows and pastures. Var. I; With. ii. 390; Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 271. The outside of the corolla scarlet. Near Brunton Mill, N.
However singular it may appear, yet the experiments of the Hon. and Rev. W. HERBERT, detailed in the 4th vol. of the Horticultural Transactions, at p. 19, clearly prove the suspicions of LINNAEUS, that the Primrose, Ox-lip, Cowslip, and Polyanthus, were only varieties of the same species, to be well grounded. On this subject, so interesting in a Botanic point of view, Professor HENSLOW'S paper, published in Loudon's Magazine for September, 1830, throws additional light.

2. P. farinosa. Bird's-eye Primrose.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 272; Eng. Bot. 6; Hook. Lond. t. 133; With. ii. 320; Gr. Fl, Eds. 48; Curt. Fasc. vi. t. 9.
In bogs and wet pastures near Easington, Painsher, Hilton Castle, Castle Eden, East Murton, and Dalton-le-Dale; also near Eglestone, and in Teesdale Forest, D. Near Ovingham, N. Near Durham, Norton, to the west of Stainton, and in Close wood, near Embleton, D. — John Hogg, Esq. This pretty Primula follows the Wear and Tees from the sea-coast to the Sub-Alpine mountains, in which these rivers have their sources.

78. MENYANTHES.[edit]

1. M. trifoliata. Buckbean Marsh-Trefoil.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 274; Eng. Bot. 495; Curt. Fasc. iv. t. 17; Woodv. t. 2; Hook. Fl. Scot. 71; Berwick Flora, 55.
In marshes and bogs, not rare.

79. VILLARSIA.[edit]

1. V. nymphoeoides. Fringed Water-Lilly.[edit]

Vent. Lindley Br. Syn. 180; Hook. Br. Fl. 92; Menyanthes nymphoeides, Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 275; Eng. Bot. 217.
This elegant plant, a native of the Thames, near Hampton Court, Walton, and Windsor, has become naturalized in the ponds at Wallington, N.

80. HOTTONIA.[edit]

1. H. palustris. Feather-foil Water Violet.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 276; Eng. Bot. 364; Curt. Fasc. i. t. 11; With. ii. 322.
At Mainsforth Carr near Rushyford, in a pool below East Boldon, and near Cocken, D. In ditches near Darlington. — Rev. J. Harriman. Also near Norton, D. — John Hogg, Esq.
This plant does not appear in Hooker's Flora Scotica, nor has it been met with north of the Tyne.

81. LYSIMACHIA.[edit]

1. L. vulgaris. Yellow Loosestrife.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 277; Eng. Bot. 761; Curt. Fasc. v. t. 19; Hook.Fl. Scot. 72; Robson's Fl. 73; Berwick Flora, 56; With. ii. 323.
By the side of a pond at the south-west end of Widehaugh near Dilston, by the road to Hexham, and on the banks of North Tyne at Low Park-end near Nunwick, N. — Wallis i. 157. I have not been able to find it in these localities. At Sow-mire near Swinton, Berwick. — Dr. G. Johnston. By the Drop-well on the banks of Skerne near Darlington, where it was noticed by S. Robson. — Rev. John Harriman, from whom I have specimens.

2. L. punctata. Four-leaved Loose-strife.[edit]

Hook. Brit. Fl. 88; Jacq. Aust. iv. 366.
"I have gathered this plant twenty-five years ago on the banks of the Skerne, in abundance; the plant grew both above and below the Railway-bridge. A botanist from Richmond of the name of WARD gathered it three or four years since in the same situation." — Mr. Backhouse, MSS.

3. L. nemorum. Wood Loosestrife, Yellow Pimpernel.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 278; Eng. Bot. 527; Curt. Fasc. v. t. 18; Hook. Fl. Scot. 72; Berwick Flora, 56.
In moist woods, and on bogs.

4. L. Nummularia. Creeping Loosestrife, Money-wort, Herb Twopence.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 279; Eng. Bot. 528; Curt. Fasc. iii. t. 14; Hook. Fl. Scot. 72; With. ii. 325.
On Hebburn ballast hills, D. St. Anthon's ballast hills, N.

82. ANAGALLIS.[edit]

1. A. arvensis. Scarlet Pimpernel.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 280; Eng. Bot. 529; Curt. Fasc. i. t. 12; Hook. Fl. Scot. 72; Berwick Flora, 56.

β A. coerulea. (Blue Pimpernel.)[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 280; Eng. Bot. 1823; Hook. Fl. Scot. 72; A. arvensis, γ Sm. Fl. Brit. 230; With. ii. 325, var. 2d.
α. In fallow fields, but not very frequent in the north. β on Hebburn and Sunderland ballast hills, D. Near Mitford on the Wansbeck, N.— Capt. Mitford. In the corn fields about Alnwick, sparingly. — Wallis, i. 207. Two miles west of Norton among tares and beans, D. — J. Hogg, Esq.
In a communication to Loudon's Magazine, for November, 1830, p. 537, Professor HENSLOW observes, "that he received last year from the Rev. E. WILSON some specimens and seeds of Anagallis coerulea, gathered in Yorkshire; from these seeds he raised a dozen plants, nine of which had blue flowers, and three red." This experiment proves Anagallis arvensis and Anagallis coerulea, to be merely varieties of the same species.

2. A. tenella. Bog Pimpernel.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 281; Eng. Bot. 530; Curt. Fasc. iii. t. 15; Hook. Fl. Scot. 73; With. ii. 326; Berwick Flora, 57; Gr. Fl. Eds. 49.
In bogs near Urpeth, and at Kyo Heugh, also in Ryhope Dene, D. On wet ground by the Tees near Eglestone. — Rev. J. Harriman. Between Darlington and Haughton, and by the Link House near Hartlepool, D. — Mr. Backhouse. On the north side of the streamlet by Acomb smelting mill near Hexham. — Wallis, i. 206. Point near Bamborough. — Thompson's Berwick Plants. Near Crow Hall opposite Ridley Hall. — Mr. J. Thompson. On Alnwick Moor, N. — Miss Pringle.

83. CONVOLVULUS.[edit]

1. C. arvensis. Small Bind-weed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. FL i. 284; Eng. Bot. 312; Curt. Fasc. ii. 13; Hook. Fl. Scot. 73; Berwick Flora, 57.
In fields near the sea coast of Northumberland and Durham. Not very common in the north of England.

2. C. sepium. Great Bindweed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i- 284; Eng. Bot. 313; Curt. Fasc. i. t. 13; Hook. Fl. Scot. 74; Berwick Flora, 57; Calystegia sepium, R. Br. Lindley Syn. 167.
In moist woods and hedges, but by no means common. In hedges behind St. Anthon's ballast hills, N.

3. C. Soldanella. Sea Bind-weed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 285; Eng. Bot. 314; Hook. Fl. Scot. 74; With. ii. 828; Calystegia Soldanella, R. Br. Lindley Syn. 167.
On the links near South Shields below the Bent House, D. July 11, 1828. First noticed there by Mr. A. Hancock.

84. CAMPANULA.[edit]

1. C. rotundifolia. Round-leaved Bell-flower.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 287; Eng. Bot. 866; Curt. Fasc. iv. 21; Hook. Fl. Scot. 74.
α. On the borders of fields, heaths, &c. frequent. β flore albo, in Heaton Dene, N.

2. C. Rapunculus. Rampion Bell-flower.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 289; Eng. Bot. 283; Hook. Lond. t. 80; With. ii. 330.
In a grassy field of the Glebe at Norton, D. — John Hogg, Esq.
Probably the outcast of some garden, the root having long been used as a table vegetable.

3. C. latifolia. Giant Bell-flower.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 290; Eng. Bot. 302; Hook. Fl. Scot. 75; With. ii. 331.
In moist woods and hedges, not rare.

4. C. glomerata. Clustered Bell-flower.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 292; Eng. Bot. 90; Hook. Fl. Scot. 75; Gr. Fl. Eds. 51.
On the banks of Tyne near Wylam, near St. Oswald's and Chollerford, N. In a field by the lime-kilns at Wall near Chollerford-bridge, in woody banks near Netherwarden, near Hexham, and by the banks of Tyne, in the meadow near Bywell, also Crag-close near Barwesford, N. — Wallis, i. 162. In Hulne woods near Alnwick. — Miss Pringle. All these localities are in the Encrinal Limestone district. In woods at Cocken, near Chester-le-Street, D. On Barbara Riggs, near Barnardcastle, and near Gainforth, D. — Rev. J. Harriman. In meadows near Croft, D.—J. Hogg, Esq.

5. C. hybrida. Corn Bell-flower.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 293; Eng. Bot. 375; With. ii. 334.
In corn fields near Norton, D.—J. Hogg, Esq. In corn fields on Tunstal-hills, and on Sunderland ballast-hills, D. Not met with in Scotland.
Tunstal-hills and Norton, are in the Magnesian Limestone district.

85. JASIONE.[edit]

1. J. montana. Sheep's-bit, Sheep's Scabious.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 296; Eng. Bot. 882; Curt. Fasc. iv. t. 58; Hook. Fl. Scot. 76.
On the banks of hedges near Gilsland, Hexham and Haltwhistle, N. Near Hamsterley and Witton-le-Wear, D.— Mr. E. Robson.

86. VIOLA.[edit]

1. V. hirta. Hairy Violet.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 301; Eng. Bot. 894; Curt. Fasc. i. 64; Hook. Fl. Scot. 76; Gr. Fl. Eds. 51; With. ii. 353; Berwick Flora, 58.
On banks near Bywell, Ovingham, and Wylam, N. Near Jarrow, Whitburn, and in Castle Eden dene, D. New Mill banks, near Berwick, — Dr. Thompson. On Ratcheugh Crags, near Alnwick, N. — Mr. J. Davison.

2. V. odorata. Sweet Violet.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 301; Eng. Bot. 619; Curt. Fasc. i. t. 63; Hook. Fl. Scot. 77; Gr. Fl. Eds. 51; With. ii. 354.
Near Prudhoe Castle, Ovingham, and Hexham, N. Near Finchall Abbey, Chester-le-Street, Hetton-le-Hole, and Dalton-le-Dale, D. Near Hilton Castle, and at Bede's Well, near Jarrow. — Mr. J. Thornhill, jun.

3. V. palustris. Marsh Violet.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 302; Eng. Bot. 444; Curt. Fasc. iii. t. 58; Hook. Fl. Scot. 77; With. ii. 355; Gr. Fl. Eds. 52; Berwick Flora, 58.
In boggy ground, in East Common wood, near Hexham, and at Prestwick Carr, N. On Teesdale Forest, in Ravensworth woods, near Urpeth, Beamish, and Witton-le-Wear, D. Near Murton Craggs, and below Shoreswood Hall. —Dr. Thompson.

4. V. canina. Dog's Violet.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 303; Eng. Bot. 620; Curt. Fasc. ii. 61; Hook. Fl. Scot. 77.
In groves, by hedges, and on heathy ground, common.

5. V. tricolor. Pansy Violet Heart's-ease.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 305; Eng. Bot. 1287; Curt. Fasc. i. t. 65; Hook. Fl. Scot. 77; Berwick Flora 58; β V. arvensis, Sibthorp 84; Symon's Syn. 61.
α. In corn fields, and by road sides; β more frequent than α in similar situations.

6. V. lutea. Yellow Mountain Pansy.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 306; Eng. Bot. 721; Hook Fl. Scot. 77; With. ii. 357; Gr. Fl. Eds. 52; Berwick Flora, 59; V. grandiflora, Hudson, 380; Lightfoot, 508.
On mountainous pastures in Weardale, and in Teesdale Forest, D. At Housesteads, near the Roman Wall, and on the banks of Beldon Bourn, near Blanchland, N.

87. VERBASCUM.[edit]

1. V. Thapsus. Great Mullein, High Taper.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 307; Eng. Bot. 549; Woodv. t. 125; Hook. Fl. Scot. 78; Grev. Fl. Eds. 53; Berwick Flora, 59.
On the Ballast-hills of Tyne and Wear, N. and D. Near Jesmond, and in the bed of Till, near Wooler, N. Near Pierce Bridge. — Mr. Backhouse. By road sides near East Harrington. — Rev. J. Symons. Near Norton. — J. Hogg, Esq. At Castle Eden, D.
Frequently the out-cast of cottage gardens. =====2. V. nigrum. Dark, or Black Mullein.===== Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 311; Eng. Bot. 59; Curt. Fasc. ii. t. 103; Hook. Fl. Scot. 73; Gr. Fl. Eds. 53; With. ii. 342; Berwick Flora, 59.
On the ballast-hills of Tyne and Wear, N. and D. — Naturalized on waste ground at Ord, near Berwick. — Dr. G. Johnston.

88. DATURA.[edit]

1. D. Stramonium. Thorn-apple.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 314; Eng. Bot. 1288; Curt. Fasc. vi. t. 17; Woodv. t. 124; With.ii. 344.
On the Ballast-hills of Tyne and Wear, N. and D. Near Darlington. — Mr. Backhouse. Durham and Norton, D. — J. Hogg, Esq.
A naturalized exotic, and not mentioned in the Flora Scotica by Hooker.

89. HYOSCYAMUS.[edit]

1. H. niger. Common Henbane.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 315; Eng. Bot. 591; Woodv. t. 52; Hook. Fl. Scot. 78; Berwick Flora, 60; Gr. Fl. Eds. 53.
On sandy waste ground, particularly near the sea coast.
Hyoscyamus albus, is admitted by Withering into his Arrangement, in consequence of specimens having been gathered on the Sunderland Ballast. hills, by Mr. E. Robson; upon similar grounds Hyoscyamus aureus, and fifty other exotics, might have been inserted in this catalogue.

90. ATROPA.[edit]

1. A. Belladonna. Dwale, or Deadly Nightshade.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 316; Eng. Bot. 592; Woodv. t. 1; Curt. Fasc. v. t. 16; Hook. Fl. Scot. 78; Gr. Fl. Eds. 53; With. ii. 346; Berwick Flora, 60.
By the Waggon-way side, between Walbottle and Newburn, and on the banks of Wooler Water, N. On the banks of Wear, near Durham Abbey, below Mr. Fox's garden, where it was observed by Mr. S. Robson. See Fl. p. 75. Near Pierce-bridge. — Mr. E. Robson; and near the Old Mill, in the parish of Conniscliff, D. — Rev. J. Harriman.

91. SOLANUM.[edit]

1. S. Dulcamara. Woody Nightshade, Bitter-sweet.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 317; Eng. Bot. 365; Curt. Fasc. i. t. 14; Woodv. t. 33; Hook. Fl. Scot. 79; Berwick Flora, 60; Gr. Fl. Eds. 54.
In hedges and woods, but not very common.

2. S. nigrum. Common or Garden Nightshade.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 318; Eng. Bot. 566; Curt. Fasc. ii. t. 14; Woodv. t. 226; Hook. Fl. Scot. 79.
On the Ballast-hills of Tyne and Wear, N. and D. Near Chester-le- Street, D. Between Shincliffe and Durham.—J. Hogg, Esq. Rare in the north of England.

92. ERYTHRAEA.[edit]

1. E. Centaurium. Common Centaury.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 320; Hook. Fl. Scot. 79; Gr. Fl. Eds. 54; Berwick Flora, 61; Chironia Centaurium, Curt. Fasc. iv. 22; Woodv. t. 157.
β E. latifolia, Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 321; Hook. Br. Fl. 93.
α On barren pastures, heaths, and the sea coast. β on the Links between Marsdon Hall and South Shields, D. Near Cullercoats, N.

2. E. littoralis. Dwarf-tufted Centaury.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 320; Hook. Fl. Scot. 80; Berwick Flora, 61; Gr. Fl. Eds. 54; Chironia littoralis, Turner and Dillwyn's Guide, 469; Northumberland and Durham Guide, vol. i. No. 223, and v. ii. preface, iii; With. ii. 350. Centaurea maritima florum laciniis obtusis.—Linnaei Spolia Botanica, t. 3. f. 3. MSS., 1729.
On the Links south of Bamborough Castle, and on Holy Island, N.— July the 19th and 20th, 1804.
On the Links at Holy Island I have noticed thousands of the Dwarf Centaury, without finding one plant approximating in the shape of its leaves to the Common Centaury, even whose variety β, the Broad leaved Centaury of Smith, still retains its elliptical leaves on our sea beach; those of Erythraea littoralis, on the other hand, are with us invariably linear, but obtuse. Still cultivation alone can determine whether it should rank as a species. The rough sketch above quoted, drawn by the pen of Linnaeus, is very characteristic.

93. SAMOLUS.[edit]

1. S. Valerandi. Brookweed, Water Pimpernel.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 323; Eng. Bot. 703; Curt. Fasc. iv. t. 20; Hook. Fl. Scot. 80; Gr. Fl. Eds. 55; Br. Prod. 428; Pursh. 158; Willd. Sp. Pl. i. 927; With. ii. 337; Berwick Flora, 62.
In bogs at Willington Quay, and Prestwick Carr, on the coast at Holy Island, near the Snook, and on the beach at Bamborough, N. In the marsh below Southwick, and on the coast between Sunderland and Ryhope, also near Hartlepool, and Castle Eden, D. About Darlington. — S. Robson. See Flora, p. 72. Near Norton, and on the sea banks near Blackwell Halls, D.- J. Hogg, Esq.
A very widely disseminated plant, appearing to be indigenous in the four quarters of the globe, and found even in Australia.

94. LONICERA.[edit]

1. L. Periclymenum. Common Honeysuckle, or Woodbine.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 326; Eng. Bot. 800; Curt. Fasc. i. t. 15; Hook. Fl. Scot. 80; Berwick Flora, 62.
In woods and hedges, common.

2. L. Xylosteum. Upright Honeysuckle.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 326; Eng. Bot. 916; With. ii. 338; Hook. Br. Fl. 103.===== Naturalized in hedges by the turnpike road, south of Alnwick, also in the wood called the Stocking, N. On the rocks under the Roman wall, on the west side of Shewing Shields, and by Crag Lake. — Wallis, North, i. 149. Stunted plants of the common Woodbine, grow in these two localities.

95. RHAMNUS.[edit]

1. R. catharticus. Buckthorn.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 327; Eng. Bot. 1629; Hook. Fl. Scot. 80; Woodv. t. 114; With. ii. 351.
In Ryhope dene, D. — W. Weighell's Herb.

96. EUONYMUS.[edit]

1. E. europaeus. Spindle-tree, Prickwood.[edit]


Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 329; Eng. Bot. 362; Hook. Fl. Scot. 81; Grev. Fl. Eds. 55; With. ii. 353; Berwick Flora, 63.

In Heaton and Scotswood denes, and in Tecket wood, N. In Ashwood, near Belford — Thompson's Berwick Plants. At Capon Cleugh, near Allerwash, also in the Brush wood, on the banks of south Tyne, N. — Wallis, i. 141. In the Darlington-lane, one mile from Norton, D.—J. Hogg, Esq. In Ryhope and Castle Eden denes, D. In Shipley wood, near Eglestone.—Rev. J. Harriman.

97. RIBES.[edit]

1. R. rubrum. Common Currants.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 330; Eng. Bot. 1289; Woodv. t. 74; Hook. Fl. Scot. 81; With. ii. 359.
In woods, and on the banks of rivulets, N. and D. In Teesdale, near Eglestone, D. — Rev. J. Harriman. In Hulne woods, near Alnwick, N. — Mr. J. Davison.

2. R. petraeum Rock Currants.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 331; Eng. Bot. 705; Hook. Fl. Scot. 81.
In Ravensworth woods, and hedges near Harperly, also near Conniscliffe, and Eglestone, and in Teesdale Forest, D. Near Pierce bridge.— Mr. Backhouse. In Scotswood dene, N. In Heaton dene, N.—Mr. J. Thornhill.

3. R. spicatum. Acid Mountain Currants.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 331; Eng. Bot, 1290; Linn. Tr. iii. 240, t. 21; With ii.' 360.
Between Pierce bridge and Gainford, D. — Mr. E. Robson. At present extinct, E. R. MSS.
From its mode of flowering the spikes being upright; this Currant appears very different from the preceding species, but whether specifically distinct, I will not pretend to say. It is still in cultvation in curious gardens at Darlington, and with Mr. J. Backhouse, at York.

4. R. alpinum. Tasteless Mountain Currants.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 332; Eng. Bot. 704; Hook. Fl. Scot. 81; With. ii. 359.
In Felton wood, N. In hedges near Murton House, near Chester-le-Street, D. In woods near Darlington. — Mr. E. Robson. And in Cliff wood, D. — Mr. Backhouse. On the west bank of the wood called the Stocking, near Alnwick. — Mr. F. Manisty. Also in Hulne woods, N. — Mr. J. Davison.

5. R. nigrum. Black Currants.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 332; Eng. Bot. 1291; Woodv. t. 75; Hook. Fl. Scot. 32; With. ii. 360.
On the banks of Pont, near Prestwick Carr, N. In Ravensworth, and most other woods near Newcastle. On the banks of Skerne, near Darlington D.—Mr. E. Robson.

6. R. Grossularia. Rough Gooseberry.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 333; Eng. Bot. l292; Berwick Flora, 63; Hook. Fl. Scot. 32; β With. ii. 361, 2d variety; R. Uva-crispa, Eng. Bot. 2057.
α. In woods and hedges. β near Lamesley, D.

98. HEDERA.[edit]

1. H. Helix. Common Ivy.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fi. i. 334; Eng. Bot. 1267; Curt. Fasc. i. 1. 16; Hook. Fl. Scot. 82. On old buildings, and in woods and hedges.

99. GLAUX.[edit]

1. G. maritima. Black Salt-wort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 336; Eng. Bot. 13; Hook. Fl. Scot. 82; Gr. Fl. Eds. 56; With. ii. ?63; Ber- wick Flora, 64. In salt marshes on Tyne, Tweed, Blyth, Wear, Tees, &c.

98. VINCA.[edit]

1. V. minor. Lesser Periwinkle.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 338; Eng. Bot. 917; Curt. Fasc. iii. t. 16; Hook. Fl. Scot. 82; Gr. Fl. Eds. 57; With. ii. 365. At Blackwell. — Mr. Backhouse. In Hylton-lane, D. — Rev. J. Symons. Naturalized in Wallington woods, and in Swansfield plantations, near Alnwick, N.


PENTANDRIA DIGYNIA.[edit]

100. CHENOPODIUM.[edit]

1. C. Bonus-Henricus. Perennial Goosefoot, Mercury Goosefoot.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 9; Eng. Bot. 1. 1033; Curt. Fasc. iii. t. 17; Hook. Fl. Scot. 83; Berwick Flora, 65.
On rubbish, and by way sides.

2. C. urbicum. Upright Goosefoot.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 10; Eng. Bot. 717; Hook. Fl: Scot. 83; Gr. Fl. Eds. 58; With. ii. 367.
On the ballast hills of Tyne and Wear, N. and D. — Near Darlington. — Mr. Backhouse. Near Field Houses, D. — Rev. J. Symons.

3. C. rubrum. Red Goosefoot.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. II; Eng. Bot. 1721; Berwick Flora. 65; Curt. Fasc. vi. t. 21; Gr. Fl. Eds. 58; Hook. Fl. Scot. 34.
By road sides near Chirton, N. On the ballast-hills of Tyne and Wear, N. and D. Near Berwick, frequent, and on the Fern Islands. — Dr. G. Johnston. Near Darlington, D. — Mr. Backhouse.

4. C. botryodes. Many spiked Goosefoot.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 1 1; Eng. Bot. 2247; Hook. Br. Fl. 138.
On Sunderland ballast-hills, D W. Weighell's Herb.

5. C. murale. Nettle-leaved Goosefoot.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 11; Eng. Bot. 1722; Curt. Fasc. vi. t. 20; Hook. Fl. Scot. 34; With. ii. 370; Berwick Flora, 65.
On rubbish, and by road sides near Gateshead, Chester-le-Street, and Hartlepool, D. Near the Castle on Holy Island, N.

6. C. hybridum. Maple-leaved Goosefoot.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 12; Eng. Bot. 1919; Curt. Fasc. iv. t. 23; Hook. Fl. Scot. 34; Gr. Fl. Eds. 58; With. ii. 369. On St. Anthon's ballast-hills, N. On the Sunderland ballast-hills, D.

7. C. album. White Goosefoot.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 13; Eng. Bot. 1723; Curt. Fasc. ii. t. 15; Hook. Fl. Scot. 84; γ C. viride, Linn. Sp. Pl. i. 319.
On waste and cultivated ground, common. ===== 8. C. ficifolium. Fig-leaved Goosefoot. ===== Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 13; Eng. Bot. 1724; C. viride. Curt. Fasc. ii. t. 16; C. serotinum, Hudson, 106.
On St. Anthon's, and Sunderland ballast-hills, also by road sides, and on dunghills, N. and D.

9. C. glaucum. Oak-leaved Goosefoot.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 14; Erg. Bot. 1454; With. ii. 370.
By road sides near Ponteland, at Chirton, and on St. Anthon's ballast-hills, N. Near Darlington, D. — Mr. E. Robson. On Sunderland ballast-hills, D. — W. Weighell's Herb.

10. C. olidum. Stinking Goosefoot.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 14; Eng. Bot, 1034; Curt. Fasc. v. t. 20; Hook. Fl. Scot. 83; With ii. 370; C. Vulvaria, Hudson, 107; Woodv. t. 145.
On rubbish at Friar's Goose, near Gateshead, and by road sides near Westoe, D.

11 . C. acutifolium. Sharp Entire-leaved Goosefoot.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 15; Eng. Bot. 1481; C. polyspermum. Curt. Fasc. ii. t. 17; Northumberland and Durham Guide, i. 25; With. ii. 371.
On Sunderland ballast-hills, D.—W. Weighell's Herb.

12. C. maritimum. Sea Goosefoot, Sea Blite.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 16; Eng. Bot. 633; Gr. Fl. Eds. 59; With. ii. 371; Berwick Flora, 65.
On the coast, and in the salt marshes of Tyne, Wear, Tees, &c. N. and D. On Holy Island, and the coast near Beal.—Dr. G. Johnston.

13. C.fruticosum. Shrubby Sea-side Goosefoot.[edit]

Hook. Br. Fl. 136; Salsola fruticosa, Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 18; Eng. Bot. 634; With. ii. 377.
On Willington ballast-hills, N.

101. BETA.[edit]

1. B. maritima. Sea Beet.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 17; Eng. Bot. 285; Hook. Fl. Scot. 84; Gr. Fl. Eds. 59.
On the Sea coast near Hartley Pans and Newbiggin, N. On the shore near Ryhope and Sunderland, D.

102. SALSOLA.[edit]

1. S. Kali. Prickly Salt-wort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 18; Eng. Bot. 634; Woodv. t. 143; Hook. Fl. Scot. 85; Berwick Flora, 66.
On the sandy sea beach, common.

103. ULMUS.[edit]

1. U. campestris. Common Small-leaved Elm.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 20; Eng. Bot. 1836.
In plantations, but not a native of the north of England.

2. U. subcrosa. Common Cork-barked Elm.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 21; Eng. Bot. 2161; U. campestris, Woodv. t. 197.
In woods and hedges, probably indigenous.

3. U. major, Dutch Cork-barked Elm.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 21; Eng. Bot. 2542.
In plantations and hedge rows, but not indigenous. Possibly a cultivated variety of U. suberosa.

4. U. montana. Broad-leaved Elm, Wych Hasel.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 22; Eng. Bot. 1887; Hook. Fl. Scot. 85; Gr. Fl. Eds. 60; Berwick Flora, 66.
In woods and hedges, truly indigenous.

5. U. glabra. Smooth-leaved, or Wych Elm.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 23; Eng. Bot. 2248; U. montana, β, Sm. Fl. Brit. 282.
Near the edges of the moors, N. and D. Probably a variety of the preceding species. I doubt whether our plant be Ulmus glabra, of Lindley.— Syn. 226.

104. CUSCUTA.[edit]

1. C. Epithymum. Lesser Dodder.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 25; Eng. Bot., at p. 378; Hook. Fl. Scot. 86; With. ii. 269; C. europaea, Eng. Bot. t. 55.
Plentiful in 1822, in two clover fields, half a mile west of Stanton, D.—J. Hogg, Esq.
In 1805 and 1814, this proved a destructive weed among the Heaths in Mr. Falla's green-houses, near Gateshead.

105. GENTIANA.[edit]

1. G. verna. Spring Gentian.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 29; Eng. Bot. 493; With. ii. 381.
In Teesdale Forest, particularly near Wheysyke House, and between it and Widdy-bank, upon the slope that borders the Tees, D. First pointed out to me in 1799, by the Rev. J. Harriman. It also grows in Birkdale, Westmorland, and on Cronkley-fell, Yorkshire, in the same range of mountains.

2. G. Amarella. Autumnal Geutian.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 30; Eng. Bot. 236; Hook. Loud. t. 33; Fl. Scot. 86; Gr. Fl. Eds. 60; With. ii. 382; Berwick Flora, 66.
On limestone pastures, from Sunderland to Castle Eden, and on the Lizard-hills, near Ryhope, in fields near Greencroft, Butsfield, and in Teesdale Forest, D. To the west of Norton, D. — J. Hogg, Esq. In Crag Close, near Barwesford. — Wallis, 217. On the Links below Scremmerston. — Thompson's Berwick Plants. On Holy Island, near Barnborough, Beadnal, Twizell, Hexham, Chollerford, and Hartley, N. β Var. flore albo. In Crag Close, near Barwesford.—Wallis,218.

3. G. campestris. Field Gentian.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 31; Eng. Bot. 237; Hook. Fl. Scot. 86; Gr. Fl. Eds. 60; With. ii. 383; Berwick Flora, 66.
Near Hexham, and on the west sideof Shewing Shields, on the Wallington moors and Cheviot, also on the coast at Newbiggin, N. On the banks beyond Spital, on the links at Goswick, and below Budle. — Thompson's Berwick Plants. In Crag Close, near Barwesford, N.—Wallis, 218. In barren pastures at Butsfield, and in Teesdale, D. Near Teesmouth, D.—J. Hogg, Esq. β Var. flore albo. Near Winch-bridge, Teesdale, D.

106. ERYNGIUM.[edit]

1. E. maritimum. Sea Eryngo, Sea Holly.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 35; Eng. Bot. 718; Woodv. t. 102; With. ii. 384; Gr. Fl. Eds. 61.
On the beach near South Shields Law, and at Castle Eden, D. At Seaton, D.—Mr. Backhouse.

2. E. campestre. Field Eryngo.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 35; Eng. Bot. 57; With. ii. 385. Between the Glass-houses and Dent's-hole, and on St. Peter's Quay, below Newcastle, N.— Wilson's Syn. 75. Observed by Mr. Lawson, on the shore called Friar's Goose, below Gateshead, D. — Dill. Ray's Syn. 222. On the north end of Jarrow ballast-hills, abundant, and on Sunderland ballast hills, D.
The plant still grows in all these localities, but I make no doubt was originally imported from the continent with ballast.

107. SANICULA.[edit]

1. S. europaea. Wood Sanicle.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 36; Eng. Bot. 98; Gr. Fl. Eds. 61; Berwick Flora, 66.
In woods, frequent.

108. DAUCUS.[edit]

1 . D. Carota. Wild Carrot.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 39; Eng. Bot. 1174; Wodv. t. 161; Gr. Fl. Eds. 71; Berwick Flora, 67.
In pastures, and on the borders of fields; near the Sea coast, abundant.

109. CAUCALIS.[edit]

1. C. daucoides. Small Bur-parsley.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 41; Eng. Bot. 197; With. ii. 389.
In fields, on Fulwell hills near Sunderland, D., its most northern locality. In corn fields near Norton, D. — J. Hogg, Esq.

110. TORILIS.[edit]

1. T. Anthriscus. Upright Hedge-parsley.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 43; Caucalis Anthriscus, Eng. Bot. 987; Curt. Fasc. vi. t. 22; Hook. Fl. Scot. 87.
In hedges and on the borders of fields, everywhere.

2. T. nodosa. Knotted Hedge-parsley.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 44; Berwick Flola, 67; Caucalis nodosa, Eng. Bot. 199; Hook. Fl. Scot. 88.
At Holy Island, on the Heugh and Castle Rock, N. On rubble, east of Holy Island Castle. — Thompson's Berwick Plants. In corn fields near Whitburn, Castle Eden, Darlington, and Hartlepool, D. Between Billingham and Portrack, D. —J. Hogg, Esq.

111. ANTHRISCUS.[edit]

1. A. vulgaris. Common Beaked-parsley.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 45; Hook. Fl. Scot. 93; Scandix Anthriscus, Eng. Bot. 818; Curt. Fasc. i. t. 19.
On hedge banks and waste ground, common.

112. SCANDIX.[edit]

1. S. Pecten-Veneris. Needle Chervil, Venus's Comb, Shepherd's Needle.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 46; Eng. Bot. 1397; Curt. Fasc. v. t. 21; Hook. Fl. Scot. 92; Berwick Flora, 67.
In corn fields, frequent.

113. CHAEROPHYLLUM.[edit]

1. C. sativum. Garden Chervil.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 48; Hook. Fl. Scot. 93; Scandix Cerefolium, Eng. Bot. 1268; With. ii. 415; Anthriscus Cerefolium, Hook. Br. Fl. 131.
Naturalized not far from the Red Heugh, near Gateshead, D. Near Hexham, N.

2. C. sylvestre. Wild Chervil.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 48; Eng. Bot. t. 752; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iv. t. 25; Hook. Fl. Scot. 931; Anthriscus sylvestris, Hook. Br. Fl. 131.
On the banks of hedges, and in fields and pastures, common.

114. MYRRHIS.[edit]

1. M. odorata. Sweet Cicely.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 50; Scandix odorata, Eng. Bot. 697; Lightfoot, 166; With. ii. 413.
In Dalton Dene, in Cawsey, Beamish, Urpeth, and every other wood on the Team; on the banks of Browney, near Coldpig-hill, and ruins of Finchall Abbey, also in Weardale, frequent, D. In the vicinity of Darlington and Eglestone, D. — Rev. J. Harriman. In Tecket wood, N, In the woods at Wallington, and at Netherwitton, N. — W. C. Trevelyan, Esq.

2. M. temulentum. Rough Cicely, Rough Cow-parsley.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 51; Chaerophyllum temulentum, Eng. Bot. 1521; Curt. Fasc. vi. t. 24; Hook. Fl. Scot. 93.
In hedges, common.

115. BUNIUM.[edit]
1. B. flexuosum. Common Earth-nut, Kipper, or Pig-nut.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 54; Eng. Bot. 988; Bunium Bulbocastanum, Curt. Fasc. iv. t. 24; Hook. Fl. Scot. 88; Conopodium flexuosum, Hook. Br. Fl. 126.
In pastures, &c., frequent.

116. SIUM.[edit]

1. S. latifolium. Broad-leaved Water-parsnep.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 56; Eng. Bot. 204; Curt. Fasc. ii. t. 110; Hook. Fl. Scot. 90; With. ii. 403; Gr. Fl. Eds. 64.
In a pond near the Friar's Goose, east of Gateshead, D.

2. S. angustifolium. Narrow-leaved Water-parsnep.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 56; Eng. Bot. 139; Gr. Fl. Eds. 65; With. ii. 404; Berwick Flora, 68.
In the River Team, and a rivulet near Boldon. D. In Prestwick Carr, and the Ouse Burn, N. Near Carding mill, Wooler. — Dr. G.Johnston.

3. S. nodiflorum. Procumbent Water-parsnep.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 57; Eng. Bot. 639; Woodv. t. 182; Hook. Fl. Scot. 90; Berwick Flora, 69.
In rivulets, springs, and ditches.

4. S. inundatum. Least Water-parsnep.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 58; Berwick Flora, 69; Sison inundatum, Eng. Bot. 227; Hook. Fl. Scot. 91.
In marshy places on Gateshead Fell, in ditches near West Boldon, Cleadon, and Harton-down-hill, D. At Cockerton. — Mr. J. Backhouse. Near Bear's Park, D. — Rev. J. Symons. In a spring near High Elswick, N. Below Calf-hill, near Berwick. — Thompson's Berwick Plants. Near Hexham, N. — Mr. J. Thompson.

117. SISON.[edit]

=====1. S. Amomum. Hedge Honewort, Bastard Stone-parsley. Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 60; Eng. Bot. 954; With. ii. 405.
On the Southwick and Sunderland ballast-hills, D. On a gravelly bank by the road on the S. E. side of the bridge at Barwesford, also in the lane between the Edge-house and Chollerton road, N. — Wallis, 184.

118. CICUTA.[edit]

1 . C. virosa. Water Cowbane, Water-hemlock.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 02; Eng. Bot. 479; Woodv. Sup. t.268; Hook. Fl. Scot. 92; With, ii. 410; Gr. Fl. Eds. 66.
On the banks of North Tyne, at Low Park-end, near Nunwick, N. — Wallis, 178.
I have looked for it there in vain.

119. AETHUSA.[edit]

1. A. Cynapium. Fool's-parsley, Lesser Hemlock.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 64; Eng. Bot. 1192; Curt. Fasc i. t. 18; Hook. Fl. Scot. 92; Berwick Flora, 69.
In gardens and fields, frequent.

120. CONIUM.[edit]

1. C. maculatum. Common Hemlock.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 05; Eng. Bot. 1191; Curt. Fasc. i. t. 17; Woodv. t. 22; Hook. Fl. Scot. 88.
In hedges, and on rubbish, frequent.

121. CORIANDRUM.[edit]

1. C. sativum. Common Coriander.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 07; Eng. Bot. 07; Woodv. 181; With. ii. 412.
On the ballast-hills of Tyne and Wear, N. and D. Near Warley hill, D.
A naturalized exotic.

122. OENANTHE.[edit]

1. O. fistulosa. Common Water-dropwort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 08; Eng. Bot. 303; With ii. 407; Gr. Fl. Eds. 62.
In marshy places, on the banks of rivers and streams, but not very common.

2. O. pimpinelloides. Parsley Water-dropwort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 69; Eng. Bot. 347; Hook. Fl. Scot. 91; With. ii. 408.
Near Hartlepool, D. — Mr. Backhouse. By the Tees at Stockton, D. — G. T. Fox, Esq.

3. O. peucedanifolia. Sulphur-wort Water-dropwort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 70; Eng. Bot. 348; With ii. 409.
By the road side between Harrington and Barrmoor, N. — Thompson's Berwick Plants. In marshes on the banks of Wear, between Hilton and Southwick, D.

4. O. crocata. Hemlock Water-dropwort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 70; Eng. Bot. 2313; Gr. Fl. Eds. 62; Woodv. Sup. t. 2G7; With. ii. 407; Berwick Flora 70.
On the banks of rivers, and in rivulets, not rare.

5. O. Phellandrium. Fine-leaved Water-dropwort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 71; Phellandrium aquaticum, Eng. Bot. 684; Woodv. Sup. t. 266; Hook. Fl. Scot. 92; With. ii. 409.
In bogs at Prestwick Carr, N. In Ponds near Cocken and Durham. At Mordent Carrs, D. — Mr. Backhouse. In swamps near Bear's Park, D.—Rev. J. Symons.

123. CRITHMUM.[edit]

1. C. maritimum. Sea Samphire.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 73; Eng. Bot. 819; With. ii. 393; Hook. Fl. Scot. 89.
On the sea rocks near Alemouth, plentiful. — Wallis, 173. I could not find it there, nor did I ever hear of its being gathered on our coast.

124. SMYRNIUM.[edit]

1. S. Olusatrum. Alexanders.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 74; Eng. Bot. 230; Gr. Fl. Eds. 70; With ii. 118; Berwick Flora, 70.
On the banks near Tynemouth Castle, plentiful, where it was observed in the time of Wilson. — See Syn. 67. Behind the town walls, above the Close Gate, Newcastle, and on the ruins of Dunstanborough Castle, N. In Hurworth Church Yard, D.

126. APIUM.[edit]

1. A. graveolens. Smallage, Wild Celery.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 76; "Eng. Bot. 1210; Hook.Fl. Scot. 95; With. ii. 423.
In salt marshes on the rivers Blyth, Tyne, Wear, and Tees, N. and D.

126. AEGOPODIUM.[edit]

1. A. Podagraria. Gout-weed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 77; Eng. Bot. 940; Hook. Fl. Scot. 95; With. ii. 424; Berwick Flora, 70.
On the banks of Wear, common, D. On the banks of Reed, near Otterburn, N. In Pella wood, near Durham. —Wilson's Syn. 66. Near Berwick, under hedges, frequent. — Dr. G. Johnston.

127. IMPERATORIA.[edit]

1. I. Ostruthium. Masterwort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 78; Eng. Bot. 1380; Woodv. t. 35; Lightfoot, 168; With ii. 417; Peucedanum Ostruthium, Hook. Br. Fl. 119.
At Newbiggen, near Middlelon, and in Teesdale Forest. — Rev. J. Harriman. On the banks of Dadree Burn, between Dadree Shield and the Wear, D.—26th June, 1803. At Cotterton, near Barnardcastle, D.— Mr. E. Robson.

128. ANGELICA.[edit]

1. A. Archangelica. Garden Angelica.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 80; Eng. Bot. 2561; Woodv. t. 50; With. ii. 402. On the banks of the Skern, near High St. Helen's, and at Birch Carr, D.—Mr. Backhouse.

2. A. sylvestris. Wild Angelica.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 81; Eng. Bot. 1128; Woodv. Sup. t. 265; Hook. Fl. Scot. 90.
By the banks of rivers, and in damp woods.

129. LIGUSTICUM.[edit]

1. L. scoticum. Scottish Lovage.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 82; Eng. Bot. 1207; With. ii. 400; Gr. Fl. Eds. 64; Berwick Flora, 70.
Among the rocks on the north side of the ruins of Dunstanhorough Castle, N.— July 18, 1804. Its most southern locality. On the beach, a quarter of a mile south of Bamborough Castle, N. — W.C. Trevelyan, Esq.

130. MEUM.[edit]

1. M. athamanticumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Meum athamanticum. Spignel-meum, or Bald-money.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 84; Eng. Bot. 2249; Aethusa Meum, With ii. 412; Ligusticum Meum, Hook. Fl. Scot. 80.
On a hill by the village of Thockrington, N. — Wallis, 176. On a basaltic height, a quarter of a mile north from Thockrington. — Rev. J. Hodgson, Sp. 1819.

2. M. Foeniculum. Common Fennel.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 85; Anethum Foeniculum, Eng. Bot. 1208; Woodv. 160; With. ii. 419; Foeniculum vulgare, Hook. Br. Fl. 122.
Naturalized on the ballast-hills at St. Anthon's and Willington, N. On the ballast-hills at Ayre's quay, near Sunderland, D.

131. CARUM.[edit]

1. C. Carvi. Common Caraway.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 86; Eng. Bot. 1503; Woodv. t. 45; Hook. Fl. Scot. 95; With. ii. 420.
In corn fields, but not very common.

132. PIMPINELLA.[edit]

1. P. saxifraga. Common Burnet-saxifrage.[edit]

Sm. Eng. FL ii. 89; Eng. Bot. 407; Hook. Fl. Scot. 95; With. ii. 421; Berwick Flora, 71.
In barren pastures, frequent.

2. P. magna. Great Burnet-saxifrage.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 90; Eng. Bot. 408; With. ii. 422.
In Chester-lane, at High Barns, near Sunderland, D. Near Hartlepool, D. — J. Hogg, Esq. Under the hedges at Fairflow and Long Rigge, near Nunwick, also on a bank on the north-east side of the bridge at Barwesford, near Chipchase, N. — Wallis, 182.

133. CNIDIUM.[edit]

1. C. Silaus. Meadow Pepper-saxifrage.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 91; Berwick Flora, 71; Peucedanum Silaus, Eng. Bot. 2142; Hook. Fl. Scot. 88; Silaus pratensis, Hook. Br. Fl. 121. In moist meadows and pastures, by no means rare; though, from Hooker's Flora Scotica, it appears scarce in Scotland; in Berwickshire, however, Dr. Johnston mentions it as common.

2. BUPLEURUM.[edit]

1. B. rotundifolium. Common Hare's-ear, Thorow-wax.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 93; Eng. Bot. 99; With. ii. 386.
In corn fields to the north and west of Norton, and about Carleton and Redmarshall, D.—J. Hogg, Esq. Its most northern localities.

2. B. tenuissimum. Slender Hare's-ear.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 94; Eng. Bot. 478; With. ii. 387.
By the Tees near Stockton. — Mr. E. Robson. On Seaton moor, D.— Mr. J. Backhouse.

135. HYDROCOTYLE.[edit]

1. H. vulgarisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Hydrocotyle vulgaris. Common White-rot, Marsh Pennywort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 96; Eng. Bot. 751; Curt. Fasc. vi. t. 19; Hook. Fl. Scot. 87; Berwick Flora 71.
In marshy places and on moist heaths, frequent.

136. PASTINACA.[edit]

1. P. sativa. Wild Parsnep.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 101; Eng. Bot, 550; With. ii. 418.
In the Magnesian Limestone district, abundant, especially near the coast; its most northern locality.

1. HERACLEUM.[edit]

1. H. Sphondylium. Common Cow-parsnep.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 1 02; Eng. Bot. 939; Hook. Fl. Scot. 89.


PENTANDRIA TRIGYNIA.[edit]

138. VIBURNUM.[edit]

1. V. OpulusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Viburnum Opulus. Common Guelder Rose, Water Elder.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 107; Eng. Bot. 332; Hook. Fl. Scot. 96; Berwick Flora, 72.
In moist woods and hedges, frequent.

139. SAMBUCUS.[edit]

1. S. EbulusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Sambucus ebulus. Dwarf Elder, Dane-wort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 108; Eng. Bot. 475; Curt. Fasc. iii. t. 18; Woodv. Sup. t. 260; With. ii. 426; Gr. Fl. Eds. 72.
In hedges near Deckham Hall, Gateshead, between Blaydon and Stella, D. — Mr. R. B. Bowman. In the old church-yard at Benwell, N. At Bamborough and Ingram, N. — W.C. Trevelyan, Esq. On the west side of the church yard wall at Chatton, by the river Till, and at Purley Green, near Shitlington Hall, in Tynedale.— Wallis, 141. At the Crooks, near Hump's Hall, N. — Mr. J. Thompson.

2. S. nigraWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Sambucus nigra. Common Elder.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 109; Eng. Bot. 476; Berwick Flora, 72; Woodv. t. 78; Hook. Fl. Scot. 96; Var. γ S. laciniatus, Ray's Syn. 461.
α In woods and hedges, γ In hedges near Earsdon, N.—Mr. R. Waugh.


PENTANDRIA TETRAGYNIA.[edit]

140. PARNASSIA.[edit]

1. P. palustris. Grass of Parnassus.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 114; Eng. Bot. 82; Hook. Lond. t. i; Gr. Fl. Eds. 73; With. ii. 429; Berwick Flora, 73.
In boggy places near Greencroft, Castle Eden, on the coast near Sunderland, and in Teesdale Forest, D. About Norton and Stockton, D. — J. Hogg, Esq. On bogs in Heaton wood, in marshy places on the highest parts of Northumberland, and on the links at Bamborough and Holy Island. On the links between Druridge and Cresswell, and at the east end of Bromley lake, N Wallis, 225.


PENTANDRIA PENTAGYNIA.[edit]

141. STATICE.[edit]

1. S. Armeria. Thrift., Sea Gilliflower.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 115; Eng. Bot. 226; Hook. Fl. Scot. 97; Berwick Flora, 73; Armeria maritima, De Cand Lindley's Br. Syn. 170.
In salt marshes, and on the rocks by the coast, also on the Sub-alpine hills, in Teesdale Forest, D.
It may be noticed, that the Grass of Parnassus ranges the whole way from the sea beach to our highest grounds; the Thrift occurs only at the extremities of the line.

2. S. Limonium. Sea Lavender.[edit]

Sm. Eng Fl. ii. 116; Eng. Bot. 102; Hook. Fl. Scot. 97; With. ii. 431; Berwick Flora, 74.
On the north shore of Wear at Hilton, near Sunderland, also near Tees mouth, and at Hartlepool, D. On St. Cuthbert's Island, a rock at Holy Island, N.

142. LINUM.[edit]

1. L. usitatissimum. Common Flax.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 118; Eng. Bot. 1357; Curt. Fasc. v. t. 22; Woodv. t. 111; Gr. Fl. Eds. 74; With. ii. 432.
In corn fields, and on the ballast-hills, N. and D.

2. L. perenne: Perennial Blue Flax.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 118; Eng. Bot. 40; With. ii. 433.
In fields, on the sea coast near Marsden cottage, and among furze on a bank behind the house, also at Baydales, near Darlington, D.; in which habitat it was noticed by S. Robson. — See Syn. p. 128.
The vicinity of Marsden appears to be its northern boundary, for the Perennial Flax is not mentioned in Hooker's Flora Scotica.

3. L. catharticum. Purging Flax, Mill-mountain.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 119; Eng. Bot. 382; Curt. Fasc. iii. t. 19; Hook. Fl. Scot. 97; Berwick Flora, 74.
In dry barren pastures, frequent. {rule}

PENTANDRIA HEXAGYNIA.[edit]

143. DROSERA.[edit]

1. D. rotundifolia. Round-leaved Sun-dew.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 122; Eng. Bot. 807; Hook. Fl. Scot. 98; Berwick Flora, 74.
On bogs, common, N. and D. On the Rabbit banks above Gateshead, D.

2. D. longifolia. Long-leaved Sun-dew.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 123; Eng. Bot. 868; Hook. Fl. Scot. 98; With. ii. 436.
In a bog on the north side of Slaterfield, near Simonburn, N. — Wallis p. 221.
Probably Drosera anglica. I never met with Drosera longifolia in the north.

3. D. anglica. Great Sun-dew.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 123; Eng. Bot. 809; Hook. Fl. Scot. 98; With. ii. 437. In bogs on the Muckle Moss, and at Prestwick Carr, N. {rule}

PENTANDRIA POLYGYNIA.[edit]

144. MYOSURUS.[edit]

1. M. minimus. Mouse-tail.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 125; Eng. Bot. 435; Curt. Fasc. iv. t. 26; Hook. Fl. Scot. 98; With. ii. 439.
In fields near Darlington, D. On St. Anthon's ballast hills, N. On the Cowhill, Newcastle Town Moor, N Mr. R. B. Bowman.

HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA.[edit]

145. GALANTHUS.[edit]

1. G. nivalis. Snowdrop.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii, 129; Eng. Bot. 19; Hook. Loud. t. 14; With. ii. 442; Gr. Fl. Eds. 75.
In Scotswood dene, and on the Lamshield bank near Hexham. Naturalized on banks in the upper part of Heaton dene, N. Near Conniscliffe and Blackwell, D.—Mr. E. Robson.
Leucojum aestivum (the Summer Snowflake) formerly grew in tolerable abundance in a mill-pond near Goldspink Hall in Heaton dene. The pool is now filled up, and the plant exterminated, which in all likelihood had been thrown out of some garden, and brought down by the bourn.

146. NARCISSUS.[edit]

1. N. biflorus. Pale Narcissus, Primrose-peerless.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 132; Eng. Bot. 276; With. ii. 444; N. poeticus, Hudson, 141. Near Dinsdale, D., probably the outcast of a garden. — Mr. E. Robson.

2. N. Pseudo-narcissus. Common Daffodil.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 132; Eng. Bot. 17; Gr. Fl. Eds. 75; With. ii. 444.
In Witton-le-Wear, Cocken,and Ravensworth woods, in meadows near Butsfield, and in Barley Haugh near Ebchester, D. Near Pierce Bridge.—Mr. Backhouse. On the south side of the Wear at Butterby near Durham John Hogg, Esq. On the banks of the Derwent, near Allan's-ford, N.

147. ALLIUM.[edit]

1. A. arenarium. Sand Garlick.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 134; Eng. Bot. 1358 (bad); Hook. Fl. Scot. 100; With. ii. 445; Berwick Flora, 76.
In the upper part of Castle Eden dene, above the Gunner's pool, D. On the banks of Tyne at Low Elswick, near the Fishery, N.

2. A. oleraceum. Streaked Field Garlick.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 136; Eng. Bot. 488; Gr. Fl. Eds. 75; With. ii. 447; Berwick Flora, 77.
In meadows on the banks of Tyne near Wylam, on the Heugh at Holy Island, and rocks at Harnham, N. On the banks of the Hart between Hartburn Grange and the Moor, N Miss Emma Trevelyan. On rocks at Spindlestone, N. — Dr. G. Johnston. In meadows at Silksworth, near Sunderland, and on the walls at Durham Peth. At Baydales near Darlington. — Mr. Backhouse. Near Middleton in Teesdale, D. — Rev. J. Harriman.

3. A. vineale. Crow Garlick.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 137; Eng. Bot. 1974; Gr. Fl. Eds. 75; With. ii. 446; Berwick Flora 77.
On Chapel Hill, and the heights between it and Belford, also on Windmill, Bastion, and other parts of the ramparts of Berwick. — Thompson's Berwick Plants. Near Hexham Mr. ft Scott. On Gunnerton Crags, N. — Mr. W. Robertson. At Durham Peth. — Rev. J. T. Fenwick. At Baydales near Darlington.— Mr. Backhouse. =====4. A. ursinum. Broad-leaved Garlick, Ramsons.===== Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 137; Eng. Bot. 122; Hook. Fl. Scot. 101; Berwick Flora, 77.
In shady moist woods, frequent.

5. A. Schaenoprasum. Chive Garlick.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 138; Eng. Bot. 2441; Hook. Fl. Scot. 101; With. ii. 448; Berwick Flora, 77.
On Walltown Crags. — Mr. J. Thompson, Sps. On Copping Crags by the Wansbeck near Kirkwhelpington, N. — Rev. J. Hodgson, Sp.
These localities are both on Basaltic rocks, and where the plant could never have been cultivated.

148. TULIPA.[edit]

1. T. sylvestris. Wild Tulip.[edit]

Sm. Eng.Fl. ii. 141; Eng. Bot. 63; Hook. Lond. t. 19; Fl. Scot. 101; With. ii. 449.
Naturalized near Blackwell, D. — Mr. James Backhouse.

149. ORNITHOGALUM.[edit]

1. O. luteum. Yellow Star of Bethlehem.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 142; Eng. Bot. 21; Gr, Fl. Eds. 76; With. ii. 450; Gagea lutea, Ker. Lindley Br. Syn. 268.
On the banks of Tees near Eglestone and Wycliffe, and in fields near Bishop Auckland, D. In Barbara Riggs, near Barnardcastle, and near Whorlton. — Rev. J. Harriman. Near Pierce Bridge, D. — Mr. Backhouse. At Butterby near Durham. — John Hogg, Esq. Near Greta Bridge and Brignal. — Johnson in Ray's Syn. 166. Near Hexham. —Mr. F. Scott. In the wood bottom at the west end of the Rectory dene at Simonburn. — Wallis 226. On the banks of the Hart below Rothley mill. — W. C. Trevelyan, Esq. In the dene near Twizell House, N. — P. J. Selby, Esq.

2. O. nutans. Drooping Star of Bethlehem.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 144; Eng. Bot. 1997; Hook. Lond. t. 44; With. ii. 452.
Naturalized near Blackwell, D.— Mr. J. Backhouse.

150. SCILLA.[edit]

1. S. verna. Vernal Squil.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 145; Eng. Bot. 23; With. ii. 453; Berwick Flora, 77; Hook. Fl. Scot. 102; S. bifolia, Lightfoot, 121.
Naturalized in woods at Burn Hall, near Durham. — Miss Dale, Sp.
This elegant plant having been found on the sea banks above Gunn's-green in Berwickshire, by the Rev. A. Bairt, hopes may be entertained of its being detected in Northumberland. Our Basaltic rocks in the vicinity of the coast are likely localities for it.

2. S. nutans. Hare-bell Squill, Wild Hyacinth.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 147; Eng. Bot. 377; Berwick Flora, 78; Hyacinthus non-scriptus, Curt. Fasc. ii. t. 18; Hook. Fl. Scot. 102.
In denes, woods, and under hedges.

151. NARTHECIUM.[edit]

1. N. ossifragum. Lancashire Bog-asphodel.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 151; Eng. Bot. 535; Hook. Lond. t. 139; Gr. Fl. Eds. 77; With. ii. 455; Berwick Flora, 78.
In bogs on moors and heaths, not rare.

152. CONVALLARIA.[edit]

1. G. majalis. Lily of the Valley.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 154; Eng. Bot. 1035; Curt. Fasc. v. t. 24; Gr. Fl. Eds. 77; With. ii. 456.
In Gibside woods, Castle Eden dene, and near Winchbridge, Teesdale, D. In Scotswood and Denton denes, and at Warden mill near Hexham, N.— Among the bushes above the scar at Netherwarden, N.— Wallis, 152.

2. C. Polygonatum. Angular Solomon's Seal.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 155; Eng. Bot. 280; Woodv. t. 44; Hook. Lond. t. 38; With. ii. 457; Berwick Flora, 78.
On Kyloe rocks a few miles south of Berwick, N. — Mr. A. Bruce, in Sm. Eng. Fl.

3. C. multiflora. Common Solomon's Seal.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 156; Eng. Bot. 279; Hook. Lond. t. 37; Fl. Scot. 105; With. ii. 458.
In the lane between Stockton and Stainton, D. — Mr. E. Robson.

153. JUNCUS.[edit]

1. J. maritimus. Lesser Sharp Sea Rush.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 159; Eng. Bot. 1725; With. 463; Bicheno, Linn. Tr. xii. 299.
Near Seaton, D. — Mr. Backhouse. Its most northern locality.

2. J. glaucus. Hard Rush.[edit]

Sm, Eng. Fl. ii. 160; Eng. Bot. 665; Hook. Fl. Scot. 105; Bicheno, Linn. Tr. xii. 390.
In wet pastures and on commons.

3. J. conglomeratus. Common Rush.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 161; Eng. Bot. 835; Hook. Fl. Scot. 105; Bicheno, Linn. Tr. xii. 302.
By road sides and in pastures.

4. J. effusus. Soft Rush.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 162; Eng. Bot. 836; Hook. Fl. Scot. 105; Bicheno, Linn. Tr. xii. 303.
In wet pastures and by road sides.

5. J. squarrosus. Moss Rush, Goose Corn.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 164; Eng. Bot. 933; Hook. Fl. Scot. 105; Bicheno, Linn. Tr. xii. 306.
On moors and wet turfy heaths.

6. J. compressus. Round-fruited Rush.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 165; Bicheno, Linn. Tr. xii. 307; J. bulbosus, Eng. Bot. 934; Hook. Fl. Scot. 107.
β J. caenosus. (Mud Rush.)
Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 166; Bicheno, Linn. Tr. xii. 309; Eng. "Bot. 2680; Berwick Flora, 79; J. bulbosus, β. Hook. Fl. Scot. 107; J. compressus β, Br. Fl. 163; J. bottnicus, Wahl. Fl. Lapp. 82 t. 5, according to specimens from SWARTZ.
α in Teesdale forest D. β on the muddy shores of Tyne below Gateshead park, and of Wear near Southwick, D. Near Elswick, N. On the banks of Tweed, and on Goswick links, N. — Thompson's Berwick Plants.

7. J. bufonius. Toad Rush.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 168; Eng. Bot. 802; Hook. Fl. Scot. 108; Bicheno, Linn. Tr. xii. 311; Berwick Flora, 79.
In marshy ground on moors, &c.

8. J. uliginosus. Little Bulbous Rush.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 169; Eng. Bot. 801; Hook. Fl. Scot. 108; Bicheno, Linn. Tr. xii. 315; Berwick Flora, 80; β, Fl. Brit 300. On wet moors, frequent. In var. β the flowers are viviparous.

9. J. triglumis. Three-flowered Rush.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 173; Eng. Bot. 899; Lightfoot, 186, t. 9, f. 2; Bicheno, Linn. Tr. xii. 319; With. ii. 466.
Half a mile north of the Cauldron Snout, D. —W.C. Trevelyan, Esq. On Meldon Fell, Teesdale.—Rev. Jno. Harriman.

10. J. castaneus. Clustered Alpine Rush.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 173; Eng. Bot. 900; Hook. Fl. Scot. 106; Bicheno, Linn. Tr. xii. 321; With, ii. 467.
In the county of Durham.—Rev. J. Harriman, Smith's English Flora.
There is a specimen of this very rare plant in the late Sir J. E. Smith's Herbarium, marked as coming from the county of Durham.

11. J. acutiflorus. Sharp-pointed Jointed Rush.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 174; Eng. Bot. 2143, at the bottom; Berwick Flora, 80; Hook. Fl. Scot. 109; Bicheno, Linn. Tr. xii. 323; J. articulatus, Eng. Bot. 238; β, Fl. Brit. 379.
In wet meadows and on moors, frequent.

12. J. lampocarpus. Shining-fruited Jointed Rush.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 175; Eng. Bot. 2143; Berwick Flora, 80; Hook. Fl. Scot. 109; Bicheno, Linn. Tr. xii. 325; J. articulatus α, Fl. Brit. 379.
In wet meadows and boggy places.

13. J. obtusiflorus. Blunt-flowered Jointed Rush.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 176; Eng. Bot. 2144; Hook. Fl. Scot. 109; With. ii. 464; Bicheno, Linn. Tr. xii. 327; J. articulatus, β, Fl. Brit. 379.
At Prestwick Carr, N. At Polam, D.— Mr. James Backhouse.

154. LUCIOLA.[edit]

1. L. pilosa. Broad-leaved Hairy Wood-rush.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 178; Hook. Fl. Scot. 110; Berwick Flora, 80; Bicheno, Linn. Tr. xii. 329, t. 9, f. 1; Juncus pilosus, Eng. Bot. 736; Curt. Fasc. v. t. 25.
In denes and woods, frequent.

2. L. sylvatica. Great Wood-rush.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 180; Bicheno, Linn. Tr. xii. 131, t. 9, f. 3; Berwick Flora, 80; Luzula maxima, Hook. Fl. Scot. 110; Juncus sylvaticus, Eng. Bot. 737; Curt. Fasc. v. t. 26.
In woods and denes, common.

3. L. campestris. Field Wood-rush.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 181; Br. Prodr. 591; Bicheno Linn. Tr. xii. 334, t. 9, f. 4; Hook. Fl. Scot. 110; Berwick Flora, 81; Juncus campestris, Eng. Bot. 672; Curt. Fasc. ii. t. 19.
On moors and in barren pastures.
Another of the British plants found in Australia.

4. L. sudetica. Tall Bog Wood-rush.[edit]

Berwick Flora, 81, f. 2; L. congesta, Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 131; Forster's Tonb. 44; Luzula sudetica, Spr. Syst. Veg. ii. 111; L. campestris, γ Gr. Fl. Eds. 81; Juncus campestris, β Wahl. Fl. Lapp. 87; Bicheno, Linn. Tr. xii. 334; Hook. Fl. Scot. 110; Fl. Brit. 386; With. ii. 462 J. sudeticus, Willd. Sp. Pl. ii. 221; J. liniger, Purton's Sup. 352, t. 9.
On the heathy part of Prestwick Carr, and on the Muckle Moss, N. In Beamish Park, and near Tanfleld, D.

155. BERBERIS.[edit]

1. B. vulgaris. Barberry.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 184; Eng. Bot. 49; Woodv. Supp. t. 234; Gr. Fl. Eds. 82; With. ii. 470; Berwick Flora, 81.
In Heaton woods, N. In hedges near Witton-le-Wear, Darlington, Picktree, and Chester-le-Street, D. At Bear's Park, D. — Rev. J. Symons. Between Richardson's Stead and Scremmerston, N. Dr. G. Johnston.

156. FRANKENIA.[edit]

1. F. laevis. Smooth Sea Heath.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 186; Eng. Bot. 205; With. ii. 472.
On Sunderland ballast-hills, D.—W. Weighell's Herb.

157. PEPLIS.[edit]

1. P. Portula. Water Purslane.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 187; Eng. Bot. 121 1; Curt. Fasc. iv. t. 27; Hook. Fl. Scot. 111.
In marshy places and on wet heaths.


HEXANDRIA TRIGYNIA.[edit]

158. RUMEX.[edit]

1. R. sanguineus. Bloody-veined Dock.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 190; Eng. Bot. 1533; Gr. Fl. Eds. 83; With. ii. 473; Berwick Flora, 82.
By hedge sides near Houghton-le-Spring, on banks at Friar's Goose, near Gateshead, and in pastures near Murton House, D.

2. R. crispus. Curled Dock.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 191; Eng. Bot. 1998; Curt. Fasc. ii. t. 20; Hook. Fl. Scot. 112; Berwick Flora, 82.
In pastures and by road sides.

3. R. acutus. Sharp Dock.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 192; Eng. Bot. 724; Curt. Fasc. iii. t. 21; With. ii. 474; Berwick Flora, 82.
In moist meadows and near rivers.

4. R. obtusifolius. Broad blunt-leaved Dock.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 192; Eng. Bot. 1999; Curt. Fasc. iii. t. 22; Hook. Fl. Scot. 113; Berwick Flora, 83.
By road sides and on waste ground.

5. R. pulcher. Fiddle Dock.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 193; Eng. Bot. 1570; Hook. Fl. Scot. 113; With. ii. 476.
On Sunderland ballast-hills, D W. Weighell's Herb. On Willington and St. Anthon's ballast-hills, N.

6. R. maritimus. Golden Dock.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 193; Eng. Bot. 725; Gr. Fl. Eds. 83; With. ii. 477.
On Willington and St. Anthon's ballast-hills, N. On Sunderland ballast-hills, D. — Rev. J. Symons.

7. R. palustris. Yellow Marsh Dock.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 194; Eng. Bot. 1932; Hook. Fl. Scot. 113; With. ii. 476. On Sunderland and Hebburn ballast-hills, D. On St. Anthon's and Wellington ballast-hills, N.

8. R. Hydrolapathum. Great Water Dock.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 195; Woody, t. 178; R. aquaticus, Eng. Bot. 2104; Lightfoot, 190; With. ii. 475; R. Britannica, Hudson, 1st ed. 135.
Near Preston on the Skerne, and Polam. — Mr. E. Robson. In rivulets, near Stockton and Norton, D. —J. Hogg, Esq.

9. R. Acetosa. Common Sorrel.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 196; Eng. Bot. 127; Woodv. t. 69; Hook. Fl. Scot. 113; Berwick Flora, 83.
In meadows and pastures, frequent.

10. R. Acetosella Sheep's Sorrel.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 197; Eng. Bot. 1674; Curt. Fasc. v. t. 29; Hook. Fl. Scot. 113; Berwick Flora, 83.
In barren pastures and on heaths, common.

159. TOFIELDIA.[edit]

1. T. palustris. Scottish Asphodel.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 198; Eng. Bot. 536; Hook. Lond. 100; Fl. Scot. 114; With. ii. 480; Berwick Flora, 83; Anthericum calyculatum, Lightfoot, t. 8, f. 2.
Near Widdy bank on Teesdale Forest, D. Near the Black Ark on Cronkley Fell.
Juxta rivulum non procul Bervico in Scotia. Dill. Ray's Syn. 375.

160. TRIGLOCHIN.[edit]

1. T. palustre. Marsh Arrow-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 200; Eng. Bot. 366; Hook. Fl. Scot. 114; Lond. t. 98; Berwick Flora, 83.
In bogs and marshy places, but not very common.

2. T. maritimum. Sea Arrow-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 201; Eng.'Bot. 255; Hook. Fl. Scot. 114; Lond. t. 99; Berwick Flora, 83.
In salt marshes on the Tweed, Blyth, Tyne, Wear, and Tees; also on the sea coast, N. and D.

161. COLCHICUM.[edit]

1. C. autumnale. Meadow Saffron.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 202; Eng. Bot. 133; Woodv. t. 177; Hook. Fl. Scot. 114; With. ii. 481.
On the banks of Tees, opposite Eglestone ,N. — Rev. J. Harriman. At Sand-hills, near Darlington, D.— W. Weighell's Herb. On the banks of Wear at Butterby, near Durham. — Mr. John Fox.


HEXANDRIA POLYGYNIA.[edit]

162. ALISMA.[edit]

1. A. Plantago. Greater Water-plantain.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 203; Eng. Bot. 837; Curt. Fasc. v. t.27; Hook. Fl. Scot. 114; Berwick Flora, 84.
On the margins of rivers, and in pools and ditches, frequent.

2. A. ranunculoides. Small Water-plantain.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 205; Eng. Bot. 326; Hook. Lond. t. 28; Gr.Fl. Eds. 85; With. ii. 485; Berwick Flora, 84.
In boggy places near East Morton, and ponds near Horton, also at Fawdon Slate, D. In clay pits near Barnardcastle, D. — Rev. J. Harriman. At Hill Close Carr. — S. Robson's Fl. 198. In Whitburn-moor lane, D — Rev. J. Symons. In bogs at Prestwick Carr, and by the Lough on Holy Island, N. In the pond near Spindlestone, N. — Dr. G. Johnston.


HEPTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.[edit]

163. TRIENTALIS.[edit]

1. T. europaea. Chickweed Winter-green.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 238; Eng. Bot. 15; Hook. Fl. Scot. 115; With. ii. 436.
On moors a mile and a half east of Rothbury, N. Beyond the Roman Wall, five miles north of Hexham, and on moors west of Harbottle, N. — T. Willisel, Ray's Syn. 162. In a fir plantation at Catcherside, four miles west of Wallington, on moors about Green Leighton, and by Rothley Lake, N. — Miss Emma Trevelyan. In the plantation surrounding Brislie Tower, N. — Mr. F. Manisty. Near Bassington, three miles west of Alnwick, N. — Miss Pringle, Sp. Near Butsfield and Spring houses, D. In Waskerley Park, near Wolsingham, D. Mr. J. Thornhill. On the wooded hill above Hepburn, at Chillingham, and on Hedgehope, N. — Dr. G. Johnston.

OCTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.[edit]

164. OENOTHERA.[edit]

1. OE. biennis. Common Evening-primrose.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 211; Eng. Bot. 1534; With. ii. 492; Hook. Br. Fl. 178.
On South Shields ballast-hills, D. Originally from North America, and not yet naturalized beyond the Tyne.

165. EPILOBIUM.[edit]

1. E. angustifolium. Rosebay Willow-herb, French Willow.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 212; Eng. Bot. 1947; Hook. Fl. Scot. 116; With. ii. 489; Berwick Flora, 86.
On the banks of Derwent, near Blanchland, upon rocks on the west side of Shewing Shields, near Crag Lake, where it was observed by Wallis, and by a rocky rivulet above Langley Ford, at the foot of Cheviot, N. On the banks of South Tyne, by Slaggy Ford, in Knaresdale. — Wallis 154. On the rocks above Folden lead mill, near Edmondbyers; also near Barnardcastle, Eglestone, and the High Force of Tees, D. In Irehope dene, Weardale, D. — W.C. Trevelyan, Esq.
A sub-alpine plant, and merely naturalized in its localities in the southern counties of England.

2. E. hirsutum. Great Hairy Willow-herb, Codlings and Cream.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 213; Eng. Bot. 838; Curt. Fasc. ii. t. 21; Hook. Fl. Scot. 117; Berwick Flora, 86.
By ditches, rivulets, and on the banks of rivers, frequent. =====3. E. parviflorum. Small-flowered hoary Willow-herb.===== Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 214; Eng. Bot. 795; Hook. Fl. Scot. 117; Gr. Fl. Eds. 86; Berwick Flora, 86; E. villosum, Curt. Fasc. ii. t. 22; E. hirsutum, Hudson, 161.
In watery places, and on the banks of rivers.

4. E. montanum. Broad smooth-leaved Willow-herb.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 214; Eng. Bot. 1177; Hook. Fl. Scot. 117; Curt. Fasc. iii. t. 24; Berwick Flora, 87.
In dry, stony, and rocky places, and on old walls, frequent.

5. E. tetragonum. Square-stalked Willow-herb.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 215; Eng. Bot. 1948; Curt. Fasc. ii. t. 23; Hook. Fl. Scot. 117; Berwick Flora, 87.
In watery places, not uncommon.

6. E. palustre. Round-stalked Marsh Willow-herb.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 216; Eng. Bot. 346; Berwick Flora, 87; Hook. Fl. Scot. 117; β lapponicum, Wahl. Fl. Eapp. 25; Linn. Lapp. N. 149.
α By ditches and on boggy ground; β by rivulets near Wolsingham, D. On Cheviot, N.

7. E. alsinifolium. Chick-weed-leaved Willow-herb.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 216 Eng. Bot. 2000; With. ii. 492; Berwick Flora, 87; Villars Dauph. iii. 511; Hook. Fl. Scot. 117; Northumberland and Durham Guide, i. 36 and ii. preiace 4; E. origanifolium, Lam. and De Cand. iv. 424; Turner and Dillwyn's Guide, see note v. ii. p. 471.
In a rivulet near the summit of Cheviot, N. — July 22, 1804. On Cronkley Fell, Teesdale.

8. E. alpinum. Alpine Willow-herb.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 217; Eng. Bot. 2001; Lightfoot, 199; t. 10, f. 1; With. ii. 491.
Near the Cauldron Snout in Teesdale, D. — W. C. Trevelyan, Esq. The only English locality Curtis's station at the head of Long-sleddale, Westmor- land, is occupied by Epilobium alsinifolium, as proved by specimens gathered there by Mr. Joseph Woods.

166. CHLORA.[edit]

1. C. perfoliate. Perfoliate Yellow-wort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 218; Hook. Lond. t. 2; Eng. Bot. 60; With. ii. 494.
In dry hilly pastures about a quarter of a mile west of Honeycleugh Crag, near Chester Wood, and Whinetly, on South Tyne, N. — Wallis, 217.
No other botanist has been so fortunate as to find this elegant plant in Northumberland or Durham.

167. VACCINIUM.[edit]

1. V. Myrtillus. Bilberry or Bleaberry.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 219; Eng. Bot. 456; Hook. Fl. Scot. 118; Berwick Flora, 87. On heaths and in woods, not rare. Meaton Dene, near Newcastle, N.

2. V. uliginosum. Great Bilberry.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 220; Eng. Bot. 581; Hook. Fl. Scot. 118; With. ii. 496.
Near Wardrew, and on the north side of Wall-town Crags, N. Near an ancient camp on the south banks of Tyne, opposite Lambley, N— W.C. Trevelyan, Esq. In bogs at Moor-rigs, near Middleton-in- Teesdale, D. — Mr. James Backhouse. On Meldon Fell, Teesdale. — Rev. J. Harriman. In the Duke of Portland's wood, called East Common Wood, near Hexham, N Wallis, 147. I could never find it there.

3. V. Vitis-Idaea. Red Whortle-berry, Cow-berry.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 220; Eng. Bot. 598; Gr. Fl. Eds. 87; With. ii. 490; Berwick Flora, 88.
On tufty heaths at Butsfield, Stanhope in Weardale, and in Teesdale Forest; in woods at Witton-le-Wear, and Howns near Medomsley; and on the heath at the source of a Roman aqueduct west of Woodland, near Butsfield, D. On Cheviot and Hedgehope; also in Allendale; in the wood at Roadley, and on the moors near Wallington; in East Common Wood, and on the banks at West Dipton, near Hexham, N. On rocks at Long Crag, near Watling-street, by the road to Thockrington from Gunnerton; also on the moor edge near Diligate Hall, N — Wallis, 147. On the hill at Hepburn near Chillingham, N. Dr. G. Johnston.
An indifferent substitute for the Cranberry.

4. V. Oxycoccus. Cranberry.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 221; Eng. Bot. 319; Gr. Fl. Eds. 87; "With. ii. 497; Berwick Flora, 88.
On the Beamish, Urpeth, Weardale, and Teesdale moors, D. On Framwellgate Carr, near Durham. — J. Hogg, Esq. On mosses north of Gunnerton Crags. — Mr. F. Scott. On moors between Belford and Wooler, N. — Thompson's Berwick Plants. On the Wallington moors, the Muckle Moss, Blanchland moors, and the heath at Prestwick Carr, N.

168. CALLUNA.[edit]

1. C. vulgaris. Common Ling.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 225; Hook. Fl. Scot. 119; Berwick Flora, 88; Erica vulgaris, Eng. Bot. 1013; Curt. Fasc. v. t. 30.
β flore albo. α On dry moors if the soil be not calcareous, and occasionally in denes and woods; β on the Teesdale and Wallington moors, D. and N.

169. ERICA.[edit]

1. E. Tetralix. Cross-leaved Heath, Heather.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 226; Eng. Bot. 1014; Berwick Flora, 89; Curt. Fasc. i. t. 21; Hook. Fl. Scot. 119.
β flore albo.
α on boggy heaths; β on the Wallington moors, N. — W. C. Trevelyan, Esq.

2. E. cinerea. Fine-leaved Heath, Heather.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 226; Eng. Bot. 1015; Berwick Flora, 89; Curt. Fasc. ii. t. 25; Hook. Fl. Scot. 119.
β flore albo.
α On wet turfy moors; β at Cow-close near Cockfield, D.— Mr. J. Backhouse.

170 DAPHNE.[edit]

1. D. Mezereum, Common Mezereon, Spurge-olive.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 228; Eng. Bot. 1381; Woodv. t. 23; With. ii. 503.
Naturalized in a wood among the Tunstal hills, south of Sunderland, D. — Mr. T. Robson.

2. D. Laurcola. Spurge-laurel.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 229; Eng. Bot. 119; Hook. Fl. Scot. 119; Gr. Fl. Eds. 88; With. ii. 504; Berwick Flora, 90.
Small textIn woods and hedges near Hilton Castle, and in Dalton and Castle Eden Denes, D. Near Norton and Wynyard. — J. Hogg, Esq. In Whorlton wood, D. — Rev. J. Harriman. Between Bilton Bank and the Long Dyke, near Alnwick N — Mr. J. Davison.
Usually confined to limestone soils.

171. ACER.[edit]

1. A. Pseudo-platanus. Greater Maple, Sycamore.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 230; Eng. Bot. 303; Hook. Fl. Scot. 120.
In woods and hedges, also on the edges of many of our high moors, where it certainly is indigenous.

2. A. campestre. Common Maple.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 231; Eng. Bot. 304; Hook. Fl. Scot. 120; With. ii. 494.
In hedges near Sunderland, Norton, and Darlington, and in plantations at Beamish, D. Rare in the north of England, probably not indigenous beyond the Tyne.


OCTANDRIA TRIGYNIA.[edit]

172. POLYGONUM.[edit]

1. P. amphibium, Amphibious Persicaria.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 232; Eng. Bot. 435; Curt. Fasc. iv. t. 28; Hook. Fl. Scot. 121; Berwick Flora, 90.
In ditches, ponds, and by rivulets.

2. P. Persicaria. Spotted Persicaria.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 233; Ens. Bot. 750; Curt. Fasc. i. t. 23; Hook. Fl. Scot. 121; Berwick Flora, 90.
In ditches and watery places.

3. P. lapathifolium. Pale-flowered Persicaria.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 234; Eng. Bot. 1382; Berwick Flora, 90; Hook. Fl. Scot. 121; P. pennsylvanicum, Curt. Fasc. i. 24, 25; P. pallidum, With, ii. 508.
On cultivated ground and about dung hills.

4. P. Hydropiper. Biting Persicaria.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 235; Eng. Bot. 989; Curt. Fasc. i. t. 26; Hook. Fl. Scot. 121; Berwick Flora, 91.
By ditches and watery places.

5. P. minus. Small Creeping Persicaria.[edit]

Sm Eng. Fl. ii. 235; Eng. Bot. 1043; Curt. Fasc. i. t. 28; With. ii. 507; Hook. Fl. Scot. 121.
At Mordent Carr near Darlington, D. — Mr. Backhouse.

6. P. Bistorta. Great Bistort, or Snakeweed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 236; Eng. Bot. 509; Curt. Fasc. i. t. 22; Woodv. 34; With. ii. 509; Hook. Fl. Scot. 120.
In moist, meadows and woods on Tyne, Wear, Tees, Team, and Derwent, N. and D. Near Wallington, N.— W.C. Trevelyan, Esq. In the King's Meadows, near Newcastle. — Wilson's Syn. 21. Where it still grows. In the wood called the Stocking, near Alnwick, N. — Mr. J. Davison.

7. P. viviparum. Viviparous, or Alpine Bistort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 237; Eng. Bot. 669; Hook. Lond. t. 81; Fl. Scot. 120; With. ii. 510.
In alpine pastures near Eglestone and Middleton, also in Teesdale Forest, on the banks of Wear, at Burtree-ford, Weardale, D.

8. P. aviculare. Knot-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 238; Berwick Flora. 91; Eng. Bot. 1252; Hook. Fl. Scot. 122; Curt. Lond. i. t. 27; Sm.; P. marinum, Ray's Syn. 147.
α By paths and on cultivated ground; close by Cullercoats near Tynemouth, N. — Wilson's Syn. 21.

9. P. Fagopyrum. Buck-wheat.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 239; Eng. But. 1044; Hook. Fl. Scot. 122.
On the ballast-hills of Tyne and Wear, N. and D.

10. P. Convolvulus. Climbing Buck-wheat, Black Bindweed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 239; Eng. Bot. 941; Curt. Fasc. iv. t. 29; Hook. Fl. Scot. 122; Berwick Flora, 91.
In corn fields, gardens, &c.


OCTANDRIA TETRAGYNIA.[edit]

173. PARIS.[edit]

=====1. P. quadrifolia. Herb Paris. Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 241; Eng. Bot. 7; With. ii. 513; Gr. Fl. Eds. 91.
In Hawthorn and Castle Eden Denes, and Raby Park; also in Urpeth, Beamish, and Ravensworth woods, D. In Scotswood and Heaton Denes, and in woods on the Coquet, at Felton and Meldon; also near Hexham. N. Wallington woods, N. — Miss Emma Trevelyan. In Cottingwood near Morpeth, where Dr. Turner observed it; and at the west end of the Rectory wood, Simonburn. — Wallis, 150. In Twizell dene. — P.J. Selby, Esq. In Rugeley wood. — Mr. F. Manisty. At Break-back, on the way to Huln Abbey near Alnwick, N. — Dr. Cope.

174. ADOXA.[edit]

1. A. Moschatellina. Tuberous Moschatell.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 242; Eng. Bot. 453; Curt. Lond. Fasc. ii. t. 26; Hook. Fl. Scot. 123; With. ii. 514.
In woods, denes, and under hedges.


ENNEANDRIA HEXAGYNIA.[edit]

175. BUTOMUS.[edit]

1 B. umbellatus. Flowering-rush.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 245; Eng. Bot. 651; Curt. Lond. Fasc. i. t. 29; Hook. Fl. Scot. 123; Gr. Fl. Eds. 92; With. ii. 522.
In the river Skerne near Darlington, D. In rivulets near Norton. — J. Hogg, Esq. In the Browney, D. — Rev. J. Symons. Naturalized in the ponds at Wallington. In a small pond near Howick, N — Mr. J. Embleton's MSS. Most likely planted there.
I consider the south of the county of Durham as the northern limit of Butomus umbellatus, for thirty years since the late Mr. M'Kay assured me that this elegant aquatic had been planted in Duddingston Lough; and Loch Clunie, bordering on the highlands, is a still more unlikely original habitat for it. —See Hook. Fl. Scot, and Lightfoot, 1139.


DECANDRIA MONOGYNIA.[edit]

176. MONOTROPA.[edit]

1. M. Hypopitys. Yellow Bird's-nest.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 249; Eng. Bot. 69; Hook. Lond. t. 105; Fl. Scot. 125; With. ii. 525.
Not unfrequent in the woods near Wark, in Tynedale, and in Ramshaw wood, by the road side near the mill; also on the east side of the ostium of Wark burn, N.—Wallis, 234.
No other botanist has found this rare plant in these counties.

177. ANDROMEDA.[edit]

1. A. polifolia. Marsh Andromeda, or Wild Rosemary.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 251; Eng. Bot. 713 (bad); Hook. Fl. Scot. 125; With. ii. 526; Fl. Lapp. 2nd ed. 131, t. l, f. 2 (good).
On the heathy part of Prestwick Carr, and on the Muckle Moss north of the Roman Wall and west of Shewing Shields; also on the Wallington moors, N. On Green Leighton Moss, and at Dardon Lough, N. — Miss Emma Trevelyan.

178. ARBUTUS.[edit]

1. A. Uva-ursi. Red-berried trailing Arbutus.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 253; Eng. Bot. 71-4; With. ii. 527; Light. Fl. Scot.21G, t. 11, fed.; Woodv. t. 70; Stephenson and Churchill's Med. Bot. t. 91, (good); Fl. Lapp. 129, t. G, f. 3.
In the Scar above the High Force, and in Cronkley Scar, Teesdale, D. On the heath on the south side of East Common Wood near Hexham, where it was noticed by Lightfoot; and on Acton Cleugh, five miles north of Blanchland, N. — On Little Waney-house Crag, sparingly, N. — Wallis, 148.

179. PYROLA.[edit]

1. P. rotundifolia. Round-leaved Winter-green.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 255; Eng. Bot. 213; Hook. Loud. t. 20; Gr. Fl. Eds. 92; With. ii. 528; Berwick Flora, 93.
In Castle Eden dene, particularly in the north branch, and in Hawthorn dene, D. At Birch Carr, D. — Mr. Janson. In Allerton dene about four miles from Berwick, N. — Dr. G. Johnston.
"Round-leaved Winter. green. On the hedge bank by the road up the hill to Simonburn Castle, and in the bank of wood opposite the west end of the Rectory dene at Simonburn, on the north-east side of the freestone quarry; also on the borders of Ramshaw wood, by the way side near Wark in Tynedale, on the edge of the moor by Diligate Hall near Hexham, and in the Duke of Portland's wood (East Common wood) near that town, N."—Wallis, 223. Both Pyrola media and P. minor, grow at the latter habitat; what species occupy the other localities I have not been able to ascertain.

2. P. media. Intermediate Winter-green.[edit]

Sm. Eng.Fl. ii. 256; Eng. Bot. 1945 (very good); Hook. Fl. Scot. 127; Fl. Lond. t. 30; Northumberland and Durham Guide, ii. 19; Berwick Flora, 94.
In Scotswood dene three miies west of Newcastle. —July 16, 1797. Also in East Common Wood near Hexham, N. Near Roadley Lake by the side of the road — Miss Emma Trevelyan. In Longridge dene six miles from Berwick. — Dr. G. Johnston. In Ancroft dene. — Mr. J. Manners, in Berwick Flora. In Howns' wood near Medomsley, and Blackston-bank Wood, four miles north of Wolsingham; also on the edge of the woodland plantations on Lanchester Fell, D. In Skull Wood, D Mr. Jas. Backhouse.

3. P. minor Lesser Winter-green.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 257; Eng. Bot. 158 (very bad); Gr. Fl. Eds. 92; With. ii. 529; P. rosea, Eng. Bot. 2543 (good).
In Gibside woods near the Friar-side gate; also near the Swalwell gate, and on Teesdale Forest, D. In Cocken woods, D. — W. Weighell's Herb. Near Prudhoe Castle, N.— Mr. J. Thornhill, jun. In Arngill, Cow-close- gill, and Hyndon-gilis, which form the Gaunless; also in Skull Wood near south Hamsterley, D. — Mr. J. Backhouse. At Wallington House, and at Roadely; also in East Common Wood, near Hexham, N. In a fir plantation at Catcherside four miles west of Wallington, N.—Miss Emma Trevelyan. In Willymoteswick Dene.— Mr. J. Thompson, Sp. In Callas Wood near Alnwick, N. —Miss Pringle, Sp.

4. P. secunda. Serrated Winter-green.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 257; Eng. Bot. 517; Hook. Fl. Scot. 127; With. ii. 530.
On the borders of Ramshaw Wood by the road side, N. — Wallis, 224. In 1804 I sought it there in vain, and never gathered it in England, except in Ashnessgill above Barrow Force, near Derwentwater, Cumberland.


DECANDRIA DIGYNIA.[edit]

180. CHRYSOSPLENIUM.[edit]

1. C. alternifolium. Alternate-leaved Golden-saxifrage.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 260; Eng. Bot. 54; Gr. Fl. Eds. 93; With. ii. 531.
In Causey Wood, Ravensworth woods above Mill Green, in woods near EgIestone,and by Pont-burn near Hamsterley, D. — At Baydales near Darlington, D.—Mr. E. Robson. On the banks of Wear opposite Cocken, D. — Mr. J. Thornhill. By St. Mungo's well, at Hall-barns near Simonside —Wallis, 212. In Stamp's plantations between Burrell's cottage and Alnwick moor—Mr. F. Manisty; at Barbary's-bank — Miss Pringle; at Breakback — Miss Forster, delin.; and in Edington Wood near Alnwick, N. — Mr. J. Davison.

2. C. oppositifolium. Opposite-leaved Golden-saxifrage.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 260; Eng. Bot. 490; Curt. Lond. Fasc. ii. 27; Hook. Fl. Scot. 128; Berwick Flora, 94; With. ii. 531.
In watery places, especially in woods.

181. SAXIFRAGA.[edit]

1. S. stellaris. Hairy Saxifrage.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 264; Eng. Bot. 167; Hook. Lond. t. 69; Pl. Scot. 128; Don. in Linn. Tr. xiii. 356; With. ii. 532; Berwick Flora, 94.
By Eglesbourn, and rills in Egleshope, D. In bogs near Allenheads, Coal Cleugh, Kilhope Law, and near Riddlehamhope above Blanchland; also on Cheviot, N. On the moors near Beldon-bourn, N. and D. At the head of Cauledge-bourn, N. — W.C. Trevelyan, Esq.

2. S. Hirculus. Yellow Marsh Saxifrage.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 267; Eng. Bot. 1009; Curt. Lond. Fasc. vi. t. 26; Don. in Linn. Tr. xiii. 372; With. ii. 535.
On Cotherstone Fell, in a moss about half a mile south-east of the place where the Balder is joined by the Blackbeck. — Mr. James Backhouse. Said to have been first found by John Binks, a miner.

3. S. aizoides. Yellow Mountain Saxifrage.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 268; Eng. Bot. 39; Don. Trans. Linn. xiii. 375; Hook. Fl. Scot. 129; With. ii. 535; S. autumnalis, Willd. Sp. Pl. ii 650; Lightfoot, 222; Hudson, 180.
Near Widdy Bank on Teesdale Forest, D. It still grows where it was observed by Wallis, on rocks by the river Inning, above Wardrew, N.

4. S. granulata. White Saxifrage.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 269; Eng. Bot. 500; Woodv. Sup. t. 232; Don. Linn. Tr. xiii. 362; Curt. Fasc. i. t. 30; Gr. Fl. Eds. 93; With. ii. 536; Berwick Flora, 95.
In Ravensworth woods near Mill Green, near Witton-le-Wear, and Finchall Abbey, D. — On Widehaugh banks near Hexham; also near Alnwick, in Scotswood Dene, and on the banks near Wooler-haugh- head, N. Near Bavington. — W.C. Trevelyan, Esq. On the Heugh at Holy Island, and on Chapel hill, near Belford — Thompson's Berwick Plants. On the banks of the rivulet opposite to Burn-house, near Simonburn, and at Barwesford by the road to Chipchase, N. — Wallis, 213. In the wood above the Union bridge. — Dr. G. Johnston. In Swarland and Newton woods, N. — Mr. J. Davison.

5. S. tridactylites. Rue-leaved Saxifrage.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 271; Eng. Bot. 501; Curt. Fasc. ii. t. 28; Don. Tr. Linn. 441; Gr. Fl. Eds. 94; With. ii. 537.
On walls at Eglestone, in Teesdale, on Boldon and Cleadon hills, and near Dalton field-houses, D. On walls near Barnardcastle and Darlington, D. — Rev. J. Harriman. Near Shewing-shields, and on Rat cheugh Crag, near Alnwick, N.

6. S. hypnoides. Mossy Saxifrage, or Ladies' Cushion.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 277; Eng. Bot. 454; Don. Linn. Tr. xiii. 447; With. ii. 539; Gr. Fl. Eds. 94.
On rocks at Falcon-clint Scar, below Cauldron Snout, D. At the head of Cauledge-bourn, N.—W.C. Trevelyan, Esq.

182. SCLERANTHUS.[edit]

1. S. annuus. Annual Knawel.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 282; Eng. Bot. 351; Hook. Fl. Scot. 133; Berwick Flora, 95.
In dry fields and on walls, frequent.

2. S. perennis. Perennial Knawel.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 283; Eng. Bot. 352; Hook. Fl. Scot. 133; With. ii. 540.
On Durham moor.— Rev. J. Symons. Very different in appearance from the preceding species, though its decumbent mode of growth and clustered flowers, afford but trivial specific distinctions between them; I have never seen specimens gathered in the north of England; in the south it is not rare on sandy commons, such as Ryegate, in Surrey.

183. SAPONARIA.[edit]

1. S. officinalis. Soapwort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 284; Eng. Bot. 1060; Curt. Fasc. ii. 29; Woodv. t. 251; Gr. Fl. Eds. 95; With. ii. 541.
On the banks of Tyne near Friar's Goose, and of Wear at Newbridge, near Chester-le-Street, and Low Lambton, D. By the Wear, half a mile below Finchall Abbey. — Mr. J. Thornhill, jun. Near Darlington. —Rev. J. Harriman. By the Tees at Croft Bridge, and at Middleton-one row, D.—Mr. E. Robson.

184. DIANTHUS.[edit]

1. D. Armeria. Deptford Pink.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 286; Eng. Bot. 317; Hook. Lond. t. 134; Fl. Scot. 134; With. ii. 542; Sm. Tr. Linn. ii. 299.
On Pallion ballast-hills above Sunderland, D.—W. Weighell's Herb.

2. D. deltoides. Maiden Pink.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 288; Eng. Bot. 61; Tr. Linn, ii. 300; Gr. Fl. Eds. 95; With. ii. 543; Berwick Flora, 95.
On Ratcheugh Crag near Alnwick, and on hedge banks between Wooler and Earl, N. In high pastures above Gunnerton Crags. —Mr. F. Scott. At Budle, Spindlestone, Great Bavington, and Hombleton. — W.C. Trevelyan, Esq. On the furze bank, in the Rectory glebe at Embleton, on Chapel-hill at Belford, on the banks of a rivulet at Swinburne Castle, and at Wooler-haugh-head.— Wallis, 215. On crags at Craig mill. — Thompson's Berwick Plants.


DECANDRIA TRIGYNIA.[edit]

185. SILENE.[edit]

1. S. anglica, English Catchfly.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 291; Eng. Bot. 1178; Curt. Lond. iv. t. 30; With. ii. 546.
On Sunderland ballast-hills. — W. Weighell's Herb.

S. brachiata. Bladder Campion, or Catchfly.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 292; Berwick Flora, 96; Hook. Fl. Scot. 134 α; Cucubalus Behen, Eng. Bot. 164; With. ii. 545.
In fields, pastures, and on the sea banks. This plant continues unaltered in its habit, when growing on the sea banks at Cullercoats, Newbiggin, and other places.

3. S. maritima. Sea Campion, or Catchfly.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 293; Eng. Bot. 957; Berwick Flora, 96; With. ii. 548; S. amoena, Lightfoot, 227; Hudson, 188; S. inflata β, Hook. Fl. Scot. 135; Gr. Fl. Eds. 96.
On the sea coast at Whitburn, and on Fulwell hills, D. Near Hartley, and on Holy Island, N. On banks beyond Hudshead. — Thompson's Berwick Plants. On the Fern Islands, N. — Dr. G. Johnston.
Dr. Hooker considers this a variety of the preceding species.

4. S. conica. Striated Corn Catchfly.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 294; Eng. Bot. 922; With. ii. 550.
On Hebburn ballast-hills, D.—Mr. R. Waugh. On Willington ballast-hills, N.

5. S. noctiflora. Night-flowering Catchfly.[edit]

Sm. Eng. El. ii. 295 ; Eng. Bot. 291 ; Hook. Fl. Scot. 135; With. ii. 550.
In fields near Gateshead, Cleadon, Whitburn, and South Shields.

186. STELLARIA.[edit]

1. S. nemorum. Wood Stitchwort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 300 ; Eng. Bot. 92 ; With. ii. 551 ; Gr. Fl. Eds. 97.
In Eglestone, Lambton, Cawsey, Beamish, and Ravensworth woods; and in hedges at Witton-le-Wear, and Baydales, near Darlington; also on the banks of Wear, at Chester-le-Street new bridge, D. Near Westonhope, Weardale, — W.C. Trevelyan Esq. In Cocken woods, D.— W. Weighell's Herb. On the island near Hazle-side stream, Alnwick.— Mr. J. Davison. By the brook at Simonburn, N. —Wallis, 215.

2. S. media. Common Chickweed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 301 ; Eng. Bot. 537; Hook. Fl. Scot. 135; Alsine media, Curt. Fasc. i. t. 20 ; Hudson, 131.
On cultivated ground, everywhere.

3. S. holostea. Greater Stichwort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 301 ; Eng, Bot. 511 ; Curt. Fasc. ii. t. 30; Hook. Fl. Scot. 136.
In woods and by hedges, frequent.

4. S. graminea. Lesser Stitchwort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 302 ; Eng. Bot. 803 ; Hook. Fl. Scot. 136; Berwick Flora, 97.
On heaths among bushes, not rare.

5. S. glauca. Glaucous Marsh Stitchwort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 303 ; Eng. Bot. 825 ; Gr. Fl. Eds. 98 ; With. ii. 555 ; Berwick Flora, 97.
At Rice Carr, near Darlington, D. — Mr. Backhouse. Among furze at Prestwick Carr. — Mr. R. B. Bowman. By the side of a pond above Spindlestone, N. — Dr. G. Johnston.

6. S. uliginosa. Bog Stitchwort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 303; Eng. Bot. 1074; Curt. Lond. Fasc. vi. t. 28; Hook. Fl. Scot. 136.
By ditches, springs, and rivulets, frequent.

187. ARENARIA.[edit]

1. A. peploides. Sea Chickweed, or Sandwort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 306; Eng. Bot. 189; Hook. Fl. Scot. 137; With. ii. 557 ; Berwick Flora,. 97.
On the sands of the sea shore, frequent. Spittal sands near Berwick. — Dr. Thompson.

2. A. trinervis. Plantain- leaved Chickweed, or Sandwort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 307 ; Eng. Bot. 1483 ; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iv. t. 31; Hook. Fl. Scot. 137; Berwick Flora, 97.
In bushy moist places.

3. A. serpyllifolia. Thyme-leaved Sandwort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 307 ; Eng. Bot. 923 ; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iv. t. 32 ; Hook. Fl. Scot. 138 ; Berwick Flora, 98.
On old walls and dry ground.

4. A. verna. Vernal Sandwort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 309; Eng. Bol. 512; Gr. Fl. Eds. 99 ; With. ii. 559 ; Berwick Flora, 98.
On old mine heaps in Allendale, N. On the banks of Tyne near Crow-hall, N. — Mr. J. Thompson, Sp. Upon the wolds near Cauldron Snout, Teesdale, and on the moors in Weardale, D. On Cronkley Fell, Teesdale.

5. A. rubra. Purple Sandwort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 311 ; Eng. Bot. 852; Hook. Fl. Scot. 138; Berwick Flora, 98.
In sandy fields and barren places.

6 A. marina. Sea Spurrev Sandwort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 311 ; Eng. Bot. 958; Hook. Fl. Scot. 139 ; Berwick Flora, 98 ; A. rubra β, Hudson, 193.
On the sandy sea coast, not rare.


DECANDRIA PENTAGYNIA.[edit]

188. SEDUM.[edit]

1. S. Telephium. Orpine, or Live-long.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 315; Eng. Bot. 1319; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iii. t. 25; Gr. Fl. Eds. 100; With, ii. 562 ; Berwick Flora, 98.
By the road side near Urpeth, by hedges near Lanchester Ford, and near Durham, in Hag Crag wood near the High Force, and on Falconclint Scar, Teesdale, D. By the mill at Shincliffe, and wood at Butterby, D. — J. Hogg, Esq. On the banks of Tyne below Paradise near Elswick, and on hedge banks near Hexham, N. Near Belsay, — Miss Emma Trevelyan. On Banks between Simonburn and Nunwick, also at Rodham, N. — Wallis, 174.

2. S. anglicum. White English Stonecrop.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 317; Eng. Bot. 171 ; Hook. Fl. Scot. 140; With. ii. 505; Berwick Flora, 99.
On the Heugh and about the Castle at Holy Island, N. — Thompson's Berwick Plants; observed also by Dr. G. Johnston. A rare visitant on the north-east coast of England, though frequent on the west.

3. S. acre. Biting Stonecrop, Wall Pepper.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 317; Eng. Bot. 839; Berwick Flora, 99 ; Curt. Lond. Fasc. i. t. 32 ; Woodv. Sup. t. 231 ; Hook. Fl. Scot. 140.
On walls and in sandy places, particularly near the sea coast.
There is a variety among the rocks on the brink of Crag Lake, hardly to be distinguished, but by the cauline leaves in the time of flowering, which then appear in an imbricated six-fold series on the stalks. — Wallis, 175. Can this be Sedum sexangulare?

4. S. villosum. Hairy Stonecrop.[edit]

Sm. Eng, Fl. ii. 319; Eng. Bot. 394; Gr.Fl. Eds. 101; With. ii. 563; Berwick Flora, 99.
By the Whey Syke in Teesdale Forest, and near Widdy Bank by the road that leads to Harwood Chase; also by ditches near Burtree Ford, Weardale, D. By rivulets both at the foot of Cheviot, and running into the Coquet near the mill, south-east of Rothbury, N. Near Great Bavington. — Miss Emma Trevelyan. On Basaltic heights between Belford and Bamborough, N. — Thompson's Berwick Plants.

5. S. album. White Stonecrop.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 319; Eng. Bot. 1578; Curt. Lond. Fasc. i. t. 31; With. ii. 564; Hook. Fl. Scot. 140.
On the Abbey Bridge near Barnardcastle, D.— Mr. E. Robson. Probably naturalized there.

6. S. reflexum. Crooked Yellow Stonecrop.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 320; Eng. Bot. 695; Hook. Fl. Scot. 141; Berwick Flora, 99.
On walls and roofs of houses near Wycliffe and Witton-le-Wear, D. On rocks at Cocken, D. — Rev. J. Symons. On walls at Crook-oak and the ruins of Alnwick Abbey, N. On old walls at Lipwood, near Haydon-bridge, and on rocks at Tecket waterfall. — Wallis, 174. On the dyke at Kyloe Manse and at Easington, N. — Dr. G. Johnston.

7. S. rupestre. St. Vincent's Rock Stonecrop.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 321; Eng. Bot. 170; With. ii. 566.
On walls about Darlington, D. — Mr. E. Robson. Certainly not indigenous. On precipices on the western Borders, by the rivulet of Irthing, near Wardrew Spa, N.— Wallis 175.
I suspect this to be a mistake.

189. OXALIS.[edit]

1. O. Acetosella. Common Wood-sorrel.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 323; Eng. Bot. 762; Berwick Flora, 99; Curt. Lond. Fasc. ii. t. 31; Woodv. t.20; Hook. Fl. Scot. 141; β Dill. Ray's Syn. 281; With. ii. 567.
α as In woods and shady places; β in Ravensworth woods, D. In woods about Hexham, N. — Wallis, 200.

190. AGROSTEMMA.[edit]

1. A. Githago. Corn Cockle.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 325; Eng. Bot. 741; Curt. Fasc. iii. t. 27; Hook. Fl. Scot. 141; Berwick Flora, 101.
In corn fields, not rare.

191. LYCHNIS.[edit]

1. L. Flos Cuculi. Ragged Robin, Meadow Lychnis[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 326; Eng. Bot. 573; Curt. Lond. Fasc. i. t. 33; Hook. Fl. Scot. 141; Berwick Flora, 100.
In moist meadows, frequent.

2. L. diurna. Red Campion.[edit]

Sibthorp, 145; Sym. Syn. 112; Berwick Flora, 100; L. dioica α, Eng. Bot. 1579; Curt. Lond. Fasc. ii. t. 32; Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 328; With. ii. 569; Hook. Fl. Scot. 142.
In hedges, woods, and denes, frequent.

3. L. vespertina. White Campion.[edit]

Sibthorp, 146; Sym. Syn. 112; Berwick Flora, 100; L. sylvestris, Lindley, 47; L. dioica β, Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 328; Eng. Bot. 1580; With. ii. 569; γ Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 329; flowers flesh-coloured.
In hedges and fields, seldom in woods.
Both Lychnis diurna and Lychnis vespertina are occasionally found with hermaprodite flowers, particularly the variety γ of Smith.

192. CERASTIUM.[edit]

1. C. vulgatum. Broad-leaved Mouse-ear Chickweed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 330; Eng. Bot. 789; Lightfoot, 240; Berwick Flora, 101; C. viscosum, Curt. Lond. Fasc. ii. t. 35; Hudson, 200.
On walls and dry banks, but not very common near Newcastle, N. and D. In the bed of Wooler Water, and on dykes at Earl, N. — Dr. Thompson.

2. C. viscosum. Narrow-leaved Mouse-ear Chick-weed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 330; Eng. Bot. 790; Lightfoot, 240; Berwick Flora, 101; C. vulgatum, Curt. Lond. Fasc. ii. t. 34; Hudson, 200.
On walls and in pastures, very common.

3. C. semidecandrum. Little Mouse-ear Chick-weed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 331; Eng. Bot. 1630; Berwick Flora, 101; Curt. Lond. Fasc. ii. t. 33; Hook. Fl. Scot. 143.
β C. pumilum, Curt. Lond. Fasc. vi. t. 30; With. ii. 574.
α On walls and sandy ground, not rare; β on walls at the Long Bank, near Gateshead Fell, D. On walls at Tynemouth, and in Gallowgate, Newcastle, N.

4. C. tetrandrum. Four-cleft Mouse-ear Chick-weed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 332; Curt. Lond. Fasc. vi. t. 31; Berwick Flora, 101; Hook. Fl. Scot. 143; Sagina cerastoides, Eng. Bot. 166; With. ii. 299.
On the banks at Tynemouth, near the Spanish Battery, and on the links at Hartley, Bamborough, and Holy Island, N. On the links below Scremmerston, — Thompson's Berwick Plants. On the Fern Islands and Spittal Links, N.— Dr. G. Johnston. On walls about Hartlepool, and on the coast at Shields Law, Whitburn, and near Sunderland north Pier, D.

5. C. arvense. Field Chick-weed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 333; Curt. Lond. Fasc. vi. t. 29; Eng. Bot. 93; With. ii. 573; Gr. Fl. Eds. 104; Berwick Flora, 102.
At Friar's Goose near Gateshead, on dry banks and heaths near Darlington, on Fulwell Hills, Marsden Rocks, and near Chester Bridge, D. On banks near the Chain Bridge over the Tweed, at Horncliffe, and near Coldstream, and on St. Peter's Quay, N., where it was observed by Wilson — See Syn. 232. Near King's Mount Bastion, and Castle Bank, Berwick. — Dr. Thompson. On Spittal and Scremmerston Links. — Dr. G. Johnston. On Alnwick Moor. — Mr. J. Davison. Near Walk on Tweed, N.— Lightfoot, i. 241.

6. C. aquaticum, Water Mouse-ear Chickweed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 335; Eng. Bot. 538; Curt. Lond. Fasc. i. t. 34; Hook. Fl. Scot. 144; With. ii. 575.
On Sunderland ballast-hills, D.—W. Weighell's Herb.

193. SPERGULA.[edit]

1. S. arvensis. Corn Spurrey.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 336; Eng. Bot. 1535; Berwick Flora, 102; Curt. Lond. Fasc. v. t. 31; Hook Fl. Scot. 144.
β S. pentandra, Eng. Bot. 1536. α In corn fields, frequent; β on the sea coast south of Sunderland, D. — Mr. Backhouse.

2. S. nodosa. Knotted Spurrey.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 338; Eng. Bot. 694; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iv. t. 34; Hook. Fl. Scot. 145; With. ii. 576; Berwick Flora, 102.
In bogs near Urpeth, near Fulwell-gate, and at Allansford, D. At Prestwick Carr, and Willington Quay, on the links at Bamborough, and by the Lough at Holy Island, N. At the east end of Bromley Lake, N. — Wallis, 214. On Goswick Links, N.—Dr. Thompson.

3. S. subulata. Fringed All-shaped Spurrey.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 339; Eng. Bot. 1082; With. ii. 576; Berwick Flora, 103; Hook. Fl. Scot. 145; S. laricina, Lightfoot, 244; Hudson, 203; S. saginoides, Curt. Lond. Fasc. iv. t. 35.
On Spindlestone and Easington rocks, N.—Dr. G. Johnston. On Whinneyfield Bank by Cullercoats near Tynemouth, N.—Lawson, Dill. Ray's Syn. 345.


DODECANDRIA MONOGYNIA.[edit]

194. ASARUM.[edit]

1. A. europaeum. Common Asarabacca.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 342; Eng. Bot. 1083; Woodv. t. 86; Hook. Fl. Scot. 146.
At Middleton, near Alnwick, N. — Miss Forster, delin.
Probably not originally indigenous.

195. LYTHRUM.[edit]

1. L. Salicaria. Spiked Purple Loosestrife.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 343; Eng. Bot. 1061; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iii. t. 28; Hook. Fl. Scot. 147; Berwick Flora, 105.
On the banks of rivers and streams, by no means rare, N. and D. In the mill race in Heaton Dene, below Sandyford, N. On the banks of Tweed above Norham. —Dr. G. Johnston.


DODECANDRIA DIGYNIA.[edit]

196. AGRIMONIA.[edit]

1. A. Eupatoria. Common Agrimony.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 346; Eng. Bot. l335; Woodv. Sup. t. 258; Curt. Lond. Fasc. v. t. 32; Hook. Fl. Scot. 147; Berwick Flora, 105.
In meadows, and on the borders of corn fields, but not very common.


DODECANDRIA TRIGYNIA.[edit]

197. RESEDA.[edit]

1. R. Luteola. Dyer's-weed, Yellow-weed, or Weld.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 347; Eng. Bot. 320; Hook. Fl. Scot. 147; Berwick Flora, 105; AVith. ii. 585.
On the banks of hedges, and the rubbish about old coal pits, frequent.

2. R. lutea. Wild Mignonette, or Base Rocket.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 348; Eng. Bot. 321; With. ii. 586; Gr. Fl. Eds. 105.
β Dill. Ray's Syn. 366.
α At the Salt Meadows below Gateshead, and between South Shields, and Monkwearmouth, D. By road sides near Hartley, Cullercoats, and Tynemouth, N. β on the ballast hills of Tyne and Wear, N. and D.


DODECANDRIA DODECAGYNIA.[edit]

198. SEMPERVIVUM.[edit]

1. S. tectorum. Common Houseleek.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 350; Eng. Bot. 1320; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iii. t. 29; Hook. Fl. Scot. 149; Berwick Flora, 106.
On walls and cottage roofs.


ICOSANDRIA MONOGYNIA.[edit]

199. PRUNUS.[edit]

1. P. Padus. Bird Cherry.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 354; Eng. Bot. 1383; With. iii. 598; Gr. Fl. Eds. 137; Berwick Flora, 108.
In woods and hedges, frequent. In woods about Hound Wood and Benton Inn, N. —Dr. G. Johnston.

2. P. Cerasus. Wild Cherry-tree.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 354; Eng. Bot. 706; Berwick Flora, 109; Gr. Fl. Eds. 108; With. iii. 599.
γ Ray's Syn. 2nd ed., 302.
δ P. avium. With. iii. 600.
α In woods and hedges, N. and D. Near Flemington, N. — Dr. G. Johnston, γ on the banks of Tees about Barnardcastle. — Johnson in Ray. At Chowden, near Gateshead Fell, D. δ in woods about Darlington, D. — Rev. J. Symons.

3. P. domestica. Wild Plumb-tree.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 355; Eng. Bot. 1783; Woodv. t. 85; Gr. Fl. Eds. 108; With. ii. 600.
In hedges near Morpeth and Alnwick, N. In the neighbourhood of Urpeth, D. Near Witton Gilbert, D. — Rev. J. Symons.
Probably not originally indigenous in the north of England.

4. P. insititia. Wild Bullace-tree.[edit]

Sm. Eng, Fl. ii. 356; Eng. Bot. 841; With. iii. 600; Gr. Fl. Eds. 108.
In Ryehope Dene, and in hedges between Durham and Chester-le-Street, D.

5. P. spinosa. Sloe-tree, Black-thorn.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 357; Eng. Bot. 842; Woodv. t. 84; Hook. Fl. Scot. 151; Berwick Flora, 109.
In hedges and thickets.


ICOSANDRIA PENTAGYNIA.[edit]

200. MESPILUS.[edit]

1. M. Oxyacantha. Hawthorn, White-thorn, May.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 359; Eng. Bot. 2504; Berwick Flora, 109; Crataegus Oxyacantha, Hook. Fl. Scot. 151; Crataegus monogyna. Sibth. 156.
In woods and hedges, everywhere. ====201. PYRUS.====

1 P. communis. Wild Pear-tree, Iron Pear.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 301 ; Eng. Bot. 1784; With. iii. 607.
In hedges near Cocken, D.— W. Weighell's Herb. Probably not truly indigenous.

2. P. Malus. Wild Apple-tree, Crab-tree.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 362 ; Eng. Bot. 179 ; Hook. Fl. Scot. 151; Berwick Flora, 110.
In woods, denes, and hedges, common.

3. P. aucuparia. Mountain Ash, Quicken-tree.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 364 ; Hook. Fl. Scot. 151 ; Berwick Flora, 110; Sorbus aucuparia, Eng. Bot. 337 ; With. iii. 604.
In woods and plantations, common. Near the High Force, and Winch Bridge in Teesdale, D. ; and at the foot of Cheviot. N. Certainly wild.

4. P. Aria. White Beam-tree, White Wild Pear-tree.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 365; Eng. Bot. 1858; Gr. Fl. Eds. 110; Crataegus Aria, With. iii. 602.
β P. pinnatifida, Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 365 ; Eng. Bot. 2331; P. hybrida, Fl. Brit. 534. α In Castle Eden Dene, on rocks of Magnesian Limestone, and near Winch Bridge, Teesdale, on Encrinal Limestone and Basalt, D. β in plantations.
A variety usually raised by cultivation, and called the Bastard Mountain Ash.

202. SPIRIA.[edit]

1. S. salicifolia. Willow-leaved Spiraea.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 367 ; Eng. Bot. 1468; Hook. Fl. Scot. 152; With. iii. 609.
Naturalized in woods at Wallington, and by Roadley Lake, N. In Gibside woods near the Chapel, D. ; but not indigenous as Dr. Smith was erroneously informed. — See Eng. Fl. ii. p. 369.

2. S. Filipendula. Common Dropwort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 368; Eng. Bot. 284; With. iii. 610; Hook. Fl. Scot. 152.
At Baydales, and Conniscliffe near Darlington, and in Byer's Quarry field near Whitburn, D. In Crag Close near Barwesford, N.
This plant flourishes both on the Magnesian and Encrinal Limestone.

3. S. Ulmaria. Meadow-sweet.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 368; Eng. Bot. 960; Hook. Fl. Scot. 152; Curt. Lond. Fasc. v. t. 33; Berwick Flora, 110.
On the banks of rivers and in moist meadows, frequent.


ICOSANDRIA POLYGYNIA.[edit]

203. ROSA.[edit]

1. R. rubella. Red-fruited Dwarf Rose.[edit]

Fruit oval, somewhat bristly. Flower stalks, bristly. Stem spreading, clothed with straight slender spines. Leaflets elliptical, smooth, singly serrated. Segments of the calyx entire.
Eng. Bot. 2521 and 2601, Fruit f.3; With. iii. 613; Sm. Com. 78 ; Woods, Linn. Trans. xii. 177; Lindley, Mon. 40; Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 374; Winch, Geog. Pl. 2nd ed., No. 1, App.; Hook. Br. Fl. 225.
Flowers white tinged with pink. Fruit, when ripe, pear-shaped, scarlet, and pendant. Calyx permanent.
On the sands of the sea coast near South Shields, D., mixed with the dwarf variety of the Burnet Rose, rare July 17, 1797.
This shrub appears a link between Rosa spinosissima and Rosa alpina; the latter of which it greatly resembles in habit. It is not Rosa pimpinellifolia of the Swiss Botanists, as Mr. Woods conjectures; for, by a specimen procured from Schleicher, that plant appears to be Rosa spinosissima. Nor is it Rosa spinosissima, var. 3, of Withering, as I am assured by that gentleman.

2. R. spinosissima. Burnet Rose.[edit]

Fruit globose, smooth as well as the flower stalks. Stem clothed with numerous straight slender spines. Leaflets singly serrated, smooth and round.
Eng. Bot. t. 187; With. iii. 612; Winch, Geog. Pl., 2nd ed., No. 2, App.; Berwick Flora, 111; Hook. Br. Fl. 226; Fl. Scot. 154; Gr. Fl. Eds. 111; Woods, Linn. Trans, xii. 178; Fl. Brit. ii. 537; Lindley Mon. 50; Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 375; R. pimpinellifolia, Linn. Syst. Nat. 10th ed., 1062; Schleicher's Catalogue, 24.
Flowers yellowish white. Fruit first reddish brown, as coloured in English Botany, and then turning black. Calyx permanent.
γ pusilla, Woods, Linn. Trans, xii. 179; Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 376.
Flower stalks short. Fruit large, depressed.
The Burnet Rose is a shrub of a very diminutive growth on the sea beach (var. γ), but rises to a tall bush in woods and hedges distant from the coast. It is not very common, but occasionally to be found even in our sub-alpine vallies; and in the woods bordering the Lakes of Cumberland and Westmoreland. It may be met with about Newcastle, Corbridge, the Crag Lake, and on the coast at Holy Island, N. At Hebburn Quay, on the links near South Shields, at Norton; also in Weardale and Teesdale, D.

3. R. gracilis. Tall Bristly Rose.[edit]

Flower stalks bristly, generally bracteated. Branches, fruit and calyx bristly. Leaflets doubly serrated, hairy on both sides.
Woods, Linn. Trans, xii. 186; Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 379; Winch, Geog. Pl., 2nd ed., No. 4, App.; R. villosa, Eng. Bot. t. 583.
β R. Sabini, Woods, Linn. Trans, xii. 188; Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 380 ; Lindley Mon. 59; Hook. Fl. Scot. 155; Gr. Fl. Eds. 112; Hook. Br. Fl. 229; Eng. Bot. 2594; R. Doniana, Woods, Linn. Trans, xii. 185; Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 378; Eng. Bot. 2601; R. nivalis, Hort. Cant. 7th ed., 155. R. involuta. Winch, Geog. Pl., 2nd ed., No. 3, App.
γ R. involuta, Eng. Bot. 2068 ; Fl. Brit. ii. 398; With iii. 613; Woods, Linn. Trans, xii. 183; Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 380; Hook. Fl. Scot. 154; Br. Fl. 229.
Flowers pink; generally one, but sometimes two or three together. Petals yellowish at the base. Fruit globular scarlet. Calyx permanent, entire.
α At Baydales, near Darlington, D. β in Heaton Dene, below Benton Bridge, and near Goldspink Hall, N. Near Middleton-one-Row, D.— Mr. J. Backhouse. In α gracilis the large prickles are somewhat falcate; this is all the difference I can observe in the plants growing between Keswick and Lorton, from which Woods drew up his specific character, and β Sabini the variety found in Heaton Dene. We have not the elegant white variety with red glands, abundant in Ennerdale. With γ involuta, I am acquainted by specimens and plants procured on the shores of Arran by the late Mr. G. Don. It is merely a dwarf variety from growing on the sands of the sea coast, as is the case with Rosa spinossissima and its petals are occasionally involute, which in dry situations happens to most other roses.

4. R. villosa. Soft-leaved round-fruited Rose.[edit]

Fruit globose, half as long as the segments of the calyx, bristly as well as the flower-stalks. Prickles of the stem straight. Leaflets elliptic, ovate, downy on both sides. Calyx permanent. R. villosa, Woods, Linn. Trans, xii. 189; Winch, Geog. Pl. 2nd ed. No. 5 App.; Hook. Br. Fl. 230; With. iii. 612; Var. 2, Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 311; R. villosa, β Fl. Brit. ii. 538; R. mollis, Eng. Bot. t. ii. 459; Winch, Geog. of Plants, 1st ed., 42; Lindley, Br. Syn. 100; R. tomentosa, Lindley, Mon. 77; Hook. Fl: Scot. 156; R. villosa β, mollissima, Willd. Sp. Pl. ii. 1070.
Very common about Newcastle, in hedges and woods. When this shrub grows on a sterile soil, or in a bleak exposed situation, it assumes the stunted habit and full red flower, as delineated in Eng. Bot. t. ii. 459. The fruit varies from smoothness to a considerable degree of roughness. Rosa villosa, of Dr. Swartz and other foreign botanists, is the Apple Rose of our gardens, which I believe is not indigenous in Britain. Its fruit is very large, and leaves pointed.

5. R. tomentosa. Downy-leaved Dog Rose.[edit]

Fruit ovate, bristly as well as the flower stalks. Prickles of the stem slightly curved. Leaflets doubly serrated, ovate, downy on both sides. Divisions of the calyx permanent.
Eng. Bot. t. 990; Fl. Brit. ii. 539; With. iii. 615; Woods, Linn. Tr. xii. 197; Lindley, Mon. 27; Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 383; Berwick Flora, 111; Winch, Geog. PI. 2nd ed., No. 6 App.; Hook. Br. Fl. 231.
Flowers bright red, paler at the base.
In woods and hedges about Newcastle, by no means rare.

6. R. scabriuscula. Rough-leaved Dog Rose.[edit]

Fruit, roundish, ovate, bristly as well as the flower stalks. Prickles awl-shaped, as well as the flower stalks. Leaflets doubly serrated, elliptical, with minute hairs. Divisions of the calyx permanent.
Eng. Bot. t. 1896; Woods, Linn. Trans, xii. 193; Sm. Compend. 78; With. iii. 615; Berwick Flora, 111; Winch, Geog. Pl., 2nd ed., No. 7, App.; R. tomentosa α? Hook. Br. Fl. 231; R. tomentosa β, Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 383.
Fruit red. Bristles on the fruit and flower-stalks ending in minute glands; but there is a variety with smooth fruit. Leaflets are more pointed than represented in Eng. Bot. and covered with a hoary, velvety down.
In hedges near Benwell (1797), Paradise, Scotswood, Fenham, Jesmond, Ponteland, and Heaton Dene, N. Near Ravensworth, the High and Low Team, and Tanfield, D. Near Wallington.—W.C. Trevelyan, Esq. On the banks of Tweed, above the Union Bridge, and in hedges near Berwick, N.— Dr. G. Johnston.
The buds are peculiarly handsome when sufficiently expanded to shew the bright red tints with which the outer edge of the snow-white petals is marked. Probably Sir J.E. SMITH is right in considering this rose a variety of Rosa tomentosa; but I shall let it stand as a species, till the contrary be proved by sowing its seeds.

7. R. Eglanteria. Sweet Briar.[edit]

Fruit ob-ovate, bristly as well as the flower-stalks. Leaves doubly serrated. Prickles of the stem hooked, clothed beneath with rusty-coloured glands. Segments of the calyx deciduous.
Huds. Fl. Ang. 218; Woods, Linn. Trans, xii. 206; Winch, Geog. Pl., 2nd ed., No. 8, App.; R. rubiginosa, Eng. Bot. 991; Fl. Brit. ii. 540; With. iii. 616; Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 385; Lindley, Mon. 86; Hook. Fl. Scot. 157; Gr. Fl. Eds. 113; Hook. Br. Fl. 234; Berwick Flora, 112.
Flower pale red, fruit scarlet.
ln hedges near the Friar's Goose and Hebburn Hall, also on rocks below Westoe, D. In Rocoe Lane near Monkwearmouth. — Rev. J. Symons. Near High Conniscliffe.—Mr. Janson. In Raby Park, D.—Mr. J. Backhouse. On the edge of the military road by the twelfth mile stone, also on the north side of the Coquet at Warkworth, almost opposite the church, N.—Wallis, 143. Naturalized about Scremmerston and Broom House.—Dr. G. Johnston.

8. R. Borreri. Downy-stalked Dog Rose.[edit]

Fruit ovate, smooth. Flower-stalks villous, somewhat bristly, clustered. Prickles of the stem hooked. Leaflets ovate, doubly serrated, slightly hairy beneath. Foot-stalks very downy.
Woods, Linn. Trans, xii. 210; Winch, Geog. Pl., 2nd ed., No. 9, App.; R. dumetorum, Eng. Bot. t. 2579; Sm. Compend. 79; With. iii. 618; Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 388; R. inodora, Hook. Br. Fl. 233; R. rubiginosa inodora, Hook. Fl. Lond. t. 117.
ς Lindley Mon. 88.
Fruit scarlet, ovate. Petals pale pink, yellowish at the base.
In a hedge on Friar's Goose Quay, probably brought with ballast from the south of England.
This rose is accurately delineated in the English Botany, but the calyx remains long on the fruit. Like Rosa canina, it frequently throws out long leading shoots, which soon overtop the bunches of flowers. In all likelihood Lindley was not in error in making it a variety of the Eglantine.

9. R. dumetorum. Thicket Rose.[edit]

Fruit elliptical, smooth, as tall as the bracteas. Flower-stalks aggregate, slightly hairy. Calyx pinnate. Prickles numerous, scattered, hooked. Leaves simply serrated, hairy on both sides.
Woods, Linn. Trans, xii. 217; Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 392; Lam. and De Cand. Fl. Fr. iv. 534; Eng. Bot. 2610; Winch, Geog. Pl. 2nd ed., No. 11, App; R. caesia, Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 389; Woods, Linn. Trans, xii. 212; Eng. Bot. 2367; Hook. Br. Fl. 239; R. canina ζ, Hook. Fl. Scot. 157; R. bractescens, Woods, Linn. Trans. xii. 216; Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 391. Bracteas serrated, pointed and leafy, longer than the flower-stalks, which are short and stout, sometimes four or five together. Tube of the calyx roundish. Segments pinnate, permanent. Flowers pale red. Styles prominent, hairy. Stigmas forming a round head. Fruit, red, globular.
In Heaton Dene, and hedges near Sandyford, N. Between Middleton and Langley Ford, N., and near Berwick. — Dr. G. Johnston.

10. R. canina. Common Dog Rose.[edit]

Fruit ovate, smooth as well as the flower-stalks. Prickles of the stem hooked. Leaflets ovate, pointed, very smooth, singly serrated.
Eng. Bot. 992; Fl. Brit. ii. 540; With. ii. 617; Woods, Linn. Trans, xii. 223; Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 394; Hook. Fl. Scot. 157; Gr. Fl. Eds. 113; Winch, Geog. PI. 2nd ed., No. 12, App.; Berwick Flora, 113.
Flowers pale pink, clustered, soon out-topped by the leading shoots of the shrub. Fruit scarlet, oval. Calyx deciduous. Leaves dark shining green. The young shoots very strong, armed with large hooked prickles.

β R. Forsteri. Downy-ribbed Dog Rose.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 392; Eng. Bot. 2611; Berwick Flora, 113; R. collina β and γ, Woods, Linn. Trans, xii. 219; R. canina ε, Hook. Br. Fl. 236.
Ribs of the leaflets hairy.
α In every hedge. β near Berwick — Dr. G. Johnston.

11. R. sarmentacea. Glaucous-leaved Dog Rose.[edit]

Calyx permanent. Fruit egg-shaped, smooth. Leaflets ovate, doubly serrated, glaucous.— Prickles hooked. Calyx deciduous.
R. sarmentacea. Woods, Linn. Trans, xii. 213; Swartz. MSS.; Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 390; Eng. Bot. 2595; Berwick Flora, 112; Winch, Geog. Pl., 2nd ed., No. 13, App.; R. canina β, Hook. Br. Fl. 236; R. glaucophylla, Winch, Geog. Pl., 1st ed., 45; With. iii. 619.
In every hedge near Newcastle, both in Northumberland and Durham. This is a much slenderer, though less trailing Briar than Rosa canina; its flowers pale pink, growing in pairs or single, and its fruit large. It also further differs in habit, by not having young shoots sprouting beyond the blossoms, so as to give them the appearance of being axillary; and from Rosa sentriosa of Acharius (Stockholm Transactions) in the fruit being ovate, not globular. The leaves of the shrub are glaucous — peculiarly so in the spring of the year; and with reluctance I relinquish the name given to it in the first edition of the Geog. of Plants, for the less appropriate one of my late friend, Dr. Swartz. This rose stands exactly in the same predicament as R. scabriuscula, and I leave it as a species till ascertained to be a variety of R. canina, to which, it must be owned, it bears a strong resemblance.

12. R. arvensis. White-trailing Dog Rose.[edit]

Style united. Fruit globose, smooth as well as the flower-stalks. Leaves unequally serrated. Stem and leaf-stalks prickly. Flowers generally clustered. Prickles hooked.
Eng. Bot. t. 188; Fl. Brit. ii. 538; With. iii. 611; Woods, Linn, Trans, xii. 232; Sm. Eng. Fl. ii 396; Lindley, Mon. 112; Hook. Fl. Scot. 158; Gr. Fl. Eds. 114; Winch, Geog. Pl., 2nd ed., No. 14, App.; Hook. Br. Fl. 241; Var. β Hudson, 219, with only one flower.
Flowers white. Germen oblong. Fruit globose, deep red, terminated by the simple base of the styles. Calyx deciduous. Stems glaucous, sometimes the colour of mahogany.
In woods and hedges at Friar's Goose, near Gateshead, at Cocken, and between Norton and Sadberge, also near Marsden, D. At St. Authon's, and in Elswick Dene near Newcastle, N. Between Broom House and Haggerstone, N.—Thompson's Berwick Plants.
The foreign Botanists do not seem to be well acquainted with this species, some of them considering it the same as Rosa sempervirens, from which it is easily distinguished by the more oval form and colour of its leaves, and the calyx being quite smooth. From Dr. Swartz I have received specimens of a rose named Rosa arvensis, but which resembled a small variety of Rosa canina, and is Rosa agrestis of Schleicher's Catalogue of Swiss Plants. The Ayrshire Rose, which may frequently be seen trained against walls, is scarcely a variety. When the plant grows upon a poor soil, and is weak, its flowers are not clustered, and it then becomes the var. β of Hudson's Flora Anglica and Ray's Synopsis.

204. RUBUS.[edit]

1. R. fruticosus. Common Bramble.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 399; Eng. Bot. 715; With. ii. 622; Gr. Fl. Eds. 115; Berwick Flora, 114.
In hedges, but not very common.

2. R. glandulosus. Glandular Bramble.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 403; Berwick Flora, 114; R. Kohleri, Eng. Bot. 2605; Lindley, Br. Syn. 94.
In Heaton Dene and hedges near Jesmond, N, not rare. Hedges near Berwick. — Dr. G. Johnston.

3. R. idaeus. Raspberry.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 407; Eng. Bot. 2442; Woodv. t. 138; With. iii. 620; Hook. Fl. Scot. 159; Berwick Flora, 114.
In denes, woods, and by rivulets, not uncommon, N. and D. Among the Cheviot mountains, N. On Alnwick Moor, near Brislie Tower. —Mr. J. Davison. By the brook below Tecket, N. — Wallis, 143.

4. R. corylifolius. Hazel-leaved Bramble.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 408; Eng. Bot. 827; Hook. Fl. Scot. 160; With. iii. 621; Berwick Flora, 114; R. vulgaris, Lindley, Br. Syn. 93.
The most common bramble in Northumberland and Durham. Near Berwick. — Dr. G. Johnson. In woods and sheltered denes this shrub becomes almost an evergreen, and is then Rubus macrophyllus of Lindley's Synopsis, 93, and the Eng. Bot. t. 2625.

5. R. caesius. Dew-berry.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 409; Eng. Bot. 826; Hook. Fl. Scot. 160; With. iii. 620; Berwick Flora, 114.
In woods, hedges, and denes, but not common. On the banks of Tweed, beyond Ord Mill.—Dr. Thompson. The double-flowered variety, in Tecket Wood, by the path leading westward from the Rectory Dene Simonburn, N.— Wallis, 144.

6. R. saxatilis. Stone Bramble.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 410; Eng. Bot. 2233; Gr. Fl. Eds. 115; With. iii. 623.
In Castle Eden Dene, on the banks of Tees at the High Force, in Hown's Wood near Butsfield, and near Eglestone and Middleton, D. In Allendale, on the banks of Irthing, and on the rocks at Shewing Shields, N. In plantations north of Wallington, and about Hartburn banks.—Miss Emma Trevelyan. Near Whinetly Mill, at West Dibden, Hexhamshire, N.—Wallis, 144.

7. R. Chamaemorus. Mountain Bramble, or Cloudberry.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 412; Eng. Bot. 716; Gr. Fl. Eds. 115; Hook. Lond. t. 136; With. ii. 624; Berwick Flora, 115.
On Knoutberry Fell near Eglestone, D. In mosses above Allen Heads, on Kilhope Law, Hedgehope, and Cheviot, N. Above Knaresdale and Coan Wood, N. — Mr. J. Thompson. On Simonside, N.—Miss Emma Trevelyan. On Cronkley Fell in Teesdale.

205. FRAGARIA.[edit]

1. F. vesca. Wood Strawberry.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 414; Eng. Bot. 1524; Hook. Fl. Scot. 162; Berwick Flora, 115.
In woods and denes.

2. F. calycina. Calycene Strawberry.[edit]

Loiseleur, Lindley, Br. Syn. 96; F. grandiflora, Thuil. i. 254; F. vesca γ, Lam. and De Cand. Fl. Fr. iv. 468; Hook. Br. Fl. 250.
In Northumberland. — Lindley.
I know nothing of this strawberry.

206. POTENTILLA.[edit]

1. P.fruticosa. Shrubby Cinquefoil.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 416; Eng. Bot. 88; With. iii. 626; Ray's Syn. 256.
On the banks of Tees at Eglestone Abbey, at Winch Bridge, and at the High Force, Teesdale, D., where it was observed in Ray's time by Mr. Lawson.
The banks of Tees is the only part of the kingdom where this ornamental shrub grows wild, except in a ravine called the Devil's Sledge-gate in Wastdale Screes, in Cumberland; it was there detected by Mr. Bicheno.

2. P. anserina. Silver-weed, Wild Tansey.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 417; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iii. t.31; Eng. Bot. 861; Hook. Fl. Scot. 162; Berwick Flora, 115.
By road sides and on barren ground.

3. P. argentea. Hoary Cinquefoil.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 418; Eng. Bot. 89; With. iii. 628; Gr. Fl. Eds. 116.
Between Sunderland and South Shields, and on Sunderland ballast-hills, D. Near Beaufront, Hexham, N.

4. P. alpestris. Orange Alpine Cinquefoil.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 418; Hook. Br. Fl. 252; P. aurea, Eng. Bot. 561; Hook. Fl. Scot. 163; With. ii. 630.
On basaltic rocks at Winch Bridge, and near the Cauldron Snout, Teesdale, D. Near Corbridge Mill, N.

5. P. verna. Spring Cinquefoil.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 420; Eng. Bot. 37; Gr. Fl. Eds. 117; With. ii. 630; Berwick Flora, 116.
On Spindlestone hills, N— Dr. G. Johnston.

6. P. reptans. Common Creeping Cinquefoil.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 423; Eng. Bot. 862; Curt. Lond. Fasc. i. t. 37; Woodv. t. 59; Hook. Fl. Scot. 163; Berwick Flora, 116.
By way sides and in pastures.

7. P. Fragariastrum. Strawberry-leaved Cinquefoil.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 425; Berwick Flora, 116; P. Fragaria, Gr. Fl. Eds. 116; Fragaria sterilis, Eng. Bot. 1785; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iii. t. 30.
On hedge banks and in dry pastures.

207. TORMENTILLA.[edit]

1. T. officinalis. Common Tormentil, or Septfoil.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 427; Eng. Bot. 863; Curt. Lond. Fasc. v. t. 35; Hook. Fl. Scot. 164; Berwick Flora, 116; T. erecta, Woodv. t. 9; Hudson, 225; Potentilla Tormentilla, Gr. Fl. Eds. 116.
On heaths, and barren pastures.

2. T. reptans. Trailing Tormentil.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 428; Eng. Bot. 864; Hook. Fl. Scot. 164; With. iii. 632; Berwick Flora, 116; Potentilla procumbens, Gr. Fl. Eds. 117.
In the lane leading to Lumley Ford, D. — Rev. J. Symons. On a bank about a hundred yards west from Anick Grange, on the north side of the lane that leads to Hexham, N.— Wallis, 199.

208. GEUM.[edit]

1. G. urbanum. Common Avens, Herb Bennet.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 429; Eng. Bot. 1400; Curt. Lond. Fasc. ii. t.36; Hook. Fl. Scot. 165; Berwick Flora, 117; Woodv. Supp. 259.
β G. intermedium, With. iii. 634; G. rivale β, Sm. Fl. Brit. 555; G. urbanum β, Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 429.
α In thickets, denes, and by hedges, not rare; β in Scotswood and Heaton Denes, N. Near Norton, and in woods at the Friar's Goose below Gateshead, also near Saltwellside, D. Near St. Helen's Well by Darlington, D.—Mr. E. Robson. In the vicinity of Wallington, N.—W.C. Trevelyan, Esq.

2. G. rivale. Water Avens.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 430; Eng. Bot. 106; Berwick Flora, 117; Hook. Fl, Scot. 165; β proliferus, 2nd. var., With. iii. 634; G. rivale γ, Sm. Fl. Brit. 555.
α In damp woods and by the sides of rivulets; β in woods on the Irthing, near Wardrew, N. At Wallington, N.—W.C. Trevelyan, Esq. In Castle Eden Dene, D. Near Darlington, D.—Mr. E. Robson.

209. DRYAS.[edit]

1. D. octopetala. Mountain Avens.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 432; Eng. Bot. 451; Hook. Fl. Scot. 165; With. iii. 635.
Near the Black Ark on Cronkley Fell, Teesdale.

210 COMARUM.[edit]

1. C. palustre. Marsh Cinquefoil.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 433; Eng. Bot. 172; Hook. Fl. Scot. 165; With. iii. 635; Berwick Flora, 117.
In bogs, frequent.


POLYANDRIA MONOGYNIA.[edit]

211. CHELIDONIUM.[edit]

1. C. majus. Celandine.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 4; Eng. Bot. 1581; Woodv. Sup. t. 263; With. iii. 630; Hook. Fl. Scot. 167; Berwick Flora, 119.
In hedges near farm houses and villages.

212. GLAUCIUM.[edit]

1. G. luteum. Yellow Horned-Poppv.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 6; Hook. Lond. t. 56; Gr. Fl. Eds. 119; Berwick Flora, 119; Chelidonium Glaucium, Eng. Bot. 8; C. luteum, With. iii. 640.
A sea-side plant, but now completely naturalized on the ballast-bills of Tyne and Wear, N. and D. On Wellington ballast-hills, N., where Wallis observed it. At Seaton, D.— Mr. Backhouse.

213. PAPAVER.[edit]

1. P. hybridum. Mongrel Poppy.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 9; Eng. Bot. 43; With. iii. 642.
In corn fields on the Magnesian Limestone about Whitburn, Cleadon, Fulwell, and Sunderland, D. Near Alnwick, D.— Miss Forster, delin.
This plant is not mentioned in the Flora Scotica.

2. P. Argemone. Long Rough, headed Poppy.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 1; Eng. Bot. 643; Curt. Lond. Fasc. v. t. 38; Hook. Fl. Scot. 168; Berwick Flora, 120.
In corn fields.

3. P. dubium. Long Smooth-headed Poppy.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 10; Eng. Bot. 644; Curt. Lond. Fasc. v. t. 37; Hook. Fl. Scot. 168; Berwick Flora, 120.
In corn fields, not rare.

4. P. Rhoeas. Common Red Poppy, Corn Rose.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 11; Eng. Bot. 645; Berwick Flora, 120; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iii. 32; Woodv. t. 186; Hook. Fl. Scot. 168.
β Var. flore albo. α In corn fields, common. β near Norton. —J. Hogg, Esq.

5. P. somniferum. White Poppy.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. U; Eng. Bot. 2145; Woodv. t. 185; Hook. Fl. Scot. 168; With. iii. 645.
On the ballast-hills of Tyne and Wear, N. and D. Near Seaton. — Mr. J. Backhouse; and Norton, D.—J. Hogg, Esq.
A native of the Levant, with but slight claim to be enumerated as an English plant.

214. NYMPHAEA.[edit]

1. N. alba. White Water-lily.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 14; Eng. Bot. 160; Hook. Lond. t. 140; With. iii. 647; Gr. Fl. Eds. 120.
In Greenley and Broomley Lakes, near Shewing Shields, N. In Grinden Lake.— Wallis, 23S. Naturalized in the ponds at Wallington, N.

215. NUPHAR.[edit]

1. N. lutea. Common Yellow Water-lily.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 15; Hook. Lond. t. 141; Fl. Scot. 169; Berwick Flora, 120; Nymphaea lutea, Eng. Bot. 159; With. iii. 646.

β N. pumila. Least Yellow Water-lily.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 16; Wahl. Fl. Lapp. 151; Hook. Lond. t. 165; N. minima, Eng. Bot. 2292; N. Kalmiana, Hook. Fl. Scot. 169; Nymphaea lutea, var. 2, With. iii. 647.
α. In the Pont, Ouse Burn, and in ponds at Widehaugh, near Dilston, also in the Loughs near Shewing Shields: naturalized in ponds at Wallington, N. In ponds at Park House, and in the Skerne near Darlington, D. Near Norton J. Hogg, Esq. β in Chartner's Lough, on the Wallington moors, N.—Sir John Trevelyan, Bart.
Some years since the Least Yellow Water-lily was transplanted from the Sub-alpine moors into the ponds at Wallington, where it now scarcely differs from the common Water-lily; in both varieties, at least I consider them as such, the stigma is entire when young, but becomes toothed as it grows older.

216. TILIA.[edit]

1. T. europaea. Lime-tree, Linden-tree.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 17; Eng. Bot. 610; Lightfoot, 280.
In woods and plantations, scarcely indigenous.

2. T. grandifolia. Broad-leaved Downy Lime-tree.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 18; Hook. Br. Fl. 259; T. europaea δ Sm. Fl. Br. 571.
At Wallington, N.−W.C. Trevelyan, Esq. Probably planted there.

3. T. parvifolia. Small-leaved Lime-tree.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 20; Hook. Br. Fl. 259; Eng. Bot. 1705; T. europaea β, Sm. Fl. Brit. 571, var. 2; With. iii. 648.
At Wallington, N.—W.C. Trevelyan, Esq. Probably planted there.

217. CISTUS.[edit]

1. C. marifolius. Hoary Dwarf Cistus.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 23; Eng. Bot. 396; With. iii. 649; Hook. Lond. t. 171; Davies' Welsh Bot. 53; Helianthemum canum, Dunal. Lindley, Br. Syn. 36; Hook. Br. Fl. 257.
Near the Black Ark on Cronkley Fell, Teesdale; its northern limits.

2. C. Helianthemum. Common Dwarf Cistus.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 26; Eng. Bot. 1321; Curt. Lond. Fasc. v. t. 36; With. iii. 651; Hook. Fl. Scot. 170; Berwick Flora, 120; Helianthemum vulgare, Hook. Br. Fl. 258.
On limestone hills at the Lizards, and near Sunderderland, also in Castle Eden Dene, and at Winch Bridge in Teesdale, D. On the moor to the north of Hartlepool, and in Close Wood, D. — J. Hogg, Esq. On the banks of Tyne at Whitley Point, by the road side near Walbottle Dene, on the Basaltic rocks and on the Roman wall at Shewing Shields, above Crag Lake (C. marifolius of Wallis, 208), near Warden Mills, at Dunstanborough, and on the Heugh at Holy Island, N. East side of the bridge at Barwesford, near Chipchase. — Wallis, 208. On the Chapel Hill at Belford, and on Basaltic heights between it and Bamborough, N.—Thompson's Berwick Plants.


POLYANDRIA TRIGYNIA.[edit]

218. DELPHINIUM.[edit]

1. D. Consolida. Field Larkspur.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 30; Eng. Bot. 1839; With. iii. 655; Hook. Br. Fl. 261. On the ballast-hills of Tyne and Wear, N. and D. In a clover field near the Lough on Holy Island, N.; probably introduced from the Continent. In corn fields at Norton. — J. Hogg, Esq. In a limestone quarry near Bishopwearmouth, D. — Mr. Backhouse.
Not truly indigenous in the north of England, nor mentioned in the Flora Scotica by Hooker.


POLYANDRIA PENTAGYNIA.[edit]

219. AQUILEGIA.[edit]

1. A. vulgaris. Common Columbine.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 33; Eng. Bot. 297; With. iii. 657; Gr. Fl. Eds. 121; A. alpina, Hudson, 235.
By the Ousebourn in Heaton Dene (probably the outcast of a garden), and on the banks of the river Derwent near Allans ford, N. In Willington Dene, by the path from Wallsend, and in Dilston Park near Hexham, N. — Wallis, 165. In the dene below Dalton-le-Dale, near Middleton-in-Teesdale, at Baydales near Darlington, in Castle Eden Dene, by Pontburn near Medomsley, and at Barley Haugh near Ebchester, D. In Hesledon Dene and in Portrack Lane, half way to Norton, D. — John Hogg, Esq.
So truly distinct did the Columbine, in its wild state, appear to Hudson from the cultivated variety that he mistook it for Aquilegia alpina of Linnaeus. His Aquilegia vulgaris, I suspect, must have been intended for the garden plant which is not rare in the south of England, but generally found in the vicinity of cottages.

220. STRATIOTES.[edit]

1. S. aloides. Water Aloe, Water-soldier.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 34; Eng. Bot. 379; With. iii. 657; Hook. Fl. Scot. 171.
Naturalized in the ponds at Wallington and north of Cambo, N. Brought from the south of England.


POLYANDRIA POLYGYNIA.[edit]

221. ANEMONE.[edit]

1. A. nemorosa. Wood Anemone.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 36; Eng. Bot. 355; Curt. Lond. Fasc. ii. t. 38; Hook. Fl. Scot. 171; Berwick Flora, 121.
In woods and denes frequent.

222. CLEMATIS.[edit]

1. C. Vitalba. Traveller's Joy.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 39; Eng. Bot. 612; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iv. t. 37; Hook. Fl. Scot. 171; With. iii. 662.
Naturalized on St. Anthon's and Willington ballast hills, N. On Hebburn ballast hills, D.—Mr. J. Thornhill, jun.
This elegant plant does not appear to be a native of the north of England, even on the Magnesian Limestone, where it might be expected. — See Dr. Hooker's remarks in the Fl. Scot. 171.

223. THALICTRUM.[edit]

1. T. alpinum. Alpine Meadow Rue.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 40; Eng. Bot. 262; Lightfoot, 286 t. xiii. f. 1; With. iii. 662.
Near Cauldron Snout by the path that leads from thence to Widdy Bank, D. Also upon Cronkley Fell, Teesdale.

2. T. minus. Lesser Meadow Rue.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 41; Eng. Bot. 11; Gr. Fl. Eds. 123; With. iii. 663; Berwick Flora, 121.
On the links of the sea coast at Tynemouth, Cullercoats, Hartley, Blyth, Newbiggin, Holy Island, and Berwick, N. At South Shields, Castle Eden, Hartlepool, and Seaton, also on Limestone Crags at Hilton Ferry, D. On the banks of Tweed opposite Spring Gardens, on Spittal Links, and banks beyond Hudshead. — Thompson.

3. T. majus. Greater Meadow Rue.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 42; Eng. Bot. 611; With. iii. 664; Berwick Flora, 121.
On the banks of Tees near Barnardcastle, and a little above the foot of Middleton Beck, also near Eglestone, and at Baydales in the vicinity of Darlington, and at Coatham, D.

4. T. flavum. Common Meadow Rue.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 42; Eng. Bot. 367; Berwick Flora, 121; Hook. Fl. Scot. 172; With. iii. 663.
On the banks of Tyne above Ovingham, N. On the banks of Wear near Ayre's Quay, and of Team near Lamesley, D. In moist meadows near Hell Kettles, Darlington, D. — John Hogg, Esq.

1, ADONIS.[edit]

1. A. autumnalis. Corn Pheasant's-eye or Adonis flower.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 43; Eng. Bot. 308; Curt. Lond. Fasc. ii. t. 37; Hook. Fl. Scot. 172; With. iii. 665.
In a potatoe-field near Norton, D.—J. Hogg, Esq.
This pretty annual has but slight claim to be considered indigenous in the north of England.

225. RANUNCULUS.[edit]

1. R. flammula. Lesser Spear-wort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 45; Eng. Bot. 387; Berwick Flora, 122; With. iii. 667; Curt. Lond. Fasc. vi. t. 37; Hook. Fl. Scot. 174; δ reptans, Lightfoot, 289; fig. in title page.
α In marshy places frequent. δ by the Loughs at Shewing Shields and Holy Island, N. On Alnwick Moor. — Mr. J. Davison.

2. R. Lingua. Great Spear-wort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 46; Eng. Bot. 100; Berwick Flora, 122; Hook. Fl. Scot. 173; Lond. t. 171; With. iii. 668; Robson's Flora, 199.
In ditches at Prestwick Carr, in ponds at Wide Haugh near Dilston, and in bogs at the west end of Little Cow Lake, N. In the pond at Spindlestone, N.—Dr. G. Johnston. At Newham Lough, N. —Miss Forster, delin. Near Darlington, D.

3. R. Ficaria. Pilewort, Lesser Celandine.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 47; Eng. Bot. 584; Curt. Lond. Fasc. ii. t. 39; Hook. Fl. Scot. 174; Berwick Flora, 122; Ficaria ranunculoides, Gr. Fl. Eds. 126.
In woods and on the banks of hedges, frequent.

4. R. auricomus. Wood Crow-foot, Goldilocks.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 47; Eng. Bot. 624; Curt. Lond. Fasc. ii. t. 41; Hook. Fl. Scot. 174.
In woods and shady places, not rare. =====5. R. sceleratus. Water Crow-foot, Celery-leaved Crow-foot.===== Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 48; Eng. Bot. 681; Curt. Lond. Fasc. ii. t. 24; Hook. Fl. Scot. 174; Berwick Flora, 122.
In watery places, frequent.

6. R. bulbosus. Bulbous Crow-foot, Butter-cups.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 49; Eng. Bot. 515; Curt. Lond. Fasc. i. t. 38; Hook. Fl. Scot. 175; Berwick Flora, 123.
β flore pleno. α In meadows and pastures everywhere. β in Hulne Park, Alnwick, N.— Miss Forster, delin.

7. R. hirsutus. Pale Hairy Crow-foot.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 50; Curt. Lond. Fasc. ii. t. 40; Eng. Bot. 1504; Hook. Fl. Scot. 175; With. iii. 672; R. Philonotis, Ehrh. Lindley, Brit. Syn. 11.
On St. Anthon's ballast hills, N. On Sunderland ballast hills, D.

8. R. repens. Creeping Crow-foot.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 51; Eng. Bot. 516; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iv. t. 38; Hook. Fl. Scot. 175; Berwick Flora, 123.
In moist meadows and near ditches, everywhere.

9. R. acris. Upright Bleadow Crow-foot.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 51; Eng. Bot. 052; Berwick Flora, 123; Curt. Lond. Fasc. i. t. 39; Hook. Fl. Scot. 174; Woodv. Supp. t. 246.
β flore pleno.
α In meadows and pastures everywhere. β in meadows at Mill-green near Ravensworth, D.

10. R. arvensis. Corn Crow-foot.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 52; Eng. Bot. 135; Curt. Lond. Fasc. vi. t. 36; Hook. Fl. Scot. 175; Berwick Flora, 123.
In corn-fields, not uncommon.

11. R. parviflorus. Small-flowered Crow-foot.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 53; Eng. Bot. 120; With. iii. 670.
By the road side between Cockerton and Norton, D. —Mr. Backhouse. Its most northern locality.

12. R. hederaceus. Ivy Crow-foot.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 54; Eng. Bot. 2003; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iv. t. 39; Hook. Fl. Scot. 173; Berwick Flora, 123.
In rivulets and ditches.

13. R. aquatilis. Water Crow-foot.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 54; Eng. Bot. 101; Hook. Fl. Scot. 173; Berwick Flora, 124.
β, Ray's Syn. 249; δ 250; R. pardothrix, De Cand. Lindley, Brit. Syn. 12.
α and β In ponds and ditches, δ in rivers.

226. TROLLIUS.[edit]

1. T. europaeus. Globe-flower.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 56; Eng. Bot. 28; With. iii. 675; Gr. Fl. Eds. 127; Berwick Flora, 124.
In Ravensworth woods, Heaton Dene, and Shipley woods, in Teesdale; also near Belford, Alnwick, and Morpeth, and in most of the moist woods, and on the banks of numerous rivulets in N. and D. In moist mountainous woods, abundant. — Wallis. At Catcherside, Roadley, and Long-witton, N. — W.C. Trevelyan, Esq. Near Norton, D.—John Hogg, Esq. In moist meadows in the vicinity of Berwick. —Dr. G. Johnston.

227. HELLEBORUS.[edit]

1. H. viridis Green Hellebore.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 57; Eng. Bot. 200; Curt. Lond. Fasc. vi. t. 34; Hook. Fl. Scot. 176; With. iii. 675.
Upon the banks of the Tees near Whorlton Rev. J. Harriman. Near Piercebridge, D. — Mr. Backhouse. In the Abbey grounds at Alnwick, N.—Miss Forster, delin.

2. H. foetidus. Stinking Hellebore, Bear's-foot, Setter-wort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 58; Eng. Bot. 613; Woodv. t. 19; Gr. Fl. Eds. 127; With. iii. 676.
Upon the banks of Tees a little below Winston Bridge, D. — Rev. J. Harriman. In a wood on the north side of Tyne a little above the Chain Bridge near Hexham, N.—Mr. A. Hancock, Sp.

228. CALTHA.[edit]

1. C. palustris. Marsh Marygold.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 59; Eng. Bot. 506; Curt. Lond. Fasc. i. t. 40; Berwick Flora, 125; Hook. Fl. Scot. 176.
β De Cand. Syst. i. 309; C. radicans, Hook. Fl. Scot, and Gr. Fl. Eds. 127; but not of Forster in Linn. Tr. viii. 324 t. 17, nor of Smith in Eng. Bot. 2175.
α In marshy meadows, and by ponds and rivers. β on the margins of the Loughs near Shewing-shields, N. On Eglestone Fell, Teesdale, D.
I believe the late James Dickson was the only botanist who ever found Caltha radicans wild; but in what part of Scotland I know not. It still keeps its habit, and the triangular shape of its leaves, in the Botanic Gardens of Edinburgh and Cambridge, and with Edward Forster, Esq. in Essex; and certainly is entitled to rank as a species. Our plant is only a small variety of C. palustris.


DIDYNAMIA GYMNOSPERMIA.[edit]

229. AJUGA.[edit]

1. A. reptans. Common Bugle.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 65; Eng. Bot. 489; Hook. Fl. Scot. 179; Curt. Lond. Fasc. ii. t. 43; Berwick Flora, 129.
In woods and moist pastures, common.
Ajuga alpina was never found in the county of Durham. — See Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 66.

230. TEUCRIUM.[edit]

1. T. Scorodonia. Wood Germander, Wood Sage.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 68; Eng. Bot. 1543; Curt. Lond. Fasc. v. t. 10; Hook. Fl. Scot. 180; Berwick Flora, 129.
In dry woods and on hedge banks, not rare.

2. T. Chamaedrys. Wall Germander.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 69; Eng. Bot. 680; Woodv. Supp. t. 243; With iii. 684; Hook. Fl. Scot. 180.
On old hedge banks near Gateshead Park engine, D.

231. NEPETA.[edit]

1. N. cataria. Nep, or Cat-mint.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 70; Eng. Bot. 1. 137; Hook. Fl. Scot. 180; With. iii. 686. On hedge banks at Ovingham, Bywell, the Riding, and Tyne Green near Hexham; also in the neighbourhood of Chirton, N. In a hedge at Netherwarden, and about Hexham, N Wallis, 168. On the ruins of Langley Hall near Witton Gilbert, at West Boldon, and in lanes near Sunderland and Haughton, D.

232. VERBENA.[edit]

1. V. officinalis. Common Vervain.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 71; Eng. Bot. 767; Woodv. Supp. t. 218; Curt. Lond. Fasc. i. t. 41; With, iii. 687; Hook. Fl. Scot. 190.
On the banks of Tyne at Bywell, where it was observed by Wallis (p. 168), at Corbridge Mill, and the Riding, N. Near Stainton, Bishopton, Darlington, and in the west lane at Chester-le-street, D. Near Norton. — John Hogg, Esq.

233. MENTHA.[edit]

1. M. rotundifolia. Round-leaved Mint.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 74; Eng. Bot. 446; With. iii. 689; M. sylvestris, Sole, Menth. 7. t. 3.
In the lane between Pittington and Elemore where the Sunderland road turns off, D. — Rev. Jas. Dalton. Near Ponteland, N.

2. M. viridis. Spear Mint.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 75; Eng. Bot. 2424; Woodv. Supp. t. 170; With. iii. 689; Sole, Menth. 11 t. 5.
β Ray Syn. 1st ed., 79.
α On the east side of the bourn in Blackstone-bank wood, four miles north of Wolsingham, D. By the Tees near Neisham, D.—Mr. Backhouse, β in neglected gardens and orchards about Newcastle, N.

3. M. piperita Pepper Mint.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 76; Eng. Bot. 687; Woodv. 169; Berwick Flora, 129; M. piperita officinalis, Sole, Menth. 15, t. 7.
β M. piperita vulgaris, Sole, Menth. 19, t. 8.
α. Near Mason Dinnington and Stannington, N. α. and β in Dene Lane, Castle Eden, D—Mr. Backhouse.

4. M. citrata. Bergamot Mint.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 78; Willd. Sp. Pl. iii. 79; M. odorata, Sole, Menth. 21, t. 9; Eng. Bot. 1025; With. iii. 692.
In neglected orchards and near cottage gardens, not truly indigenous.

5. M. hirsuta. Hairy Mint.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 78; Eng. Bot. 447; Hook. Lond. t. 166; Fl. Scot. 180; M. aquatiea, major and minor. Sole, Menth. 25, t. 11 and xxiii. t. 10; Berwick Flora, 129.
By ditches and in watery places, not rare.

6. M. rubra. Tall Red Mint.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 82; Eng. Bot. 1413; With. iii. 695; Berwick Flora, 130; M. sativa, Sole, Menth. 47, t. 21.
On the banks of Team near the High Forge, D. By the pont above Ponteland, N. On the banks of the Gaunless. in the Bishop's Park, Bishop-Auckland, D.—Mr. W. Backhouse.

7. M. gentilis. Bushy Red Mint.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 83; Eng. Bot. 2118; With. iii. 695; M. rubra, Sole, Menth. 41, t. 18; Berwick Flora, 130.
γ M. variegata, Sole, Menth. 43, t. 19.
α. On the banks of Team near the High Forge, D.
On the banks of Blyth below Stannington Bridge, N. By the road side near Winston, D. — Mr. W. Backhouse. In the bed of the Wooler water near the Haugh Head, γ by the side of the water course above the Carding Mill at Wooler, N Dr. G. Johnston. About villages, but scarcely wild, N. and D.

8. M. arvensis. Corn Mint.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 85; Eng. Bot. 2119; Hook. Fl. Scot. 181; Berwick Flora, 130; Sole, Menth. 29, t. 12; With. iii. 697.
δ Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 86; With. iii. 697, var. 3.
α In corn fields about Beamish, Cawsey, Urpeth, and Darlington, D. In the vicinity of Berwick.—Dr. G. Johnston. δ by ditches near the west end of Prestwick Carr, N.

9. M. agrestis. Rugged Field Mint.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 87; Sole, Menth. 33, t. 14; Eng. Bot, 2120; M. arvense ε, Sm. Fl. Brit. 624; With. iii. 697, var. 4.
In Cawsey Dene, also near Beamish, and on the banks of Team near Lamesley, D.

10. M. Pulegium. Penny-royal.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 87; Eng. Bot. 1026; Sole, Menth. 51, t. 23; Hook. Fl. Scot. 181; With, iii. 698; Woodv. t. 171.
On the borders of a pond at Winston, D. — Rev. J. Harriman.

234. GLECHOMA.[edit]

1. G. hederacea. Ground Ivy, Gill, Ale-hoof.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 88; Eng. Bot. 853; Curt. Lond. Fasc. ii. 44; Woodv. t. 28; Hook. Fl. Scot. 181; Berwick Flora, 131.
On hedge banks and in shady places.

235. LAMIUM.[edit]

1. L. album. White Archangel, White Dead-nettle.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 89; Eng. Bot. 763; Curt. Lond. Fasc. ii. t. 45; Hook. Fl. Scot. 181.
In waste ground, everywhere.

2. L. purpureum. Red Archangel, or Red Deadnettle.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 91; Eng. Bot. 769; Curt. Lond. Fasc. i. t. 42; Hook. Fl. Scot. 181.
On waste ground, everywhere.

3. L. incisum. Cut-leaved Dead-nettle, or Archangel.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 91; Eng. Bot. 1933; With. iii. 700; Hook. Fl. Scot. 182; Gr. Fl. Eds, 130; Berwick Flora, 131.
In waste places about Darlington, D. Near Alnwick, Belford, and Hexham, N. In the neighbourhood of Berwick, frequent. — Dr. G. Johnston. On Sunderland ballast hills, D. — W. Weighell's Herb.
Probably a variety of L. purpureum.

4. L. amplexicaule. Henbit Archangel, Great Henbit.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 92; Eng. Bot. 770; Curt. Lond. Fasc. ii. t. 46; With. iii. 701; Gr. Fl. Eds. 130; Berwick Flora, 131.
On hedge banks at East Morton, at the Salt Meadows near Gateshead, and near Whitburn and Darlington, D. At Norton, D. — John Hogg, Esq. On old walls near Ovingham, also at Wylam, Hexham, and Alnwick, N. At Spittal-point, N.—Thompson's Berwick Plants. About Berwick, common.—Dr. G. Johnston.

236. GALEOPSIS.[edit]

1. G. Ladanum. Red Hemp-nettle.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 93; Eng. Bot. 884; With. iii. 701; Gr. Fl. Eds. 131.
On the Magnesian Limestone at Whitburn, Fulwell, Easington, and Castle Eden, D. Near Darlington, D.—Mr. E. Robson.

2. G. Tetrahit. Common Hemp-nettle.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 94; Eng. Bot. 207; Hook. Fl. Scot. 182; Berwick Flora, 132.
In corn, potatoe, and turnip fields, common.

3. G. versicolor. Large-flowered, Hemp-nettle, Bee-nettle.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 95; Eng. Bot. 667; Berwick Flora, 132; Curt. Lond. Fasc. vi. t. 38; Gr. Fl. Eds. 131; G. cannabina, With. iii. 703.
γ Dill. Ray Syn. 240.
α On the banks of North Tyne at Low Park-end near Nunwick, in corn fields between Newcastle and Jesmond, also near the Minories, N. About Tynemouth and Elsdon. — Miss Emma Trevelyan. In a field at the high end of Pandon Dene. — Wilson, Syn. 95. Near Wooler. — Mrs. J. Johnston. Below Langley Ford. — Dr. G. Johnston. Near Alnwick Miss Pringle, Sp. In corn fields between Halystone and Harbottle Castle; also on the banks of North Tyne near Smales-mouth, N.—Wallis, 167. In fields near Gateshead, D. γ in corn fields between Newcastle and Jesmond, N.

237. BETONICA.[edit]

1. B. officinalis. Wood Betony.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 97; Eng. Bot. 1142; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iii. t.33; Woodv. t. 241; Hook. Fl. Scot. 183; Berwick Flora, 132.
In woods and denes, frequent.

238. STACHYS.[edit]

1. S. sylvatica. Hedge Woundwort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 98; Eng. Bot. 416; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iii. t. 34; Hook. Fl. Scot. 183; Berwick Flora, 133.
In woods, denes, and shady hedges, common.

2. S. ambigua. Ambiguous Woundwort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 99; Eng. Bot. 2089; Hook. Fl. Scot. 183; Gr. Fl. Eds. 132.
In fields at Burdon Mills, and by the Skerne near Darlington, D. — Mr. Backhouse. On the banks of Tyne near Hexham, N.

3. S. palustris. Marsh Woundwort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 99; Eng. Bot. 1675; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iii. t. 35; Hook. Fl. Scot. 183; Berwick Flora, 133.
On the banks of rivers, and in wet meadows, frequent.

4. S. arvensis. Corn Woundwort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 100; Eng. Bot. 1154; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iv. t. 41; With. iii. 707; Gr. Fl. Eds. 132; Berwick Flora, 133.
In neglected gardens and on waste ground at Hexham, in fields near Ridley Hall, and near the Barras Bridge, Newcastle, N. On the ballast hills of Tyne and Wear, N. and D. Near Berwick.—Thompson.

239. BALLOTA.[edit]

1. B. nigra. Black or Stinking Horehound.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 101; Eng. Bot. 46; Hook. Fl. Scot. 184; Berwick Flora, 133.
β B. alba, Linn. Sp. Pl. ii. 814; B. nigra β, Hudson, 260; With. iii. 708, var. 2. α On hedge banks and waste ground, frequent. β near Hartlepool and Castle Eden, D. Near Morpeth, N.

240. MARRUBIUM.[edit]

1. M. vulgare. White Horehound.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 103; Woodv. t. 97; Hook. Fl. Scot. 184; Eng. Bot. 410; With. iii. 708; Berwick Flora, 133.
On the island at Hexham Bridge, on waste ground at Cullercoats, and on the rocks and links at Bamborough Castle, N., at which place it was noticed by Wallis. In the lane that leads from the Bearton to the Stanton road, D.—John Hogg, Esq.

241. LEONURUS.[edit]

1. L. Cardiaca. Motherwort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 104; Eng. Bot. 286; Gr. Fl. Eds. 133; With. iii. 709.
Naturalized in fields at Spring Gardens near Newcastle, N. Near Wycliffe.—Rev. J. Harriman.

242. CLINOPODIUM.[edit]

1. C. vulgare. Wild Basil.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 105; Eng. Bot. 1401; Hook. Fl. Scot. 184; With. iii. 710; Berwick Flora, 134.
In woods and hedges, especially in the Magnesian Limestone district.

243. ORIGANUM.[edit]

1. O. vulgare. Common Marjoram.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 106; Eng. Bot. 1143; Curt. Lond. Fasc. v. t. 39; Woodv. t. 104; Hook. Fl. Scot. 184; Berwick Flora, 134.
In woods, particularly on the Magnesian Limestone.

244. THYMUS.[edit]

1. T. Serpyllum. Wild Thyme, Mother of Thyme.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 107; Eng. Bot. 1514; Curt. Lond. Fasc. ii. t. 47; Berwick Flora, 134; Hook. Fl. Scot. 185.
ε citratum, Ray Syn. 231. α On dry heaths, frequent, ε on Basaltic heights near Bamborough, N.—Thompson's Berwick Plants.

2. T. Acinos. Basil Thvme.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 109; Eng. Bot. 411; Curt. Lond. Fasc. i. t. 43; Hook. Fl. Scot. 185; With. iii. 713; Acinos vulgaris, Persoon, Syn. ii. 131.
In a field bordering on East Common Wood near Hexham, N.—Mr. F. Scott, Sp. On St. Anthon's ballast hills, N. Between Marsden Cottage and Whitburn, D. In Middleham Lane, D.—R. Surtees, Esq.

3. T. Calamintha. Common Calamint.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 109; Eng. Bot. 1676; With. iii. 714; Calamintha officinalis, Hook. Br. Fl. 279.
Near Gateshead Ropery, D. Near Connisclifie, D. —Mr. E. Robson. =====4. T. Nepeta. Lesser Calamint.===== Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 110; Eng.Bot. 1414; With. iii. 713; Melissa Nepeta, Curt. Lond. Fasc. vi. t. 40; Calamintha Nepeta, Hook. Br. Fl. 280.
On the banks of Wear by Durham Abbey.—Wilson, Syn. 97. It still grows there.

245. SCUTELLARIA.[edit]

1. S. galericulata. Common Skull-cap.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 113; Eng. Bot. 523; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iii. t. 36; With. iii. 716; Gr. Fl. Eds. 134; Berwick Flora, 134.
On the shore of Tyne below St. Anthon's, also by ditches near Hexham, N., where it was observed by Wallis. On Hoppen Bog near Alnwick.—Miss Pringle, Sp. On the banks of Team near Team Bridge and Urpeth, and at Hell Kettles near Darlington, D. By the Tyne below Stella, D.— Wilson's Syn. 99.

2. S. minor. Lesser Skull-cap.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 113; Eng. Bot. 524; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iv. t. 43; Hook. Fl. Scot. 185.
On moors south of Wolsingham, D., plentiful.— Mr. Backhouse.

246. PRUNELLA.[edit]

1. P. vulgaris. Self-heal.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 114; Eng. Bot. 961; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iv. t. 42; Hook. Fl. Scot. 185; Berwick Flora, 134.
In meadows and pastures, frequent.


DIDYNAMIA ANGIOSPERMIA.[edit]

247. BARTSIA.[edit]

1. B. alpina. Alpine Bartsia.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 117; Eng. Bot. 361; Hook. Lond. t. 87; Fl. Scot. 186; With. iii. 719.
By the Whey Syke near Widdy Bank in Teesdale Forest, D. First pointed out to me by the Rev. J. Harriman.

2. B. Odontites. Red Bartsia.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 119; Eng. Bot. 1413; Hook. Fl. Scot. 186; Berwick Flora, 135; Euphrasia Odontites, Curt. Lond. Fasc. i. 44.
In meadows and pastures on a wet clay soil.

248. RHINANTHUS.[edit]

1. R. Crista-galli. Yellow Rattle.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Pl. iii. 120; Eng. Bot. 657; Curt. Lond. Fasc. v. t. 43; Hook. Fl. Scot. 186; Berwick Flora, 135.

β R. major. Large Bushy Yellow Rattle.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 121; Berwick Flora, 135; R. Crista-galli β, Fl. Brit. ii. 649; With. iii. 720, var. 2.
α In meadows and pastures on poor land; β observed in 1723 by Dr. Richardson, among corn near West Newton, N. —Dill. Ray's Syn. *284. At Crawcrook and Ryton, D. —Mr. R.B. Bowman. In corn fields on Stockton Common and other parts of the county, where the soil approaches to peat. —Mr. J. Backhouse. In fields near Benwell, Denton, and Elswick, N.

249. EUPHRASIA.[edit]

1. E. officinalis. Eye-bright.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 122; Eng. Bot. 1416; Curt. Lond. Fasc. v. t. 42; Woodv. t. 220; Hook. Fl. Scot. 186; Berwick Flora, 135.
On moors and mountainous pastures.

250. MELAMPYRUM.[edit]

1. M. pratense. Common Yellow Cow-wheat.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 125; Eng. Bot. 113; Hook.Fl. Scot. 187; Berwick Flora, 136; M. sylvaticum, Hudson, 270.
In woods and denes, frequent, N. and D. On the hill at Hepburn near Chillingham, and on Cheviot and Hedgehope, N.—Dr. G. Johnston.

2. M. sylvaticum. Wood Cow-wheat.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 126; Eng. Bot. 804; Lightfoot, 325; With. iii. 725.
On the banks of Tees above Middleton, also near Winch Bridge, and in Shipley Wood near Eglestone, D. In woods near Hexham, N. — Mr. F. Scott.
I have no specimens from the latter habitat.

251. LATHRAEA.[edit]

1. L. Squamaria. Greater Tooth-wort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 127; Eng. Bot. 50; Gr. Fl. Eds. 135; With. iii. 725.
In Shipley, Eglestone, Cocken, and Lumley woods, D. Near Pierce Bridge. —Mr. Backhouse. In Irehope Dene, Weardale, D.—W.C. Trevelyan, Esq. In Twizell woods. —P.J. Selby, Esq. At Break-back near Alnwick, N. —Miss Forster, delin. In the wood bottom at the west end of the Rectory Dene at Simonburn, N.—Wallis, 234.

252. PEDICULARIS.[edit]

1. P. palustris. Marsh Louse-wort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 129; Eng. Bot. 399; Hook. Fl. Scot. 187; Berwick Flora, 137.
In boggy meadows and marshes, common.

2. P. sylvatica. Pasture Louse-wort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 129; Eng. Bot. 400; Hook. Fl. Scot. 188; Berwick Flora, 137.
In wet moorland pastures and on commons, frequent.

253. ANTIRRHINUM.[edit]

1. A. Cymbalaria. Ivy-leaved Snapdragon.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 131; Eng. Bot. 502; Curt. Lond. Fasc. i. t. 45; Gr. Fl. Eds. 136; With. iii. 728; Linaria Cymbalaria, Mill. Lindley, Br. Syn. 191.
Naturalized on the bridge over the Greta at Rokeby, and on walls near Cleadon, and in Whitburn-Lane, D.
A native of Italy, now naturalized as far north as Edinburgh.

2. A. spurium. Round-leaved Fluellin.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 131; Eng. Bot. 691; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iii. t. 37; With. iii. 728; Linaria spuria, Mill. Lindley, Br. Syn. 191.
On Hebburn ballast-hills, D. On Sunderland ballast-hills, D.—W. Weighell's Herb.

3. A. Elatine. Sharp-pointed Fluellin.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 132; Eng. Bot. 692; Curt. Lond. Fasc. i. t. 46; With. iii. 729; Linaria Elatine, Desf. Lindley, Br. Syn. 191.
On Sunderland and Hebburn ballast-hills, D. On Willington ballast-hills, N.

4. A. repens. Creeping pale-blue Toadflax.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 133 ; Eng. Bot. 1253; Hook. Fl. Scot. 188; With. iii. 729; Linaria repens, Hort. Kew. Lindley, Br. Syn. 191.
On Hebburn ballast-hills, D. On Willington ballast-hills, N.

5. A. Linaria. Common Yellow Toadflax.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 134; Eng. Bot. 658; Curt. Lond. Fasc. i. t. 47 ; Woodv. Supp. 221; Hook. Fl. Scot. 188; Berwick Flora, 137; Linaria vulgaris, Moench. Lindley, Br. Syn. 191.
In dry hedges and on the borders of fields, not rare.

6. A. minus. Least Snapdragon.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 135; Eng. Bot. 2014; Curt. Lond. Fasc. v. t. 41 ; Hook. Fl. Scot. 188; With. iii. 730; Berwick Flora, 138; Linaria minor, Desf. Lindley, Br. Syn. 192.
On Fulwell hills near Sunderland, D. By the Union Bridge over the Tweed, N. — Dr. G. Johnston.

7. A. majus. Great Snapdragon.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 135 ; Eng. Bot. 129; Hook. Fl. Scot. 189; With. iii. 732.
Near the Hermitage at Warkworth, N. On the walls of Barnardcastle, and naturalized on old walls at Kibblesworth, D.

8. A. Orontium. Lesser Snapdragon.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 136; Eng. Bot. 1155; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iv. t. 45 ; With. iii. 732.
On the ballast-hills of Tyne and Wear, N. and D.

254. SCROPHULARIA.[edit]

1. S. nodosa. Knotty-rooted Fig-wort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 137; Eng. Bot. 1544; Hook. Fl. Scot. 189; Berwick Flora, 138.
In denes, woods, and hedges.

2. S. aquatica. Water Fig-wort, Water Betony.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 138 ; Eng. Bot. 854; Curt. Lond. Fasc. v. t. 44; Hook. Fl. Scot. 189.
On the banks of rivers and ponds, frequent.

255. DIGITALIS.[edit]

1. D. purpurea. Purple Foxglove.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 140; Eng. Bot. t. 1297; Curt. Lond. Fasc. i. t. 48; Hook. Fl. Scot. 189; Woodv. t. 24 ; With. iii. 736 ; Berwick Flora, 138.
In dry woods and on hedge banks, very frequent in the county of Durham, but rather scarce in Northumberland. At the foot of Scotswood Dean, and near Alemouth, N. Rare near Berwick, but common about Houndswood and Renton inns, near Wooler. —Dr. G. Johnston. On Fourstone hills and among the rocks at Tecket. The White-flowered Foxglove, by the road under Blenkinsopp Castle, N.—Wallis, 161.

256. LINNAEA.[edit]

1. L. borealis. Two-flowered Linnaea.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 142 ; Eng, Bot. 433 ; Hook. Fl. Scot. 190; Fl. Lapp. 2nd ed., 214, t. 12, f. 4; With. iii. 737 ; Winch, Geog. of PI. 2nd ed., 25.
In an old fir plantation at Catcherside four miles west of Wallington, N., growing with Trientalis europaea and Pyrola minor.
First discovered by Miss Emma Trevelyan.

257. LIMOSELLA.[edit]

1. L. aquatica. Common Mid-wort.[edit]

Sm. Eng Fl. 145 ; Eng. Bot. 357 ; Hook. Lond. t. 62; Fl. Scot. 190; With. iii. 738.
In ditches near Cocken, D.—W. Weighell, MSS.

258. OROBANCHE.[edit]

1. O. major. Greater Broom-rape.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 146 ; Eng. Bot. 421 ; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iv. t. 44; Gr. Fl. Eds. 138; With. iii. 739 ; Sutton, Linn. Tr. iv. 175.
In Scotswood Dene, N. Near Beamish, Urpeth, Cawsey Wood, and Derwent Bridge, D. Near Staindrop. — Rev. J. Harriman ; and in Raby Park. — Mr. E. Robson ; among furze on Fourstone hills near Hexham. — Wallis, 233; at Ellingham. — P.J. Selby, Esq. ; on Bothal banks, where it was observed by Turner. — Miss Emma Trevelyan; near Alnwick, N. — Miss Forster, delin.

2. O. elatior. Tall Broom-rape.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 147 ; Eng. Bot. 568 ; With. iii. 739; Sutton, Linn. Tr. iv. 178, t. 17.
Near Ellemore and not far from the gates of Burn Hall, D Rev. J. Dalton.


TETRADYNAMIA SILICULOSA.[edit]

259. DRABA.[edit]

1. D. verna. Common Whitlow-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 158; Eng. Bot. 586; Curt. Lond. Fasc. i. t. 49 ; Hook. Fl. Scot. 196 ; Berwick Flora, 141.
On walls, banks, and dry places.

2. D. incana. Twisted-podded Whitlow-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 160 ; Eng. Bot. 388 (bad) ; Hook. Fl. Scot. 197; With. iii. 751.
On walls and Limestone rocks north of Middleton, D. Upon Cronkley Fell, Teesdale.

260. CAMELINA.[edit]

1. C. sativa. Gold of Pleasure.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 164; Hook. Lond. t. 70 ; Fl. Scot. 198; Alyssum sativum, With. iii. 774.
In fields between Newcastle and Jesmond, on newly broken up ground, N. On the ballast hills of Tyne and Wear, N. and D.

261. LEPIDIUM.[edit]

1. L. latifolium. Broad-leaved Pepperwort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 105; Eng. Bot. 182 ; Gr. Fl. Eds. 140; With. iii. 753.
On the cliffs between Prior's Haven and Tynemouth Castle, N. Near Seaton, and by the Wear near Durham Abbey, D. In Limestone quarries at Hartlepool, D. — J. Hogg, Esq. On the banks of hedges at the Hermitage near Hexham, N. — Mr. F. Scott. I have no specimen from this locality.

2. L. ruderale. Narrow-leaved Pepperwort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 165; Eng. Bot. 1595; Hook. Fl. Scot. 194 ; With. iii. 753.
On St. Anthon's ballast-hills, N. On the ballast-hills above South Shields; and at Hartlepool, D.

3. L. campestre. Common Mithridate Pepperwort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 166; Hook. FI. Scot. 195; Berwick Flora, 141; Thlaspi campestre, Eng. Bot. 1385; Curt. Lond. Fasc. v. t. 45; With. iii. 754, and var. 2.
On hedge banks and in corn fields, not rare.

4. L. Smithii. Smooth Field Pepperwort.[edit]

Hook. Brit. Fl. 297; L. hirtum, Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 167; Thlaspi hirtum, Eng. Bot. 1803; Hook. Fl. Scot. 195; With. iii. 755.
On hedge banks between Newcastle and Jesmond, also in Heaton Dene, and between Paradise and Scotswood, N.
I have specimens of Lepidium hirtum of the continental botanists, but gathered on the Sunderland ballast-hills, and probably an exotic.

262. TEESDALIA.[edit]

1. T. nudicaulis. Naked-stalked or Irregular Teesdalia.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 170; Hook. Fl. Scot. 194; Berwick Flora, 141; Iberis nudicaulis, Eng. Bot. 327; Curt. Lond. Fasc. vi. t. 42; Dicks. Hort. Sicc. Fasc. i. 10; With. iii. 763.
On Wall-town Crags near Wall-town. — Rev. A. Hedley, Sp. In the vale between Middleton and Langley Ford, N. — Dr. G. Johnston.

263. THLASPI.[edit]

1. T. arvense. Penny Cross, Smooth Mithridate Mustard.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 171; Eng. Bot. 1659; Curt. Lond. Fasc. vi. t. 43; Gr. Fl. Eds. 139; With, iii. 754; Berwick Flora, 141.
In corn fields near Gateshead, D. In Heaton Dene, below Rennoldson's Mill-race, N. In Ord fields, near Berwick. — Dr. G. Johnston.

2. T. alpestre. Alpine Shepherd's Purse.[edit]

Sin. Eng. Fl. iii. 1 72; Eng. Bot. 81; With. iii. 756; Hook. Br. Fl. 295.
Near Winch Bridge, above Middleton-in-Teesdale, D. Near Nentwater, on old lead mine heaps, N.
Both these habitats are on the Encrinal Limestone, and are its most northern places of growth.

3. T. Bursa Pastoris. Common Shepherd's Purse.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 173; Eng. Bot. 1485; Curt. Lond. Fasc. i. t. 50; Hook. Fl. Scot. 194; Berwick Flora, 141; Caspella Bursa Pastoris, De Cand. Hook. Br. Fl. 295.
By way sides and hedge banks, everywhere.

264. COCHLEARIA.[edit]

1. C. officinalis. Common Scurvy-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 175; Eng. Bot. 551; Woodv. t. 29; Berwick Flora, 142; Hook. Lond. 148; Fl. Scot. 195.
γ Brit. Fl. 175; With. iii. 759, var. 2.
α. On rocks and marshy places on the sea coast, common; and on the shores of Tyne, Wear, Tees, &c.; on the Fern Islands, abundant; also naturalized on rocks at Harnham, N. β on wet ground near the Whey Sike House, and at Cauldron Snout, Teesdale, D. In wet places near Coal Cleugh, N.

2. C. anglica. English Scurvy-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 176; Eng. Bot. 552; Hook. Fl. Scot. 195; With. iii. 760.
On the shores of Tyne, at the mouth of Coble Dene near North Shields, and on Holy Island, N. By the river Wear, D.— W. Weighell's Herb.

3. C. danica. Danish Scurvy-grass.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 177; Eng. Bot. 696; Gr. Fl. Eds. 141; With. iii. 760; Berwick Flora, 142.
On the sea coast beyond Cullercoats, and on Willington ballast-hills, N. On the Pinnacles, one of the Fern Islands, N. — Dr. G. Johnston. On the coast north of Tynemouth, — Mr. J. Thornhill.

4. C. Armoracia. Horse-raddish.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 177; Eng. Bot. 2323; Woodv. t. 150; Gr. Fl. Eds. 141; With. iii. 761.
On the banks of Team near Dunston, and of Skerne near Darlington, D.
Ray observes, we found it plentifully about Alnwick and elsewhere, in Northumberland, in the ditches and by the water sides. —Dill. Ray's Syn. 301.

265. SENEBIERA.[edit]

1. S. Coronopus. Common Wart-cress, Swine's-cress.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 179; Berwick Flora, 142; Coronopus Ruellii, Eng. Bot. 1660; Hook. Fl. Scot. 193; With. iii. 762.
By way sides and on waste ground, but not very common. Near Berwick, and on Holy Island. —Dr. G. Johnston. At Alemouth, N. — Miss Forster, delin.

2. S. didyma. Lesser Wart-cress, Procumbent Pepperwort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 180; Coronopus didyma, With. iii. 762; Fl. Brit. 691; Lepidium didymum, Eng. Bot. 248; L. anglicum, Hudson, 280.
On the ballast-hills of Tyne and Wear, N. and D. Near Hartlepool, D.

266. IBERIS.[edit]

1. I. amara. Bitter Candy-tuft.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 131; Eng. Bot. 52; With. iii. 763.
In fields on the banks of Tyne near Hexham Bridge, and at Hoferd banks, N.
Probably introduced with corn.

267. ISATIS.[edit]

1. I. tinctoria. Woad.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 182; Eng. Bot. 97; With. iii. 747.
On the banks of Wear between Framwellgate and the New Bridge, D., where it was noticed by S. Robson. — See Flora, 129. Cultivated in the fields near Newburn. N. On the ballast-hills of Tyne and Wear, N. and D.

268. CAKILE.[edit]

1. C. maritima. Purple Sea Rocket.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 183; Hook. Lond. t. 160; Berwick Flora, 142; Gr. Fl. Eds. 139; Bunias Cakile, Eng. Bot. 231; With. iii. 746.
On the sandy sea-beach, frequent.

TETRADYNAMIA SILIQUOSA.[edit]

269. CARDAMINE.[edit]

=====1. C. hirsuta. Hairy Ladies'-smock.===== Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 188; Eng. Bot. 492; Berwick Flora, 143; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iv. t. 48; Hook. Fl. Scot. 199; C. flexuosa, With. iii. 766.
In moist shady woods and by rivulets, not rare.

2. C. pratensis. Meadow Ladies'-smock, Cuckow Flower.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 189; Eng. Bot. 770; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iii. t. 40; Hook. Fl. Scot. 198; Woodv. t. 30; Berwick Flora, 143.
β Var. flore pleno.
α In moist meadows and pastures; β on Newcastle Town Moor, N. In Cat Dene above Bill Quay, on the Tyne, D.— Mr. J. Thornhill, jun.
The leaflets of var. β, fall off and become viviparous.

3. C. amara. Bitter Ladies'-smock.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 190; Eng. Bot. 1000; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iii. t. 39; With. iii. 768; Gr. Fl. Eds. 142; Berwick Flora, 144.
In moist woods near Newcastle, Hexham, Morpeth, and Alnwick, N.; and in similar situations in the county of Durham, not rare. In the vicinity of Berwick, rare. — Dr. G. Johnston. In Teesdale, D. — Rev. J. Harriman.

270. NASTURTIUM.[edit]

1. N. officinale. Common Water Cress.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 192; Hook. Fl. Scot. 201; Berwick Flora, 144; Sisymbrium Nasturtium. Eng. Bot. 855; Curt. Lond. Fasc. vi. t. 44; Woodv. t. 48.
In springs and rivulets, but not very common near Newcastle.

2. N. sylvestre. Creeping Yellow Cress.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 193; Hook. Fl. Scot. 201; Berwick Flora, 144; Sisymbrium sylvestre, Eng. Bot. 2324; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iii. t. 41; With. iii. 769.
On the banks of Team near the Red Heugh, D. On the banks of the Derwent between Swalwell and the Tyne Mr. R. B. Bowman. Near Norton Bridge, D. — J. Hogg, Esq. On the shores of Tyne below Benwell, N. By the Tweed at the Union Bridge. — Dr. G. Johnston; and above West Ord, N. — Dr. Thompson.

3. N. terrestre. Annual Yellow Cress.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 193; Hook. Fl. Scot. 201; Berwick Flora, 145; Sisymbrium terrestre, Eng. Bot. 1747; Curt. Lond. Fasc. v. t. 49; With. iii. 770.
On the borders of Prestwick Carr, N. Near Darlington, D. — Mr. E. Robson. By the sides of Tweed from West Ord to Norham, and in ponds at Calf Hill and Cow-port, N. — Dr. G. Johnston.

4. N. amphibium. Amphibious Yellow Cress, Great Water Radish.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 195; Hook. Fl. Scot. 201; Sisymbrium amphibium, Eng. Bot. 1 840; With. iii. 769.
On Sunderland ballast-hills, D. — W. Weighell's Herb.

271. SISYMBRIUM.[edit]

1. S. officinale. Common Hedge-mustard.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 196; Hook. Fl. Scot. 202; Berwick Flora, 145; Erysimum officinale, Eng. Bot. 735; Curt. Lond. Fasc. v. t. 50; Woodv. t. 244.
By road sides and on waste ground, everywhere.

2. S. Irio. London Rocket.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 197; Eng. Bot. 1631; Curt. Lond. Fasc. v. t. 48; With. iii. 773; Ray's Syn. 298; Berwick Flora, 145.
On the Ramparts of Berwick-upon-Tweed, where it was observed by Ray. Most abundant at the Piergate. — Dr. G. Johnston.
The only locality in the north.

3. S. Sophia. Flix-weed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 197; Eng. Bot. 963; Gr. Fl. Eds. 145; With. iii. 772; Berwick Flora, 145.
Near Scotswood and Ovingham, and on Holy Island, also about Belford and Alnwick, N. On rubbish at West Boldon and Cleadon, D. About East Ord, Etal, and Bamborough, N. — Thompson's Berwick Plants.

272. BARBAREA.[edit]

1. B. vulgaris. Yellow Rocket, Bitter Winter-cress.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 198; Hook. Fl. Scot. 200; Berwick Flora, 145; Erysimum Barbarea, Eng. Bot. 443.
On the banks of rivulets and in marshy meadows.

2. B. praecox. Early Winter Cress.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 199; Hook. Fl. Scot. 201; Berwick Flora, 146; Erysimum praecox, Eng. Bot. var. 2, 1129; E. officinalis, With. iii. 774.
On a hedge side between Wooler and Earl, N.—Dr. G. Johnston.
Probably the out-cast of a garden.

273. ERYSIMUM.[edit]

1. E. cheiranthoides. Treacle Hedge-mustard.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 200; Eng. Bot. 942; Hook. Fl. Scot. 202; With. iii. 775.
In Heaton Dene near Rennoldson's Mill, and on hedge banks at the Minories near Newcastle, N. On Sunderland ballast-hills, D. — W. Weighell's Herb.

2. E. Alliaria. Garlick Hedge-mustard, Jack by the hedge, Sauce alone.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl.iii. 201; Eng. Bot, 796; Curt. Lond. Fasc. ii. t. 48; Woodv. Supp. t. 245; Hook. Fl. Scot. 202; Berwick Flora, 146.
Under hedges and in shady places, common.

3. E. orientale. Hare's-ear Treacle-mustard.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 202; Hook. Br. Fl. 300; Brassica orientalis, Eng. Bot. 1804; With. iii. 782.
On the ballast-hills of Tyne and Wear, N. and D. On ballast-hills at Bishopwearmouth, D. — Rev. J. Symons, also in W. Weighell's Herb.

274. CHEIRANTHUS.[edit]

1. C. Cheiri. Wall-flower.[edit]

Hudson, 287; Lindley, Syn. 22; Hook. Br. Fl. 307; Lond. Fl. t. 147; C. fruticulosus, Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 203; Eng. Bot. 1934; Berwick Flora, 146; Hook. Fl. Scot. 202; With. iii. 776.
On the ruins of Dawdon Hall, and on the Magnesian Limestone rocks at Southwick, D. On Lindisfern Priory, and on rocks at Tynemouth, N. On the ruins of castles near Berwick, and on Spindlestone rocks. — Dr. G. Johnston.

275. HESPERIS.[edit]

1. H. matronalis. Common Dame's-violet.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. 207; Gr. Fl. Eds. 146 s H.inodora, Eng. Bot. 731 s With. iii. 778. In meadows near Chester-le-Street, D.—G. T. Fox, Esq. In the Duke of Northumberland's woods and plantations about Alnwick, N.
Probably not truly indigenous in these counties.

276. ARABIS.[edit]

1. A. thaliana. Common Wall-cress.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 209; Eng. Bot. 901; Curt. Lond. Fasc. ii. t. 49; With. iii. 779; Hook. Fl. Scot. 199; Berwick Flora, 146.
On walls near Ovingham, near Wooler, and on the ruins of Shewing-shields, also at Wark and Norham Castles, N. On Kyloe rocks and near the chain-bridge at Horncliffe, N.—Dr. G. Johnston. On the ruins of the Roman station at Lanchester, of Finchale Abbey, and on walls in Weardale and Teesdale, D.

2. A. hirsuta. Hairy Wall-cress.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 213; Gr. Fl.Eds. 143; Turrilis hirsuta, Eng. Bot. 587; With. iii. 781.
On Painsher and Fulwell Hills, in Castle Eden Dene, also near Eglestone and Middleton-in-Teesdale, D. On the south side of Boldon, Tunstall, and Cleadon Hills, D.— Mr. R. Waugh and Mr. J. Thornhill. On the Roman Wall near Shewing-shields, on rocks at Kirkwhelpington and on hedge banks between Anick Grange and Corbridge, also near Rothbury, N. On an old wall at Colwell by the Chollerton road to Wallington, N. — Wallis, 219. Near Hulne Abbey, Alnwick, N.—Miss Pringle, Sp.

277. TURRITIS.[edit]

1. T. glabra. Smooth Tower-mustard.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 215; Eng. Bot. 777; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iv. t. 47; With. iii. 781; Hook. Fl. Scot. 200.
On the banks of hedges between Anick Grange and Hexham, and on walls near Ovingham, N. Near Gainford, in hedges not far from the turnpike-gate, D.
Wallis, at p. 218, gives Crag Close near Barwesford as a locality of Cardamine pumila; Bellidis folia alpina. — Dill. Ray Syn, 300; which Smith refers to Arabis stricta of the English Flora, iii. 210, but with a mark of doubt. Gerard's figure, 260, quoted in~Ray's work, according to Smith, belongs to a foreign species, Arabis pumila of Jaquin; Arabis nutans of Willdenow's Species Plantarum, iii. 537. I suspect Turritis glabra must have been the plant gathered by the historian of Northumberland in Crag Close.

278. BRASSICA.[edit]

1. B. Napus. Rape, Navew, or Cole-seed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 217; Eng. Bot. 2146; Hook Fl. Scot. 203; Berwick Flora, 147.
On ditch banks and waste ground.

2. B. Rapa. Turnip.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 217; Eng. Bot. 2176; Hook Fl. Scot. 203; Berwick Flora, 147.
Naturalized on the borders of fields.

3. B. campestris. Common Wild Navew.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 213; Eng. Bot. 2234; Hook, Fl. Scot. 203; With. iii. 782.
On the ballast-hills of Tyne and Wear, N. and D. This plant, so common by the Thames, does not appear to be truly a native of these counties.

4. B. oleracea. Sea Cabbage.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 219; Eng. Bot. 037; Hook. Fl. Scot. 203; With. iii. 784.
Upon the patch of Magnesian Limestone rock on the north side of Tynercouth Castle, N. Near Monkwearmouth, D.

279. SINAPIS.[edit]

1. S. arvensis. Charlock, Wild Mustard.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 221; Eng. Bot. 1748; Curt. Lond. Fasc. v. t. 47; Hook. Fl. Scot. 204; Berwick Flora, 147.
In corn fields and on waste ground, common.

2. S. alba. White Mustard.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 222; Eng. Bot. 1677; Curt. Lond. Fasc. v. t. 46; Hook. Fl. Scot. 204; Berwick Flora, 147.
In fields and by road sides.

3. S. nigra. Common Mustard.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 222; Eng. Bot. 969; Woodv. t. 151; Hook. Fl. Scot. 204; Berwick Flora, 147.
On waste ground and in fields.

4. S. tenuifolia. Narrow-leaved Wall Mustard.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 223; Hook. Fl. Scot. 204; Berwick Flora, 148; Sisymbrium tenuifolium, Eng. Bot. 525; With. iii. 771; Brassica muralis, Curt. Lond. Fasc. iii. t. 38; Hudson, 290.
On rocks at Tynemouth, and on the ruins of the Castle, N. On the sea banks near Marsden Rocks, and at Southwick, D. On the walls of Berwick, where it was observed by Ray.— Dr. G. Johnston.

5. S. muralis. Sand Mustard.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 224; Sisymbrium murale, Eng. Bot. 1090; With. iii. 772.
On St. Anthon's ballast-hills, N.
Introduced from the south of England.

289. RAPHANUS.[edit]

1. R. Raphanistrum. Wild Radish, Jointed Charlock.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 226; Eng. Bot. 856; Curt. Fasc. iv. t. 46; Hook. Fl. Scot. 204; Berwick Flora, 148.
In corn fields, common.


MONADELPHIA PENTANDRIA.[edit]

281. ERODIUM.[edit]

1. E. cicutarium. Hemlock Stork's-bill.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 229; Eng. Bot. 1768; Berwick Flora, 150; Hook. Fl. Scot. 205; Geranium cicutarium, Curt. Fasc. i. t. 51; With. iii. 803.
α. On waste ground. β and γ on the sea coast abundant, N. and D. Between the Glass Houses and Dent's Hole, near Newcastle.—Wilson's Syn. 243. Near Berwick. — Dr. G. Johnston.

2. E. maritimum. Sea Stork's-bill.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 231; Eng. Bot. 646; Geranium maritimum, Hudson, 301; With. iii. 799.
On Sunderland ballast-hills, D.—W. Weighell's Herb.


MONADELPHIA DECANDRIA.[edit]

282. GERANIUM.[edit]

=====G. phaeum. Dusky Crane's-bill.===== Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 232; Eng. Bot. 322; Hook. Fl. Scot. 200; With. iii. 798.
In Lumley woods near Chester-le-Street, D. — G. T. Fox, Esq. Probably planted there. In woods about Darlington. — Mr. E. Robson; Turner and Dillwyn's Guide, 253. The late Mr. E. R. assured me that this was an error. Naturalized in Mr. Cook's woods at Newton -on-the-Moor, N. — Mr. J. Davison.

2. G. sylvaticum. Wood Crane's-bill.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 234; Eng. Bot. 121; Gr. Fl. Eds. 149; With. iii. 795; Berwick Flora, 151.
In woods and denes, also in subalpine meadows, N. and D.

3. G. pratense. Crow-foot-leaved Crane's-bill.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 235; Eng. Bot. 404; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iv. t. 49; Gr. Fl. Eds. 149; With. iii. 799; Berwick Flora, 151.
In moist meadows and on the banks of rivers, N. and D. By the river Aln, near Alnwick. — Mr. J. Davison. Varieties with white flowers striped with purple and with red. In a hilly pasture on the north side of the rectory-house at Simonburn, N. — Wallis, 170.

4. G. robertianum. Stinking Crane's-bill, Herb Robert.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 235; Eng. Bot. 1486; Curt. Lond. Fasc. i. t. 52; Hook. Fl. Scot. 207; Berwick Flora, 151.
β Hudson, 305; Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 230; G. purpureum, Eng. Bot. 2648; G. Raii, Lindley, Syn. 57; Dill. Ray, Syn. 358.
α In denes, woods, and by hedges, common, β on the sands of the sea beach, not rare.

5. G. lucidum. Shining Crane's-bill.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 230; Eng. Bot. 75; Gr. Fl. Eds. 151; With. iii. 800; Berwick Flora, 151.
On walls and hedge banks from Middleton-in-Teesdale to Darlington, also by the road side between Stanhope and Chapel-in-Weardale, D. At Cocken. — Rev. J. Symonds, At Gainsford, D. — .J Hogg, Esq. At Honey-cleugh near Chesterwoood, at Nent Force, and by hedge sides at the 21 mile-stone near Chollerford, N. At the east end of Walwick by the military road. — Wallis, 171. On a wall near Ratcheugh Crag near Alnwick. — Mr. J. Davison; and Belford Crag, N. — Miss Forster, delin.

6. G. molle. Dove's-foot Crane's-bill.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 237; Eng. Bot. 778; Curt. Lond. Fasc. ii. t. 50; Hook. Fl. Scot. 207; Berwick Flora, 151.
On cultivated and waste ground, and by way sides.

7. G. pusillum. Small-flowered Crane's-bill.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 238; Eng. Bot. 385; Berwick Flora, 152; Gr. Fl. Eds. 152; G. parviflorum, Curt. Lond. Fasc. vi. t. 36; G. malvaefolium, With. iii. 697, var. 1.
In lanes near Darlington, and on Hebburn Quay, D. In the lane near Anick Grange, Hexham, N. — Mr. F. Scott. From this locality I have no specimen.

8. G. pyrenaicum. Mountain Crane's-bill.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 239; Eng. Bot. 405; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iii. t. 42; Hook. Fl. Scot. 206; With. iii. 793.
For many years naturalized on old ballast-hills at Hebburn Quay, D.

9. G. rotundifolium. Round-leaved Crane's-bill.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl.iii. 240; Eng. Bot. 157; Lightfoot, 1106; With, iii. 800.
On hedge banks at the Salt-meadows near Gateshead, D. On Sunderland ballast-hills, D.− Mr. E. Robson. In the lane near Anick Grange, Hexham, N.— Mr. F. Scott.
From this locality I have no specimen.

10. G. dissectum. Jagged-leaved Crane's-bill.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 241; Eng. Bot. 753; Curt. Lond. Fasc. vi. t. 45; Hook. Fl. Scot. 208; Berwick Flora, 152.
On the banks of hedges and in fallow fields, frequent.

11. G. columbinum. Long -stalked Crane's-bill.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 241; Eng. Bot. 259; Gr. Fl. Eds. 151; With. iii. 796.
On Walltown Crags and on Willington ballast-hills, N. On the crags at Gunnerton. — Mr. Wm. Robertson. In the lane near Anick Grange, Hexham, N. — Mr. F. Scott. [No specimen.] On Cleadon Hills, and at Conniscliffe near Darlington, D.

12. G. sanguincum. Bloody Crane's-bill.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 242; Eng. Bot. 272; Hook. Fl. Scot. 206; Lond. t. 155; With. iii. 792; Berwick Flora, 152.
In the lower part of Castle Eden Dene, and on the coast at Easington, Seaton, and Hartlepool, D. On the links near Hartley and Blyth, at Dunstanborough, and on Holy Island; also between Cresswell and Druridge, where it was noticed by Wallis. On the sea banks beyond Hudshead, on the links from Scremmerston southward, and in Ashwood near Belford, N. — Thompson's Berwick Plants.


MONADELPHIA POLYANDRIA.[edit]

283. MALVA.[edit]

1. M. sylvestris. Common Mallow.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 245; Eng. Bot. 671; Curt. Lond. Fasc. ii. t. 51; Wood v. t. 54; Hook. Fl. Scot. 208; Berwick Flora, 152.
About hedges and by road sides, common.

2. M. rotundifolia. Dwarf Mallow.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 240; Eng. Bot. 1092; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iii. t. 43; Hook. Fl. Scot. 208; Berwick Flora, 153.
On waste grounds, near villages, and by footpaths.

3. M. moschata. Musk Mallow.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 247; Eng. Bot. 754; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iv. t. 50; Hook. Fl. Scot. 209; With. iii. 808; Berwick Flora, 153.
n the borders of fields and by road sides, but not very common, N. and D. Near Alnwick and Belford, N. Fisher's Mains on the Tweed. — Dr. G. Johnson.

284. LAVATERA.[edit]

1. L. arborea. Tree Mallow.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 248; Eng. Bot. 1841; Gr. Fl. Eds. 153; With. iii. 808.
On St. Anthon's ballast-hills, N.


DIADELPHIA HEXANDRIA.[edit]

285. FUMARIA.[edit]

=====1. F. lutea. Yellow Fumitory.===== Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 253; Eng. Bot. 588; With. iii. 815; Cordyalis lutea, Hook. Br. El. 316.
Naturalized on old walls at Netherwilton and on rocks at Harnham, N.

2. F. claviculata. White Climbing Fumitory.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 254; Eng. Bot. 103; Hook. Fl. Scot. 211; Berwick Flora, 156; With. iii. 817; Cordyalis claviculata, Gr. Fl. Eds. 153.
In hedges near Beamish, Greencroft, and Durham, and on rocks between Eglestone and Staindrop, D. In Heaton Dene, among bushes on the banks of Ouseburn, and on Newcastle Town Moor; also on the Oakwood banks near Hexham, N. On Roadley and Great Waney-house Crags. — W.C. Trevelyan, Esq. On rocks above Tecket Water-fall, and at Little Waney-house Crags. — Wallis, 166. Among the rocks at Longridge Dene. — Dr. G. Johnston. On Alnwick Moor. — Mr. J. Davison; and Heckley Crags, N. — Miss Forster, delin.

4. F. officinalis. Common Fumitory.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 255; Eng. Bot. 589; Berwick Flora, 156; Curt. Lond. Fasc. ii. t. 52; Hook. Fl. Scot. 210; Woodv. t. 88.
In corn fields, gardens, and hedges, but by no means frequent.

5. F. capreolata. Ramping Fumitory.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 256; Eng. Bot. 943; Curt. Lond. Fasc. vi. t. 47; Hook. Fl. Scot. 210; With. iii. 816 t. 30 (bad).
In hedges, common, N. and D.


DIADELPHIA OCTANDRIA.[edit]

286. POLYGALA.[edit]

1. P. vulgaris. Milkwort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 258; Eng. Bot. 76; Hook. Fl. Scot. 211; Berwick Flora, 157.
In dry heathy pastures and on moors, common.


DIADELPHIA DECANDRIA.[edit]

287. SPARTIUM.[edit]

1. S. scoparium. Common Broom.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 261; Eng. Bot. 1339; Berwick Flora, 157; Curt. Lond. Fasc. v. t. 52; Wood v. t. 89; Genista scoparia, Hook. Fl. Scot. 211; Cytisus scoparius, Br. Fl. 319.
In dry fields, denes, and on the borders of woods, frequent, but by no means common near the sea coast.

288. GENISTA.[edit]

1. G. tinctoria. Dyer's Green-weed, Wood-waxen.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 2G3; Eng. Bot. 44; Gr. Fl. Eds. 154; With. iii. 820; Berwick Flora. 158.
On gravelly banks and in dry pastures, not very common. On the sea coast, near the Spanish Battery, Tynemouth, N.

2. G. anglica. Needle Green-weed, Petty Whin.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 264; Eng. Bot. 132; Gr. Fl. Eds. 155; With. iii. 821.
On heaths and moors, but not very common. On Gateshead Fell, D.; and Newcastle Town Moor, N. Near Harbottle, N.— W. C. Trevelyan, Esq. On Doddington Moor and between Wooler and Belford, N Dr. G. Johnston.

289. ULEX.[edit]

1. U . europaeus. Common Furze, Whin, or Gorse.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 265; Eng. Bot. 742; Hook. Fl. Scot. 212; Berwick Flora, 158.
On dry moors and commons, frequent.

2. U. nanus. Dwarf Furze.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 266; Eng. Bot. 743; With. iii. 822.
On Durham Moor. — Rev. J. Symons.
The Dwarf Furze is common on the Chalk Downs of the south of England, but I never observed it in the north.

290. ONONIS.[edit]

1. O. arvensis. Common Rest-harrow.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 267; Lightfoot, 386; Hook. Fl. Scot. 212.
β O. spinosa, Linn. Sp. Pl. 1006; With. iii. 823; O. antiquorum, of Linnaeus, according to Borrer. — See Eng. Bot. p. 2659; O. arvensis, Eng. Bot. t. 682.
γ O. repens, Linn. Sp. Pl. 1006; O. arvensis, Eng. Bot. 2659; Berwick Flora, 159.
α By the borders of fields. β by the road side near Hebburn, D. γ on the sea coast of Northumberland and Durham, frequent.

291. ANTHYLLIS[edit]

1. A. vulncraria. Kidney-vetch, Ladies'-finger.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 269; Eng. Bot. 104; With. iii. 825; Gr. Fl. Eds. 155; Berwick Flora, 159.
On the Magnesian Limestone, D., not rare. On the coast near Cullercoats and Hartley, also in the vicinity of Belford and Alnwick, N. By the Tweed and on the sea coast near Berwick. — Dr. Thompson.

292. OROBUS.[edit]

1. O. tuberosus. Common Orobus, Heath Pea.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 272; Eng. Bot. 1153; Curt. Lond. Fasc. i. t. 53; Hook. Fl. Scot. 213; Berwick Flora, 159.
β Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 272; Hook. Fl. Scot. 213; O. tenuifolius, Roth. Germ. i. 305; Don. Wern. Trans, iii. 301.
α. In woods and on moors, and mountainous pastures.
β near Kingswood, N. — Mr. J.Thompson, Sp. On the banks of Beldon Bourn above Blanchland, N. — W. C. Trevelyan, Esq.
A remarkably broad-leaved variety, but without flowers, was gathered near Featherstone Castle, N., by W.C. Trevelyan, Esq.

293. LATHYRUS.[edit]

1. L. Aphaca. Yellow Lathyrus, or Vetchling.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 274; Eng. Bot. 1167; Curt. Lond. Fasc. v. t. 51; With. iii. 829.
On Willington ballast-hills, N. On Sunderland ballast-hills, D.— W. Weighell's Herb.

2. L. Nissolia. Crimson Vetchling, Grass Vetch.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 275; Eng. Bot. 112; .Curt. Lond. Fasc. vi. t. 51; With. iii. 829.
In the time of Lawson this plant grew between the Glass Houses and Dent's Hole, Newcastle. — Ray's Syn. 132. =====3. L. hirsutus. Rough-podded Lathyrus.===== Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 275; Eng. Bot. 1255; With. iii. 830.
On Sunderland ballast-hills, D.—W. Weighell's Herb.

4. L. pratensis. Common Yellow Lathyrus, Meadow Vetchling.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 276; Eng. Bot. 670; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iii. t. 44; Hook. Fl. Scot. 213; Berwick Flora, 160.
In hedges, meadows, and pastures, frequent.

294. VICIA.[edit]

1. V. sylvatica. Wood Vetch.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 277; Eng. Bot. 805; Curt. Lond. Fasc. vi. t. 52; Gr. Fl. Eds. 157; With, iii. 833; Berwick Flora, 160.
In woods near Barnardcastle and Whorlton, in Stotley Gill near Eglestone, in Castle Eden Dene, on rocks by the Tyne above Hebburn, and in the wood opposite St. Peter's Quay, D. In Cat Dene above Bill Quay, on the Tyne. — Mr. J. Thornhill, jun. — By Bolts Bourn near Stanhope-in-Weardale, D. — W.C. Trevelyan, Esq. — In Bella Wood by the Wear near Durham. — Wilson's Syn. 203. In woods near Hexham, in Ramshaw and Tecket Woods on North Tyne, and on the banks of Irthing near Wardrew Spaw, N. In Roddam Dene. — W. C. Trevelyan, Esq. In the Rectory Wood by the brook at Simonburn. — Wallis, 105. On the banks of Tweed beyond Ord Mill. — Dr. Thompson. In the hedge of the wood between Hawk's Hill and the waggon-way near Alnwick. — Mr. F. Manisty; also in Callas Wood. — Miss Pringle. In Cauldedge Park, N. — Miss Forster, delin.

2. V. Cracca. Tufted Vetch.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 280; Eng. Bot. 1168; Curt. Lond. Fasc. v. t. 54; Hook. Fl. Scot. 214; Berwick Flora, 160.
In hedges, thickets, and meadows.

3. V. sativa. Common Vetch.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 281; Eng. Bot. 334; Hook. Fl. Scot. 215; Berwick Flora, 160.
β Ray Syn. 321; With. iii. 835, var. 2.
γ V. angustifolia, Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 282; Sibthorp, 224; Eng. Bot. 2614; V. sativa, With. iii. 835, var. 3; V. sativa γ, Fl. Brit. 770.
α On cultivated land. β on barren ground, γ on the sea banks between South Shields and Whitburn D. At Cullercoats, Newbiggin, and on Ratcheugh Crag, near Alnwick, N.

4. V. lathyroides. Spring Vetch.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 283; Eng. Bot. 30; With. iii. 837; Gr. Fl. Eds. 157; Berwick Flora, 161.
At the salt meadows below Gateshead, D. On the Heugh at Holy Island, on Chapel Hill near Belford, and other Basaltic heights between it and Bamborough, N. — Thompson's Berwick Plants.

5. V. sepium. Bush Vetch.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 283; Eng. Bot. 1515; Hook. Fl. Scot. 215; Berwick Flora, 161.
β Ray Syn. 321.
α. In hedges and denes, common. β in hedges between Ryhope and Sunderland, D.

6. V. bithynica. Rough-podded Purple Vetch.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 287; Eng. Bot. 1842; With, iii. 839.
On Sunderland ballast-hills, D.—W. Weighell's Herb.

295. ERVUM.[edit]

1. E. tetraspermum. Smooth Tare.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 288; Eng. Bot. 1223; Curt. Lond. Fasc. i. t. 55; Hook. Fl. Scot. 216.
In hedges and corn fields near Newcastle, N. Near Lambton and Darlington, D. At Norton, Billingham, and Wynyard. — J. Hogg, Esq.

2. E. hirsutum. Hairy Tare.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 289; Eng. Bot. 970; Curt. Lond. Fasc. i. t. 54; Hook. Fl. Scot. 216; Berwick Flora, 161.
In fields and meadows, common.

296. ORNITHOPUS.[edit]

1. O. perpusillus. Common Bird's-foot.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 290; Eng. Bot. 369; Curt. Lond. Fasc. vi. t. 53; Gr. Fl. Eds. 158; With. iii. 840.
On Sunderland ballast-hills and on dry banks near Urpeth, D.

297. HIPPOCREPIS.[edit]

1. H. comosa. Tufted Horse-shoe Vetch.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 291; Eng. Bot. 31; Hook. Fl. Scot. 216; With. iii. 841.
On Cronkley Fell, Teesdale.— Mr. J. Backhouse, Sp.

298. HEDYSARUM.[edit]

=1. H. Onobrychis. Saint-foin.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 292; Eng. Bot. 96; With. iii. 842.
In fields near Ryhope and on Harton-down Hill. On the Magnesian Limestone. In a field at the Salt Meadows near Gateshead, D., probably introduced by ballast.— Mr. John Thornhill, jun.

299. ASTRAGALUS.[edit]

1. A. glycyphyllos. Sweet Milk Vetch, Wild Liquorice.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 294; Eng. Bot. 203; Hook. Fl. Scot. 217; With. iii. 844; Gr. Fl. Eds. 159; Berwick Flora, 161.
On the banks of Wear near Durham, in Pella Wood, at Baydales near Darlington, and on the banks of Tees a little below the Abbey Bridge near Barnardcastle, D. Below Low Conniscliffe, D — S. Robson, Flora, 135. On the banks of Tyne above Ovingham, and at the Hermitage near Hexham, N. At Newburn. — Wilson, Syn. 207. On a hill called Cockle Hill, at Learmouth near Cornhill, upon the ramparts at Wark Castle on the Tweed, by the road to Carham, in hilly pastures at Manylaws under Flodden Hill, and in Warden Banks near Hexham.— Wallis, 106. On the sea banks at Budle, N. — Miss Forster, delin.

2. A. hypoglottis. Purple Mountain Milk Vetch.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. 294; Eng. Bot. 274; Sibth. 227; Gr. Fl. Eds. 159; With. iii. 843; Berwick Flora, 161.
On the sandy banks of the sea coast near Whitburn, South Shields, Seaton Carew, and Blackwell Hall, six miles from Hartlepool, D. Near the mouth of Tees, D.— J. Hogg, Esq. On the summit of Ratcheugh Crag near Alnwick, and on the links at Tynemouth, Dunstanborough, Holy Island, Budle, Bamborough, Beadnel, and north of Newbiggin, N. At Spittal Point and banks to the southward, also on the links below Scremmerston. — Thompson's Berwick Plants.

300. MELILOTUS.[edit]

1. M. officinalis. Common Melilot.[edit]

Hook. Br. Fl. 327; Trifolium officinale, Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 297; Eng. Bot. 1340; Hook. Fl. Scot. 217; With. iii. 846; Berwick Flora, 162.
In corn fields near Hetton, Houghton-le-Spring, Painsher, and Lumley, D. Near Whitley and Seaton, N. On the ballast hills of Tyne and Wear, abundant, N. and D. On the banks of the Wansbeck near Ashington, and near the bathing well at Cornhill, N. — Wallis, 197. On the sea banks near Berwick. — Dr. G. Johnston.

2. M. leucantha. White-flowered Melilot.[edit]

Hook. Br. Fl. 327; Trifolium germanicum, Smith in Rees's Cyclop.— See With. iii. 847; M. officinarum germaniae, flore albo. — Tournef. Inst. 407.
On Willington ballast-hills, N. At the Salt Meadows below Gateshead, D. Most probably introduced from the continent with ballast. Linnaeus might be correct in considering it a white-flowered variety of the common Melilot.

301. TRIFOLIUM.[edit]

1. T.repens. White Trefoil, Dutch Clover.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 299; Eng. Bot. 1769; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iii. t. 46; Hook. Fl. Scot. 218; Berwick Flora, 162.
In meadows, pastures, and on reclaimed ground upon moors, common.
Variety, with elongated flower-stalks, segments of the calyx leafy, and flowers pale red. Near Westoe and Marsden, D. On Holy Island, N.— Dr. G. Johnston.

2. T. subterraneum. Subterraneous Trefoil.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fi. iii. 300; Eng. Bot. 1045; Curt. Lond. Fasc. ii. t. 54; With. iii. 848.
On Sunderland ballast-hills, D. W. Weighell's Herb.

3. T. ochroleucum. Sulphur-coloured Trefoil.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 301; Eng. Bot. 1224; Curt. Lond. Fasc. vi. t. 49; With. iii. 854.
On Sunderland ballast-hills, D W. Weighell's Herb.

4. T. pratense. Common Purple Clover, Honeysuckle Trefoil.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 302; Eng. Bot. 1770; Hook. Fl. Scot. 218; Berwick Flora, 163.
In meadows and pastures, common.

5. T. medium. Zig-zag Trefoil.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 202; Eng. Bot. 190; Hook. Fl. Scot. 218; Berwick Flora, 163.
On dry banks and barren places, frequent.

6. T. maritimum. Teasel-headed Trefoil.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 303; Eng. Bot. 220; Hook. Lond. t. 57; With. iii. 855.
On Willington ballast-hills, N. On Sunderland ballast-hills, D.—W. Weighell's Herb.

7. T. arvense. Hare's-foot Trefoil.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 305; Eng. Bot. 944; Curt. Lond. Fasc. vi. t. 50; Hook. Fl. Scot. 218; With. iii. 851; Berwick Flora, 164.
On the banks at Friar's Goose near Gateshead, on Fulwell and Tunstall hills near Sunderland, and near Seaton, D. On the bank of Till near Wooler, and near Barwesford, N. Near Bamborough and in the bed of Wooler Water, also on the Heugh at Holy Island, and Chapel Hill near Belford.— Thompson's Berwick Plants. At Ingram, N. — W. C. Trevelyan, Esq.

8. T. scabrum. Rough Trefoil.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 306; Eng. Bot. 903; Curt. Lond. Fasc. vi. t. 48; Gr. Fl. Eds. 161; With, iii. 849; Berwick Flora, 164.
In Bishopwearmouth Paddock near Sunderland, D. On rocks at Holy Island, N.

9. T. glomeratum. Round-headed Trefoil.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 307; Eng. Bot. 1063; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iv. t. 51; With. iii. 849.
On the ballast-hills of Wear, D. — W. Weighell's Herb.

10. T. striatum. Soft-knotted Trefoil.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 307; Eng. Bot. 1843; With. iii. 850; Gr. Fl. Eds. 161; Berwick Flora, 164.
On banks at Friar's Goose, on hills near Whitburn, Cleadon, and Sunderland, and at Baydales near Darlington, D. On rocks at Holy Island, Dunstanborough and Bamborough, N. On Basaltic heights from Kyloe to Bamborough, N. — Dr. G. Johnston.

11. T.fragiferum. Strawberry- headed Trefoil.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 308; Eng. Bot. 1050; Curt. Lond. Fasc. ii. t. 55; Gr. Fl. Eds. 1161; With. iii. 856.
On the banks of Halypike Loch, and on the shores of Tyne below Elswick, N. In marshes by the lower part of Tees, and near Seaton and Hartlepool, D.

12. T. procumbens. Hop Trefoil.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 309; Eng. Bot. 945; Gr. Fl. Eds. 162; Berwick Flora, 164; T. agrarium, Curt. Lond. Fasc. iii. t. 45; Hudson, 328.
In dry fields and pastures, common.

13. T. minus. Lesser Yellow Trefoil.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 310; Eng. Bot. 1256; Berwick Flora, 164; Hook. Fl. Scot. 220; T. filiforme, β Sm. Fl. Brit. 793.
β Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 310; Eng. Bot. 1257; Hook. Fl. Scot. 220.
α In dry fields and pastures, frequent. β on the Magnesian Limestone at Fulwell, Whitburn, Cleadon, and Castle Eden, D.

302. LOTUS.[edit]

1. L. corniculatus. Common Bird's-foot Trefoil.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 312; Eng. Bot. 2090; Hook. Fl. Scot. 220; Curt. Lond. Fasc. ii. 56;' Berwick Flora, 164.
β L. major, Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 313; Eng. Bot. 2091; Gr. Fl. Eds. 163; Berwick Flora, 165; L. corniculatus γ, Fl. Brit. 794; Hook. Fl. Scot. 220.
α On dry banks, but most abundant on the sea coast. β in woods and hedges not uncommon.

303. MEDICAGO.[edit]

1. M. sativa. Lucerne, Purple Medick.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 317; Eng. Bot. 1749; Hook. Fl. Scot. 220; With. iii. 861; Berwick Flora, 165.
Near Silksworth, D. At Croft, D Rev. J. Symons. On the ballast hills of Tyne and Wear, N. and D. In the field above the quarry at Sunnyside, about a mile south of Berwick. — Dr. Thompson. Near Gun's Green Hill. — Rev. A. Baird.
That the Lucerne has been introduced from the Continent there can be no doubt.

2. M. falcata. Yellow Sickle Medick.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 317; Eng. Bot. 1016; With. iii. 862.
On Wellington ballast-hills, N. On the Salt Meadows near Gateshead Ropery, and Sunderland ballast-hills, D.

3. M. lupulina. Black Medick, or Nonesuch.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 318; Eng. Bot. 971; Curt. Lond. Fasc. ii. t. 57 ; Hook. Fl. Scot. 220 ; Berwick Flora, 1 65.
In meadows and pastures, frequent.

4. M. maculata. Spotted Medick.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 319 ; Sibth. 232; Medicago polymorpha, Eng. Bot. 1616; Curt. Lond. Fast iii. t. 47 ; With. iii. 864.
On the quay above South Shields, D. On the ballast-hills of Tyne and Wear, N. and D. Under the Banqueting House at Alnwick, N.—Miss Forster, delin.


POLYADELPHIA POLYANDRIA.[edit]

304. HYPERICUM.[edit]

1. H. Androsoemum. Tutsan, Park Leaves.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 323; Eng. Bot. 1225; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iii. t. 48; Hook. Fl. Scot. 221; With. iii. 865.
Near Birch Carr, three miles east of Darlington. — Mr. Backhouse. By a plantation at Twinkham Lea near Seaton, D.—J. Hogg, Esq.

2. H. quadrangulum. Square St. John's-wort, St. Peters- wort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 324 ; Eng. Bot. 370 ; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iv. t. 52; Hook. Fl. Scot. 221; With. iii. 867 ; Berwick Flora, 167.
By rivers, and in woods and denes, not very common. In Hulne Woods near Alnwick, N.—Mr. J. Davison.

3. H. perforatum. Perforated St. John's-wort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 325 ; Eng. Bot. 295 ; Curt. Lond. Fasc. i. t. 57 ; Woodv. t. 10 ; Hook. Fl. Scot. 221 ; Berwick Flora, 167.
In woods and hedges, frequent.

4. H. dubium. Imperforate St. John's-wort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 326 ; Eng. Bot. 296 ; With. iii. 868 ; Hook. Fl. Scot. 221.
Near Oakwood and Ovingham, N. Near Middleton-in-Teesdale and Eglestone, also in Gibside Woods and by the Derwent near Swalwell Bridge, D. Between Newburn and Wylam, and in the Ollers between Ovingham and Ovington, N. At Hollinside, D.— Mr. R. B. Bowman.

5. H. humifusum. Trailing St. John's-wort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 326; Eng. Bot. 1226; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iii. t. 50 ; Gr. Fl. Eds. 163 ; With. iii. 868; Berwick Flora, 167.
In sandy or gravelly places, but not common. Near Neville's Cross, D. In Heaton Dene, N.

6. H. montanum. Mountain St. John's-wort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 327 ; Eng. Bot. 371 ; Hook. Fl. Scot. 222 ; With. iii. 869.
On the Magnesian Limestone in Hawthorn, Ryhope, Dalton and Castle Eden Denes, and near Harrington, D.

7. H. hirsutum. Hairy St. John's-wort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 328; Eng. Bot. 1156; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iii. t. 49 ; Gr. Fl. Eds. 164 ; With. iii. 870; Berwick Flora, 168.
In woods and hedges, frequent.

8. H. pulchrum. Small Upright St. John's-wort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 329 ; Eng. Bot. 1227 ; Curt. Lond. Fasc. i. t. 56 ; With. iii. 871 ; Gr. Fl. Eds. 164; Berwick Flora, 168.
In woods, denes, and bushy places, by no means rare.


SYNGENESIA POLYGAMIA AEQUALIS.[edit]

305. TRAGOPOGON.[edit]

1. T. pratensis. Yellow Goat's-beard.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 337 ; Eng. Bot. 434 ; Hook. Fl. Scot. 226 ; Berwick Flora, 172.
In meadows and pastures, not uncommon.

2. T. major.[edit]

Willd. Sp. Pl. iii. 1493; Jacq. Aust. i. t. 29.
Sparingly scattered over the whole of North Durham, N.— Dr. G. Johnston, MSS.
One of the most interesting additions made of late years to the English Flora.

306. PICRIS.[edit]

1. P. echioides. Bristly Ox-tongue.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 339 ; Eng. Bot. 972 ; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iii. t. 51 ; With. iii. 877 ; Berwick Flora, 173 ; Helminthia echioides, Hook. Br. Fl. 338.
On St. Anthon's ballast-hills, N. On the sea coast between Whitburn and Sunderland, and between Stockton and Norton, where it was observed by Lawson. — See Wilson's Syn. 37 ; also near Seaton, D. By the Sunderland road near East Boldon. — Mr. J. Thornhill, jun. In lanes south of Billingham. — J. Hogg, Esq. On Cleadon Hills, near Suter Point, D. — Rev. J. Symons. By the Pier road near the Limekiln, Berwick. — Dr. Thompson.
Not found in Scotland.

2. P. hieracioides. Hawkweed Ox-tongue.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 339 ; Eng. Bot. 196 ; Hook. Fl. Scot. 226 ; With. iii. 878.
On the ballast-hills of Tyne and Wear, N. and D. At the lower end of Hawthorn Dene, D. At Baydales near Darlington. — Mr. Backhouse. Near Norton, D J. Hogg, Esq.

307. SONCHUS.[edit]

1. S. arvensis. Corn Sow-thistle.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 342; Eng. Bot. 674; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iv. t. 53 ; Hook. Fl. Scot. 226 ; Berwick Flora, 173.
In corn fields and on hedge banks, frequent.

3. S. oleraceus. Common Sow-thistle.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 343; Eng. Bot. 843; Curt. Lond. Fasc. ii. t. 58 ; Hook. Fl. Scot. 227 ; Berwick Flora, 173.
α, β, γ, δ Every where, on cultivated and waste ground.

308. LACTUCA.[edit]

=====1. L. virosa. Strong-scented Lettuce.===== Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 345; Eng. Bot. 1957; Woodv. Supp. t. 250; With. iii. 883; Gr. Fl. Eds. 166; Berwick Flora, 173.
On the bank between the Castle at Barnardcastle and the River Tees, near Harton, Cocken, and Darlington, and by hedge sides near Low Team, D. In a hedge near Cleadon.— Mr. J. Thornhill, jun. Near Norton, Stockton, and Billingham, D.—J. Hogg, Esq. On the banks of Tweed above Coldstream Bridge, also near Cullercoats, N. From the Union Bridge to Norham Castle, also near Twizell Toll-bar Dr. G. Johnston.

309. PRENANTHES.[edit]

1. P. muralis. Ivy-leaved Wall-lettuce.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 348; Eng. Bot. 457; Curt. Lond. Fasc. v. t. 58; Hook. Fl. Scot. 227; With. iii. 884.
On rocks in damp woods, and on old walls, but not very frequent.

310. LEONTODON.[edit]

1. L. Taraxacum. Common Dandelion.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 349; Eng. Bot. 510; Curt. Lond. Fasc. i. t. 58; Woodv. t. 3; Hook. Fl. Scot. 227; Berwick Flora, 174.
β L. palustre, Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 350; Eng. Bot. 553; Hook. Fl. Scot. 227; With. iii. 886, var. 3; Berwick Flora, 174.
α. On cultivated ground, and in meadows and pastures, everywhere. β At Prestwick Carr, N. Near Middleton-in-Teesdale, D. On Seaton Moor in marshy places, D. — Mr. J. Backhouse.

311. APARGIA.[edit]

1. A. hispida. Rough Hawkbit.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 351; Hook. Fl. Scot. 227; Berwick Flora, 175; Hedypnois hispida, Eng. Bot. 554; Fl. Brit. 823; Leontodon hispidum, Curt. Lond. Fasc. v. t. 56; With. iii. 888.
In pastures, common.

2. A. autumnalis. Autumnal Hawkbit.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 353; Hook. Fl. Scot. 228; Berwick Flora, 175; Hedypnois autumnalis, Eng. Bot. 830; Leontodon autumnale. With. iii. 887.
In meadows and pastures, common.

3. A. hirta. Deficient Hawkbit.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii, 352; Hook. Fl. Scot. 228; Hedypnois hiria, Fl. Brit. 824; Eng. Bot. 554; Leontodon hirtum, Curt. Lond. Fasc. vi. t. 59; With. iii. 889; Thrincia hirta. Hook. Br. Fl. 341.
On dry pastures and on heaths, but not very common; on the Sea banks between Tynemouth and Cullercoats, N.

312. HIERACIUM.[edit]

1. H. Pilosella. Mouse-ear Hawkweed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 356; Eng. Bot. 1093; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iv. t. 54; Hook. Fl. Scot. 229; With. iii. 890; Berwick Flora, 175.
On dry banks and in open pastures, not rare.

2. H. murorum. Wall Hawkweed, Golden Lungwort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 359; Eng. Bot. 2082; Gr. Fl. Eds. 168; With. iii. 896; Berwick Flora, 175.
β H. maculatum, Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 360; Eng. Bot. 2121.
α On Limestone rocks and in woods at Hilton, Ryehope, Hawthorn, and Castle Eden Denes, also on the banks of Tyne at Hebburn Quay, D. On the banks of Tweed beyond Yarrow Haugh Thompson's Berwick Plants; also from Ord Mill to above the Union Bridge, and on rocks above Kiloe. — Dr. G. Johnston. At Swansfield, N. — Mr. J. Davison.
β Near Cauldron Snout, Teesdale, D. —W.C. Trevelyan, Esq.

3. H. sylvaticum. Wood Hawkweed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 361; Eng. Bot. 2031; Berwick Flora, 175; Gr. Fl. Eds. 169; With. iii. 898; Hieracium ——, Northumberland and Durham Guide, vol. i. No. 686, and ii. preface vi.
On old coal-pit heaps and barren ground near Gateshead and Newcastle, N. and D. On the Towns' Walls and Garden Walls near the Fever Hospital, and on St. Anthon's ballast-hills, N. Near Tweedmouth, between the Foundry and Spittal, and by the Till at Wooler Bridge, N.— Dr. G. Johnston.

4. H. paludosum. Succory-leaved Mountain Hawkweed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 363; Eng. Bot. 1094; Gr. Fl. Eds. 169; With. iii. 895; Berwick Flora, 175.
In moist woods and boggy places, not rare, N. and D. At West Ord near Berwick. — Dr. G. Johnston.

5. H. sabaudum. Shrubby broad-leaved Hawkweed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 367; Eng. Bot. 349; Hook. Fl. Scot. 233; Berwick Flora, 176.
In denes, woods, and thickets, frequent.

6. H. umbellatum. Narrow-leaved Hawkweed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 369; Eng. Bot. 1771; Curt. Lond. Fasc. vi. t. 58; Hook. Fl. Scot. 233; With. iii. 899; Berwick Flora, 176.
Near South Shields Law, and on the banks forming the coast at Rocoe-gill near Monkwearmouth, D. In Schull Wood, D Mr. J. Backhouse. Near Henshaw and Bavington, N — Miss Emma Trevelyan.

313. CREPIS.[edit]

1. C.foetida. Stinking Hawk's-beard.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 370; Eng. Bot. 406; With. iii. 900; Borkhansia foetida, Hook. Br. Fl. 347.
On St. Anthon's and Willington ballast-hills, N. On the Sunderland ballast-hills, D.

2. C. tectorum. Smooth Hawk's-beard, Smooth Succory Hawkweed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 372; Eng. Bot. 1111; Curt. Lond. Fasc. v. t. 55; Hook. Fl. Scot. 233; Berwick Flora, 176.
In dry meadows, pastures, and on walls, frequent.

3. C. biennis. Rough Hawk's-beard.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 373; Eng. Bot. 149; With. iii. 902.
In fields near Team, South Shields Law, and Whitburn, D. On the coast south of Sunderland, D — Mr. R. Waugh. Near Elswick, and between Newcastle and Jesmond, also at Newbiggin on the coast, N. On the ballast-hills of Tyne and Wear, N. and D.
These appear its most northern localities.

314. HYPOCHAERIS.[edit]

=====1. H. glabra. Smooth Cat's-ear.===== Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 375; Eng. Bot.575; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iii. t. 53; Hook. Fl. Scot. 234; With, iii 904.
On Sunderland ballast-hills, D.

2. H. radicata. Long Rooted Cat's-ear.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 376; Eng. Bot. 831; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iii. t. 52; With. iii. 905; Hook. Fl. Scot. 234; Berwick Flora, 176.
On cultivated and waste ground, common.

315. LAPSANA.[edit]

1. L. communis. Nipple-wort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 377; Eng. Bot. 844; Curt. Lond. Fasc. i. t. 59; Hook. Fl. Scot. 234; Berwick Flora, 176.
Under hedges and on waste ground, common.

316. CICHORIUM.[edit]

1. C. Intybus. Wild Succory.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 379; Eng. Bot. 539; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iv. t. 56; Woodv. Supp. 248; Gr. Fl. Eds. 171; With. iii. 906; Berwick Flora, 177.
By no means common in the north. On the ballast-hills of Tyne and Wear, in fields near Sunderland, Milkhouse Bourn, and near Murton House, D. Near Wynyard and Norton, D. — J. Hogg, Esq. Near Snipperley, D.—Rev. J. Symons. By the Tweed opposite Spring Gardens. — Thompson's Berwick Plants. In Linden Dene. — C. W. Bigge, Esq., Sp. On Alnwick Moor. — Miss Forster, delin. On the borders of corn fields about Willington and Howdon Pans, N. The Blue flowered Mountain Sonchus or Sow-thistle. — Wallis, 186.

317. ARCTIUM.[edit]

1. A. Lappa. Burdock, Clot-bur.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 380; Eng. Bot. 1228; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iv. t. 55; Woodv. t. 15; Hook. Fl. Scot. 235; Berwick Flora, 177.
β A. Bardana, Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 381; Willd. Sp. Pl. iii. 1632; Berwick Flora, 177; Eng. Bot. 2478; A. Lappa β, Hook. Fl. Scot. 235.
α and β By way sides and on waste ground, not rare. The variety β differs from α by a cobweb-like down on its calyx.

318. SERRATULA.[edit]

1. S. tinctoria. Common Saw-wort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 382; Eng. Bot. 38; With. iii. 909; Hook. Fl. Scot. 235.
On Cleadon Hills, on the sea coast near Whitburn, on hedge banks near Hilton Ferry, at Hamsterley, and near Winch Bridge, Teesdale, D. Near Norton. — J. Hogg, Esq. In fields near Walker, N. At West Dipton near Hexham, N. — Wallis, 190.

319. CARDUUS.[edit]

1. C. nutans. Musk Thistle.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 384; Eng. Bot. 1112; Gr. Fl. Eds. 171; With. iii. 913; Wilson, Svn. 54; Berwick Flora, 178; Hook. Eng. Fl. 349.
On waste ground and in fallow fields, not rare.

2. C. acanthoides. Curled, or Welted Thistle.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 385; Eng. Bot. 973; Gr. Fl. Eds. 172; With. iii. 911; Berwick Flora, 178.
By road sides, commonly west of Newcastle, N. and D.

3. C. tenuiflorus. Slender-flowered Thistle.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 385; Eng. Bot. 412; Curt. Lond. Fasc. vi.t. 55; Gr. Fl. Eds. 172; With. iii. 912; Berwick Flora, 178.
On the borders of fields and by road sides, not rare; but most abundant near the sea coast, N. and D.

4. C. marianus. Milk Thistle.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 386; Eng. Bot. 976; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iii. t. 54; Gr. Fl. Eds. 172; With. iii. 915; Berwick Flora, 178.
On Holy Island opposite the rock called St. Cuthbert's Island, by Willington Bourn near Howdon Pans, in Tynemouth Castle Yard, where it was noticed by Wallis, and near Close House, N. At Hartlepool, and on the banks of Wear at Durham. At Haughton. — Mr. Backhouse. Near Norton, D. — J. Hogg, Esq. On Bank Hill and other parts of the Ramparts, and on Castle Banks, Berwick. — Dr. G. Johnston.

320. CNICUS.[edit]

1. C. lanceolatus. Spear Plume-thistle.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 387; Hook. Fl. Scot. 236; Berwick Flora, 179; Carduus lanceolatus, Eng. Bot. 107; With. iii. 912.
On waste ground, common.

2. C. palustris. Marsh Plume-thistle.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 388; Hook. Fl. Scot. 236; Berwick Flora, 179; Carduus palustris, Eng. Bot. 974; Curt. Lond. Fasc. vi. t. 56; With. iii. 910.
In moist meadows and marshy places, frequent.

3. C. arvensis. Creeping Plume-thistle.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 389; Hook. Fl. Scot. 237; Berwick Flora, 179; Carduus arvensis, Eng. Bot. 975; Curt. Lond. Fasc. vi. t. 57; With. iii. 914.
On cultivated land and by road sides, common; var. flore albo, at Holy Island, N.

4. C. eriophorus. Woolly-headed Plume-thistle.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 390 • Gr. Fl. Eds. 173; Carduus eriophorus, Eng. Bot. 386; With. iii. 915.
In the lane near the Quarry at Fulwell, D. Between Pittington Hall-garth and Elemore, D. — Mr. J. Backhouse. Under the hill by the Church at Wallsend, N. — Wallis, 187.

5. C. heterophyllus. Melancholy Plume-thistle.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 392; Gr. Fl. Eds. 173; Berwick Flora, 179; Carduus heterophyllus, Eng. Bot. 675; With. iii. 917.
By the road side near Haltwhistle, in ditches north of Cambo, on the banks of Tyne at the King's Meadows, also near Allendale Town, at Shewing Shields, on the banks of Reed, and at the foot of Cheviot, N. Near Roadley and Long Witton. — W.C. Trevelyan, Esq. Common in moist alpine woods, N. — Wallis, 186. On Teesdale Forest, in Gibside Woods, Castle Eden Dene, and near Saltwellside, and on the banks of Tyne opposite Scotswood, D.

6. C. pratensis. Meadow Plume-thistle.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 393; Hook. Fl. Scot. 237; Carduus pratensis, Eng. Bot. 177; With. iii. 916.
In Twizell House Wood. —Rev. J. Dodd, Turner and Dillwyn's Guide. There is a specimen in Weighell's Herbarium, marked the county Durham. — Mrs. S. Brand.
Wallis, at p. 186, mentions Cnicus acaulis, as "not unfrequent in mountainous pastures and on dry banks," but never having met with this plant in the north of England, and our sub-alpine pastures being an unlikely situation for this native of the chalky downs of the south; I conclude the author of the History of Northumberland, must have mistaken the species.

321. ONOPORDUM.[edit]

1. O. Acanthium. Cotton-thistle.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 395; Eng. Bot. 977; Curt. Lond. Fasc. v. t. 57; Hook. Fl. Scot. 238; With. iii. 919; Berwick Flora, 179.
On waste ground and hedge banks, but not very common, except near the sea coast. Near the Scotch Gate, Berwick. — Dr. Thompson.

322. CARLINA.[edit]

1. C. vulgaris. Common Carline.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 397; Eng. Bot. 1144; Hook. Fl. Scot. 238; With. iii. 920; Berwick Flora, 180.
On dry heathy pastures, not rare; also on the sea coast.

323. BIDENS.[edit]

1. B. tripartita. Trifid Bur-marygold.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 398; Eng. Bot. 1113; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iv. t. 57; With. iii. 921; Hook. Fl. Scot. 238.
In ditches at Lamesley, near Chester-le-street, and Durham, D. At Prestwick Carr, N. In a ditch near Corbridge, N. — Mr. F. Scott.

2. B. cernua. Nodding Bur-marvgold.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 399; Eng. Bot. 1114; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iii. t. 55; With. iii. 921; Gr. Fl. Eds. 174.
In ditches near Chester-le-Street, D. At Prestwick Carr, N. Near Crow Hall Mill opposite Ridley Hall, N. — Mr. J. Thompson.

324. EUPATORIUM.[edit]

1. E. cannabinum. Hemp-agrimony.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 400; Eng. Bot. 428; Hook. Fl. Scot. 238; Berwick Flora, 180.
On the banks of rivers and in watery places.


SYNGENESIA POLYGAMIA SUPERFLUA.[edit]

325. TANACETUM.[edit]

1. T. vulgare. Common Tansey.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 405; Eng. Bot. 1229; Woodv. t. 115; Berwick Flora, 180; Hook. Fl. Scot. 239; β Dill. Ray's Syn. 188; With. iii. 925, var. 2.
α On the borders of fields and banks of rivers, N. and D. By the Tweed and Till, N.—Thompson's Berwick Plants. β in a lane near Wolsington Hall, N. By the Tees near Conniscliffe, D.—Mr. E. Robson.

326. ARTEMISIA.[edit]

1. A. maritima. Sea Wormwood.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 407; Woodv. t. 122; Eng. Bot. 1700; Gr. Fl. Eds. 175; With. iii. 926; Berwick Flora, 181.
β Hook. Br. Fl. 355; A. gallica, Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 408; Eng. Bot. 1001 and 1706, at the bottom; Gr. Fl. Eds. 174; Berwick Flora, 181.
α On the shores of Wear near Hilton Castle, also at Hartlepool and Seaton, D. Near the Tees' mouth, D. — J. Hogg, Esq. On the shores of Tyne at Coble Dene, and at the mouth of Wallsend Bourn, N. On the coast beyond Goswick, and on Emblestones. Thompson's Berwick Plants. On a rock near Howick, called Rumble-churn. — Wallis, 169. S by Coble Dene and Wallsend Bourn, and on a rock called St. Cuthbert's Island, Holy Island, N., where it was observed by Turner. — See Wallis, 169.
The variety β, Upright-flowered Sea Wormwood, may be distinguished from α by its flowers being erect, those of α droop. This cannot be a specific difference I should presume.

2. A. Absinthium. Common Wormwood.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 408; Eng. Bot. 1230; Woodv. t. 120; Hook. Fl. Scot. 239; Berwick Flora, 181.
About villages and on waste ground, particularly abundant near the sea coast.

3. A. vulgaris. Mugwort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 409; Eng. Bot. 978; Woodv. t. 121; Hook. Fl. Scot. 240; Berwick Flora, 182.
On waste ground and about hedges, common.

327. GNAPHALIUM.[edit]

1. G. dioicum. Mountain Cudweed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 413; Eng. Bot. 267; Lightfoot, 470, t. 20, f. 1; With. iii. 930; Wilson's Syn. 46; Berwick Flora, 182.
On dry heathy pastures and moors, N. and D.

2. G. rectum. Upright Cudweed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 415; Eng. Bot. 124; Berwick Flora, 182; With. iii. 931; G. sylvaticum β, Hook. Fl. Scot. 340; Hudson, 360.
In woods and sandy pastures, but not very common N. and D. In the Quarry on Sunnyside Moor, at Ord Hill, and road side above Fenham, N. — Dr. G. Johnston.

3. G. uliginosum. Marsh Cudweed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 416; Eng. Bot. 1194; Hook. Fl. Scot. 241; Berwick Flora, 182.
In sandy places where water has stagnated, frequent.

4. G. minimum. Least Cudweed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 417; Eng. Bot. 1157; Hook. Fl. Scot. 241; Berwick Flora, 182.
In barren sandy places, not rare.

5. G. germanicum. Common Cudweed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 418; Eng. Bot. 946; Hook. Lond. t. 43; Fl. Scot. 241; Berwick Flora, 182.
In barren fields and on waste ground, frequent.

328. CONYZA.[edit]

1. C. squarrosa. Plowman's Spikenard.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 420; Eng. Bot. 1195; Fl. Scot. 241; With. iii. 935.
On Willington ballast-hills, N.

329. ERIGERON.[edit]

=====1. E. canadense. Canada Flea-bane.===== Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 421; Eng. Bot. 2019; With. iii. 936.
On Sunderland ballast-hills, D.— W. Weighell's Herb.

2. E. acre. Blue Flea-bane.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 422; Eng. Bot. 1158; Curt. Lond. Fasc. i. t. 60; Hook. Fl. Scot. 242; With. iii. 937; Berwick Flora, 183.
In Castle Eden Dene, also at Fawdon-slate and Byers's Quarry near Whitburn, on the sand-hills at Hartlepool, and on Hebburn and Sunderland ballast-hills, D. At Hesledon Dene, and pastures at Owton, near Greatham, D. — J. Hogg, Esq. On Holy Island links north of the Castle, and on St. Anthon's and Willington ballast-hills, N.

330. TUSSILAGO.[edit]

1. T. Farfara. Colt's-foot.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 425; Eng. Bot. 429; Woodv, t. 13; Curt. Lond. Fasc. ii. t. 60; Hook. Fl. Scot. 242; Berwick Flora, 183.
In moist woods and fields, very common.

2. T. Petasites. Common Butter-bur.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 425; Eng. Bot. 431; Berwick Flora, 183; Curt. Lond. Fasc. ii. t. 59; β T. hybrida, Eng. Bot. 430; With. iii. 940; T. Petasites foem., Hook. Lond. t. 129; Gr. Fl. Eds. 177.
α In moist woods and on the sandy banks of rivers; β on the banks of Tyne at the foot of Scotswood Dene, in Walbottle Dene, and near Haltwhistle, N. On the banks of the Derwent at Derwenthaugh, D. Near Darlington, D.— Mr. E. Robson.

331. SENECIO.[edit]

1. S. vulgaris. Common Groundsel, Simson.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 428; Eng. Bot. 747; Curt. Lond. Fasc. i. t. 61; Hook. Fl. Scot. 243.
On cultivated ground, everywhere.

2. S. viscosus. Stinking Groundsel.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 429; Eng. Bot. 32; Gr. Fl. Eds. 178; With. iii. 941; Berwick Flora, 184.
By road sides and on the ballast-hills. Near Seaton and Hartlepool, D. Near Benwell, Alemouth, and in Heaton Dene, N. About the Riding Stable at Easington near Belford, N. — Dr. G. Johnston.

3. S. sylvaticus. Mountain Groundsel.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 430; Eng. Bot. 748; Berwick Flora, 184; Hook. Fl. Scot. 244; With. iii. 942.
β S. lividus, Linn. Sp. Pl. 1216; Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 429; Eng. Bot. 2515; Hook. Fl. Scot. 243; Lindley's Syn. 146; With. iii. 943.
On hedge banks in Jesmond fields, and similar situations about Newcastle, not rare, N. and D. In Teesdale near Middleton, and in Raby Park, D. In the lane between Sadbergh and Norton, D. — J. Hogg, Esq. Near Berwick — Dr. G. Johnston. On Alnwick Moor, N. — Mr. J. Davison.
Variety β is the same plant in a more luxuriant state, from growing on fresh turned-up ground.

4. S. tenuifolius. Hoary Ragwort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 432; Eng. Bot. 574; Berwick Flora, 184; With. iii. 944; S. erucifolius, Hudson, 366; Curt. Lond. Fasc. v. t. 64.
By hedges in the Magnesian Limestone district, frequent. At Baydales near Darlington, D. — Mr. E. Robson. On the banks of Tweed near Ord Mill, N. —Dr. Thompson.

5. S. Jacobaea. Common Ragwort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 433; Eng. Bot. 1130; Hook. Fl. Scot. 244; Berwick Flora, 184.
In pastures and on waste ground, common. A peculiar variety, with remarkably long petals, was gathered in 1828, about three quarters of a mile above Swalwell New Bridge, D., by Mr. John Thornhill, jun., Curator of the Newcastle Museum.

6. S. aquaticus. Marsh Ragwort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 434; Eng. Bot. 1131; Gr. Fl. Eds. 179; With. iii. 946; Berwick Flora, 185.
In marshy places, frequent.

7. S. saracenicus. Broad-leaved Ragwort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 435; Eng. Bot. t. 2211; Hook. Fl. Scot. 244; With. iii. 947.
By the bourn side near Hallington, between five and six miles south-west of Capheaton, N. — Mr. J. Thompson, Sp.
Probably the out-cast of some garden.

332. ASTER.[edit]

1. A. Tripolium. Sea Starwort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 436; Eng. Bot. 87; Gr. Fl. Eds. 179; With. iii. 948; Berwick Flora, 185.
On the sea coast and in salt marshes on Tweed, Aln, Blyth, Tyne, Wear, and Tees, N. and D.

333. SOLIDAGO.[edit]

1. S. Virgaurea. Common Golden-rod.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 438; Eng. Bot. 301; Berwick Flora, 185; Hook. Fl. Scot. 244; γ S. cambrica, Hudson, 307; With. iii. 950.
α In woods and on dry banks of denes, N. and D. Near Berwick. — Dr. G. Johnston, γ on Basaltic rocks at Winch Bridge, and Cauldron Snout in Teesdale, D.

334. INULA.[edit]

1. I. Helenium. Elecampane.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 440; Eng. Bot. 1546; Woodv. t. 108; Hook. Fl. Scot. 245; With. iii. 953.
In Castle Eden Dene, on the north side, about a mile from the sea, D. — Mr. Janson, Sp. In many places by the River Tees, D. — Robson's Flora, 160.

2. I. dysenterica. Common Flea-bane.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 440; Eng. Bot. 1115; Berwick Flora, 185; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iii. 56; Hook. Fl. Scot. 245; With. iii. 954; Pulicaria dysenterica, Hook. Br. Fl. 363.
In ditches and damp places by road sides, not rare, N. and D. Near Berwick. — Dr. G. Johnston.

335. DORONICUM.[edit]

1. D. Pardalianches. Great Leopard's-bane.[edit]

Linn. Sp. Pl. 1247; Eng. Bot. 2654; Hook. Fl. Scot. 245; Br. Fl. 364; Fl. Lond. t. 88; Lightfoot, 485.
Naturalized on the banks of Wear at Durham, below Mr. Fox's garden. Gathered on the cold mountains of Northumberland by Dr. Penny. — Gerard. A very unlikely habitat. I have a specimen of the Doronicum, figured in Eng. Bot. at 630, gathered by Mr. Maughan in woods near Culross, Perthshire. ====336. BELLIS.====

1. B. perennis. Common Daisy.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 447; Eng. Bot. 424; Curt. Lond. Fasc. i. t. 62; Hook. Fl. Scot. 246.
In meadows and pastures, everywhere.

337. CHRYSANTHEMUM.[edit]

1. C. Leucanthemum. Great White Ox-eye, Moon Daisy.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 449; Eng. Bot. 601; Curt. Lond. Fasc. v. t. 62; Hook. Fl. Scot. 246; Berwick Flora, 187.
In fields and pastures, very common.

2. C. segetum. Yellow Ox-eye, Corn Marygold.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 449; Eng. Bot. 540; Curt. Lond. Fasc. vi. t. 60; Gr. Fl. Eds. 180; With. iii. 959; Berwick Flora, 187.
Rare in the north of England. Near Rennoldson's Mill in Heaton Dene, and in corn-fields near Haltwhistle, N. On the ballast-hills of Tyne and Wear, N. and D. In corn fields near Norton, D. — John Hogg, Esq.

338. PYRETHRUM.[edit]

1. P. Parthenium. Common Feverfew.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 451; Eng. Bot. 1231; Hook. Fl. Scot. 246; Berwick Flora, 188; Matricaria Parthenium, With. iii. 960; Woodv. t. 249.
On hedge banks and in waste places, but generally near houses, N. and D. About Berwick. — Dr. G. Johnston.

2. P. inodorum. Corn Feverfew, Scentless Mayweed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 452; Eng. Bot. 676; Berwick Flora, 188; Hook. Fl. Scot. 246; Lond. t. 101; Chrysanthemum inodorum, With. iii. 958.
In corn fields and by way sides, everywhere; variety, flore pleno in fields near Castle Eden, D.

3. P. maritimum. Sea Feverfew.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 452; Eng. Bot. 979; Gr. Fl. Eds. 181; Berwick Flora, 188; Matricaria maritima, With. iii. 960.
On rocks below Hawthorn Dene, at Byers's Quarry, Whitburn, and on the sea coast near Sunderland, D. Near Tynemouth Castle, and on Dunstanborough and Bamborough Castle rocks, also at Holy Island, N.

339. MATRICARIA.[edit]

1. M. Chamomilla. Common Wild Chamomile.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 454; Eng. Bot. 1232; Curt. Lond. Fasc. v. t. 63; Hook. Fl. Scot. 246; With. iii. 961.
On rubbish near Gateshead, Monkton,and Newcastle, and on the ballast-hills of Tyne and Wear, N. and D. By hedges about Ponteland, N. Near Twizell House Mill, N. — Rev. J. Dodd, Turner and Dillwyn's Guide.

340. ANTHEMIS.[edit]

1. A. maritima. Sea Chamomile.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 455; Eng. Bot. 2370; With. iii. 965.
At Sunderland, D. — Mr. E. Robson in Eng. Bot , the only British locality. Probably gathered on the ballast-hills, but there was no specimen of this rare plant in W. Weighell's Herb.

2. A. nobilis. Common Chamomile.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 456; Eng. Bot. 980; Woodv. t. 103; Hook. Fl. Scot. 247; With. iii. 963.
Between Lintz-green Hall and the Turnpike, D.—Mr. R. Waugh and Mr. J. Thornhill. On Sunderland ballast. hills. — W. Weighell's Herb.

3. A. arvensis. Corn Chamomile.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 457; Eng. Bot. 602; With. iii. 962; Gr. Fl. Eds. 181; Berwick Flora, 188.
In corn fields and on rubbish near Gateshead, D. In Heaton Dene near Rennoldson's Mill, N. Near the inn at Doddington Moor Bank and Cheswick buildings. — Dr. G. Johnston. By the old tower near Magdalen-field Farm House. — Thompson's Berwick Plants.

4. A. Cotula. Stinking May-weed, or Chamomile.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 458; Eng. Bot. 1772; Curt. Lond. Fasc. v. t. 61; Gr. Fl. Eds. 182; With, iii. 963.
By road sides near Harton, and among corn near Stella, D. Rare in the north of England.

5. A. tinctoria. Ox-eye Chamomile.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 459; Eng. Bot. 1472; Hook. Fl. Scot. 247; With. iii. 965.
On a bank by the river Tees not far from Sockburn. —Ray, Syn, 183. It has often been sought there of late years without success. — Robson's Flora, printed in 1777, p. 168. On Sunderland ballast hills, D. — W. Weighell's Herb. By the road side near St. Anthon's, N.

341. ACHILLEA.[edit]

1. A. Ptarmica. Sneeze-wort, Yarrow, Goosetongue.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 460; Eng. Bot. 757 , Curt. Lond. Fasc. v. t. 60; Hook. Fl. Scot. 248; Berwick Flora, 189.
In moist meadows, and by rivulets.

2. A. Millefolium. Common Yarrow, Milfoil.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 462; Eng. Bot. 758; Curt. Lond. Fasc. vi. t. 61; Woodv. t 64; Hook. Fl. Scot. 248; Berwick Flora, 189.
In meadows and pastures, abundant.


SYNGENESIA POLYGAMIA FRUSTRANEA.[edit]

342. CENTAUREA.[edit]

1. C. Jacea. Brown Radiant Knapweed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 464; Eng. Bot. 1678; Hook. Fl. Scot. 248. On Willington ballast-hills, N. On Hebburn and Jarrow ballast-hills, D.

2. C. nigra. Black or Lesser Knapweed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 465; Eng. Bot. 278; Hook. Fl. Scot. 248; Berwick Flora, 189.
β flowers radiated — Ray, Syn. 199; With. iii. 970, var. 2. α In pastures and by road sides, common. β in Walbottle Dene, and near the Powder Magazine at Walker, N.

3. C. Cyanus. Corn Blue-bottle.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 466; Eng. Bot. 277; Curt. Lond. Fasc. vi. t. 62; Gr. Fl. Eds. 183; With, iii. 968; Berwick Flora, 189.
Rare in the north of England. In corn fields on Millfield Plain, N. In Tweedmouth fields. — Thompson's Berwick Plants. Between Anick Grange and Corbridge, N. — Mr. F. Scott. Near Conniscliffe. — Mr. Backhouse. Near Norton, Seaton, and Stainton, D. — J. Hogg, Esq. In corn fields near Berwick, but not common. — Dr. G. Johnston. On Alnwick Moor, N. — Miss Forster, delin.

4. C. Scabiosa. Greater Knapweed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 467; Eng. Bot. 56; Gr. Fl. Eds. 183; With. iii. 971.
On the borders of fields, particularly on the Magnesian Limestone in the county of Durham.

5. C. Calcitrapa. Common Star-thistle.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iii. 468; Eng. Bot. 125; With. iii. 971.
On the west end of St. Anthon's ballast-hills, N., where it has been naturalized for many years. On Hebburn and Jarrow ballast-hills, D.


SYNGENESIA POLYGAMIA NECESSARIA.[edit]

343. CALENDULA.[edit]

1. C. arvensis. Field Marigold.[edit]

With. iii. 972; Wild. Sp. PI. iii. 2339.
Naturalized on Sunderland ballast-hills, D. — W. Weighell's Herb. Scarcely entitled to a place in an English Flora, though admitted by the late Dr. Withering.


GYNANDRIA MONANDRIA.[edit]

344. ORCHIS.[edit]

1. O. bifolia. Butterfly Orchis.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 9; Eng. Bot. 22; Curt. Lond. Fasc. vi. t. 65; Berwick Flora, 191; With. ii. 27; Habenaria bifolia, Gr. Fl. Eds. 185.
β Ray, Syn. 380.
α In meadows at Gibside, Beamish, Medomsley, Eglestone, Witton-le-Wear, Dinsdale, and Castle Eden, D. Near Woolcoats, Rothbury, Shewing-shields, Cambo, and Wallington, N. On mountainous meadows, N.—Wallis, 228. On moors in the vicinity of Berwick, but not frequent. — Dr. G. Johnston.
β In barren pastures near Fox Hill, between Norton and Sadbergh, six miles from Norton, D. — J. Hogg, Esq.

2. O. pyramidalis. Pyramidal Orchis.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 10; Eng. Bot. 110; Hook. Fl. Scot. 251; Lond. t. 106; With. ii. 29.
In fields on the Magnesian Limestone near Houghton-le-Spring, Castle Eden, and Hartlepool; on the coast south of Sunderland, also near Whitburn, Cleadon, Fullwell, and at Rocoe Gill, D. Near Gilsland, Haltwhistle, and Wooler, N. In the meadows on the north and north-west side of Crag Lake, under the Roman Wall, N.— Wallis, 227.

3. O. Morio. Meadow Orchis.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl.iv. 11; Eng. Bot. 2059; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iii. t. 59; Hook. Fl. Scot. 250; With. ii. 29.
On Dunstan Haughs, D., near Prudhoe, N., and in similar situations, but not common.
It does not occur in the vicinity of Berwick.

4. O. muscula. Early Purple Orchis.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 11; Eng. Bot. 631; Woodv. t. 90; Berwick Flora, 191; Curt. Lond. Fasc. ii. t. 62; Hook. Fl. Scot. 250; With. ii. 30.
In woods in Northumberland and Durham, frequent, also on the coast between South Shields and Sunderland, D.

5. O. ustulata. Dwarf Orchis.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 12; Eng. Bot. 18; With. ii. 31; Hook. Lond. t. 36.
On Fulwell and Boldon Hills, on the sea coast near Marsden Cottage and Ryhope, and in pastures near the new bridge at Lambton Gate, D. At Baydales, D. — Mr. Backhouse. On the east side of Cleadon Hills, D.— Mr. R. Waugh and Mr. J. Thornhill.

6. O. albida. White Cluster-rooted Orchis.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 18; Satyrium albidum, Eng. Bot. 505; With. ii. 39; Habenaria albida, Hook. Lond. t. 107; Gr. Fl. Eds. 185.
In pastures at Shewing Shields near the Roman Wall, also near Roadley Lake, Fallowlees Bourn, and Baybridge above Blanchland, N. At the north end of Crag Close near Barwesford. — Wallis, 229. In a field between Cambo and the Close Houses, N. — Miss Emma Trevelyan. Near Winch Bridge, and between Whey Syke and Widdy Bank, also on the banks of Nucton Bourn, D.

7. O. viridis. Frog Orchis.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 20; Satyrium viride, Eng. Bot. 94; With. ii. 37; Habenaria viridis, Hook. Lond. t. 130; Fl. Scot. 252.
In meadows at Chester-le- Street, Lambton, Beamish, Urpeth, Castle Eden, Murton, Sunderland, Shincliffe, and Middleton-in-Teesdale, D. Between Norton and Sadbergh, D.— J. Hogg, Esq. Near Low Park End, Gilsland, and Blanchland, N. Near Wallington. — Miss Emma Trevelyan. At the north end of Crag Close near Barwesford. — Wallis, 229. In Hulne woods near Alnwick, N. — Mr. J. Davison.

8. O. latifolia. Marsh Orchis.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 21; Eng. Bot. 2308; Berwick Flora, 192; Curt. Lond. Fasc. v. t. 65; Hook. Fl. Scot. 251; With. ii. 33; β Dill. Ray's Syn. 382.
α In bogs and marshy meadows, not rare. β at Prestwick Carr, N.
Smith remarks that this variety has not been noticed since the time of Dillenius; it differs from α in having flowers of a full rose-red colour. I have gathered it in North Wales as well as in Northumberland, and am inclined to think it is not very rare, but has been overlooked by modern Botanists.

9. O. maculata. Spotted Palmate Orchis.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 22; Eng. Bot. 632; Hook. Fl. Scot. 251; Lond. t. 112; With. iii. 34; Berwick Flora, 192.
In woods, meadows, and pastures, frequent.

10. O. conopsea. Aromatic Orchis.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 23; Eng. Bot. 10; With. ii. 35; Berwick Flora, 192; Gymnadenia conopsea, Gr. Fl. Eds. 184.
In Castle Eden and Dalton Dene, and in meadows near Urpeth, Beamish, Tanfield, Witton-le-Wear, and Sunderland, also on moors in Teesdale and Weardale, D. Near Norton and in Close Wood, also on the cliffs near Black-halls, D. — J. Hogg, Esq. In meadows at Shewing Shields, Wardrew, Hexham, and Corbridge, N. Near Wallington. — Miss Emma Trevelyan. On a bank by the road on the east side of Simonburn Castle, also on the north-west side of the Ostium of the brook at Wark in Tynedale, and on Broad-pool Common, between Con-shields and Blakelaw, near Simonburn, N. — Wallis, 227. In moist meadows and pastures near Berwick not uncommon. — Dr. G. Johnston.

345. OPHRYS.[edit]

1. O. muscifera. Fly Ophrys, or Orchis.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 29 ; Eng. Hot. 64 ; Hook. Lond. t. 31 ; With. ii. 47.
On the Magnesian Limestone in Hawthorn, Dalton, and Castle Eden Denes, D. Near Middleton-one-Row.— Mr. E. Robson. At Dinsdale, D Mr. S. Robson.

2. O. apifera. Bee Ophrys, or Orchis.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 30 ; Eng. Bot. 383 ; Curt. Lond. Fasc. i. t. 66; With. ii. 48.
On the Magnesian Limestone near the coast at Marsden, Rocoe-gill near Sunderland, and Ryehope, D. At Baydales, D.— Mr. E. Robson.

346. GOODYERA.[edit]

1. G. repens. Creeping Goodyera.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 33 ; Hook. Fl. Scot. 253 ; Lond. 144; Satyrium repens, Eng. Bot. 289; With. ii. 39.
"I met with a plant of it in Ramshaw Wood by the the road to the mill on the south side of Wark Burn in Tynedale, N — Wallis, 232." I have no better authority for inserting this northern plant, but wish some Botanist would carefully search Ramshaw Wood, and ascertain which of the Orchidae grow there. Assuredly not this rare inhabitant of the fir woods of Scotland.

347. LISTERA.[edit]

1. L. ovata. Common Twayblade.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 37 ; Hook. Fl. Scot. 253 ; Berwick Flora, 193; Ophrys ovata, Eng. Bot. 22; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iii. t. 60; With. iii. 43.
In woods, marshy meadows, and hedge banks, not very common, N. and D. Near Berwick. — Dr. G. Johnston.

2. L. cordata. Heart-leaved Mountain Twayblade.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 38 ; Hook. Fl. Scot. 253 ; Lond. t. 143; Berwick Flora, 193; Gr. Fl. Eds. 186; Ophrys cordata, Eng. Bot. 358 ; With. ii. 44.
At Gold-hill near Muggleswick, and among the heath at Charnberry near Eglestone, D. On the banks of Beldon Bourn, and on moors in the vicinity, N. By Darden Lough, Roadley Lake, and on Simonside. — W. C. Trevelyan, Esq. On moors to the south of Haltwhistle. — Rev. T. Baker. On the east side of Hedgehope, rather more than half-way up. — Dr. G. Johnston. At Rock Houses near Unthank, N.— Mr. J. Thompson, Sp. On Alpine bogs, not uncommon, N. — Wallis, 233.

3. L. Nidus-avis. Bird's-nest Listera.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 38; Hook. Fl. Scot. 253; Lond. t. 58; Berwick Flora, 193; Gr. Fl. Eds. 186; Ophrys Nidus-avis, Eng. Bot. 48; With. ii.
In Castle Eden and Hawthorn Denes, and Whorlton-haugh Wood, Cocken, D. In Capheaton and Wallington Woods Miss Emma Trevelyan. In Willimoteswick Dene and near Wardrew Mr. J. Thompson, Sp. In Twizell woods, N. — Miss Forster, delin.

348. EPIPACTIS.[edit]

1. E. latifolia. Broad-leaved Helleborine.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 40 ; Hook. Fl. Scot. 254 ; Lond. t. 102; Serapias latifolia, Eng. Bot. 269; With, ii. 51.
In woods, not uncommon. In Heaton Wood near Newcastle, N.

2. E. palustris. Marsh Helleborine.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 42 ; Hook. Fl. Scot. 254 ; Lond. t. 89; Berwick Flora, 193; Serapias palustris, Eng. Bot. t. 270 ; With. ii. 52.
In bogs at Hilton and Castle Eden, Butterby, Dinsdale and Cocken, D. Near Polam. — Mr. Backhouse. Near the Dyke House, Hartlepool. — Mr. J. Backhouse. At Norton, D.—J. Hogg, Esq. In bogs near Hexham, N. Near Belsay, Roadley Mill, and Kirkharle Miss Emma Trevelyan. In a bog at Slaterfield near Simonburn — Wallis, 230. In the Pond Field above Spindlestone. — Dr. G. Johnston. Near Alnwick, N. — Miss Forster, delin.

3. E. ensifolia. Narrow-leaved White Helleborine.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 44 ; Hook. Fl. Scot. 255 ; Lond. t. 77 ; Serapias ensifolia, Eng. Bot. 494 ; With, ii. 53.
In the main branch of Castle Eden Dene, and in the north branch or Black Dene, growing with the Lady's Slipper, D. — July 9, 1797. In Hawthorn Dene, D. — Rev. T. Baker.

349. MALAXIS.[edit]

1. M. paludosa. Marsh Tender-tway-blade.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 47 ; Eng. Bot. 72 ; Hook. Fl. Scot. 255 ; With. ii. 50.
In bogs on Eglestone Moor, Teesdale, D. On moors south of Wolsingham, D. — Mr. Backhouse.


GYNANDRIA DIANDRIA.[edit]

350. CYPRIPEDIUM.[edit]

1. C. Calceolus. The Lady's Slipper.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 51 ; Eng. Bot. 1 ; Hook. Lond. t. 42 ; With. ii. 54 ; Robson's Flora, 150.
In the north branch of Castle Eden Dene, called the Black Dene, and in the main branch opposite the Garden of Eden, also on the first great white rock on the north side nearest the sea coast, D. — July 9, 1797.
I know not who first discovered this fine plant in the county of Durham ; it is noticed by S. Robson in his Flora, printed in 1777; but Wilson, who published his Synopsis in 1744, only mentions its Yorkshire localities. "The Lady's Slipper, said by Dr. Turner to grow in a boggy place in a field at Newton-on-the-Moor, near Alnwick, N., is not now observed to grow there." — Wallis. The first edition of Turner's Herbal was printed in 1551, the second in 1568. ===MONOECIA MONANDRIA.===

351. EUPHORBIA.[edit]

1. E. Peplus. Petty Spurge.[edit]

Sm. Eng, Fl. iv. 60 ; Eng. Bot. 959 ; Curt. Lond. Fasc. i.t. 35; Hook. Fl. Scot. 148.
On cultivated ground, everywhere.

2. E. exigua. Dwarf Spurge.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 60 ; Eng. Bot. 1336 ; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iv. t. 36 ; Gr. Fl. Eds. 106 ; With. ii. 588 ; Berwick Flora, 197.
In corn fields near Cleadon, Fulwell, and Castle Eden, D. Near Norton, Wynyard, and Seaton, D. — J. Hogg, Esq. Near Prestwick. — Mr. W. Robertson. In Greenfield Moor-fields near Alnwick. — Mr. J. Davison. By the road side at the Inn below Mountholy, N. — Dr. G. Johnston

3. E. Lathyris. Caper Spurge.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 61; Eng. Bot. 2225; With. ii. 588. In corn stubble near Norton, D. — J. Hogg, Esq. Naturalized on the banks of Wear below Mr. Fox's garden, Durham.
A very doubtful native.

4. E. paralia. Sea Spurge.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 63 1 Eng. Bot. 195; With. ii. 589.
On Sunderland ballast-hills, D. On Willington ballast-hills, N. Plentiful on the Cumberland coast, but it does not appear to cross the Solway Frith.

5. E. helioscopia. Sun Spurge, Common Wart-wort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 63; Eng. Bot. 883; Curt. Lond. Fasc. i. t. 36; Hook. Fl. Scot. 148.
Everywhere, on cultivated ground.

6. E. striata. Upright Warty Spurge.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 64; β Eng. Bot. 333 ; E. platyphylla. With. ii. 591, var. 2.
By the race below Rennoldson's Mill in Heaton Dene, N. Probably brought there with corn.

7. E. Cyparissias. Cypress Spurge.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 66 ; Eng. Bot. 840 ; Gr. Fl. Eds. 106 ; With. ii. 593.
On the banks of hedges four miles south of Alnwick. — July 17, 1804; and naturalized on the walls of Hulne Abbey, N.

352. CALLITRICHE.[edit]

1. C. verna. Water Starwort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 10 ; Wahl. Fl. Lapp. 2 ; C. aquatica, Eng. Bot. 722 ; Hook. Lond. 127 ; Fl. Scot. 259.
In ditches, ponds, &c.
When growing in deep pools the submersed leaves of this plant are linear, and in this state it has often been mistaken for the succeeding species.

2. C. autumnalis. Autumnal Water Starwort.[edit]

Wahl. Fl. Lapp. 2 ; Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 10 ; Berwick Flora, 3.
In pools of water in the vale below Langley Ford at the foot of Cheviot. — Dr. G. Johnston.
C. autumnalis, may be considered a rare species with us, though it is abundant in the deep ditches which communicate with Derwentwater in Cumberland. If the following distinctions be attended to, the two plants can never be confounded with each other, as has heretofore frequently been the case. C. verna. Fruit stalks with two bracteas at their base, fruit regularly tetragonal, each portion bluntly keeled at the back. C. autumnalis. Fruit stalks without bracteas, fruit irregularly tetragonal, each portion broadly and acutely winged at the back. — Arnott, MSS.

253. ZOSTERA.[edit]

1. Z. marina. Grass Wrack.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. i. 5 ; Eng. Bot. 467 ; With. iii. 658 ; Hook. Lond. t. 35 ; Gr. Fl. Eds. 188 ; Berwick Flora, 2.
At Jarrow Slake and Hartlepool, D. On Fenham Flats, N. Between Goswick Links and the Old Law — Thompson's Berwick Plants. Among the rejectamenta of the sea on the coast, abundant.

354. ZANNICHELLIA.[edit]

1. Z. palustris. Horned Podweed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 70; Eng. Bot. 1844; With. ii. 8; Gr. Fl. Eds. 187 ; Berwick Flora, 197.
In ditches near St. Peter's Quay, and in ponds at St. Anthon's, Walker, and Benwell, N. In ditches near Gateshead, in ponds near Hilton Castle, at Hebburn Quay, and Monkwearmouth, D. In the pond at Scremmerston Lime-kilns, and ditches near Windmill Hill, Berwick. — Dr. G. Johnston.


MONOECIA TRIANDRIA.[edit]

355. TYPHA.[edit]

1. T. latifolia. Great Cat's-tail, or Reed-mace.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 71 ; Eng. Bot. 1455; With. ii. 163; Gr. Fl. Eds. 188; T. major. Curt. Lond. Fasc. iii. t. 61 ; Berwick Flora, 197.
In slow streams and pools, common, N. and D. In the mill pond at Grange Bourn and North Fluve near Goswick. — Thompson's Berwick Plants.

2. T. angustifolia. Lesser Cat's-tail, or Reed-mace.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 72 ; Eng. Bot. 1456 ; With. ii. 163; Hook. Fl. Scot. 259; T. minor, Curt. Lond. Fasc. iii. t. 62.
In a pond near the Friar's Goose, below Gateshead, D. In a pond by the road to Nesham from Darlington, D. — Mr. Janson.

356. SPARGANIUM.[edit]

1. S. ramosum. Branched Bur-reed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 74 ; Eng. Bot. 744 ; Curt. Lond. Fasc. v. t. 66 ; With. ii. 164 ; Gr. Fl. Eds. 189 ; Berwick Flora, 198.
In slow streams and pools.

2. S. simplex. Unbranched Upright Bur-reed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 75 ; Eng. Bot. 745 ; Curt. Lond. Fasc. v. t. 67; Gr. Fl. Eds. 189; With. ii. 164; Berwick Flora, 198.
In pools and slow streams, N. and D. By the sides of the Lough on Holy Island, and in the pond above Spindlestone, N. — Dr. G. Johnston.

3. S. natans. Floating Bur-reed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 75 ; Eng. Bot. 273 ; Gr. Fl. Eds. 189; With. ii. 164; S. simplex β, Hudson, 401.
In the rivers Derwent and Team, D. In the Ousebourn in Heaton Dene, and in the River Pont, N. In Prestwick Carr, N. — Mr. J. Thornhill. ====357. CAREX.====

1. C. dioica. Common Separate-headed Carex.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 77; Eng. Bot. 543; Gooden. Linn. Tr. ii. 139; With. ii. 129 ; Gr. Pl. Eds. 189; Berwick Flora, 198.
In bogs near Hilton Castle, on Beamish Moor, Chester Common, and in Teesdale and Weardale, D. Near Darlington, D.—S. Robson, Flora 262. Near Shewing Shields, at Prestwick Carr, and on moors near Blanchland and Cold-cleugh, N.

2. C. pulicaris. Flea Carex.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 78; Eng. Bot. 1051 ; Hook. Fl. Scot. 261; Lond. t. 177; With. ii. 130; Berwick Flora, 198.
In marshy meadows and on moors, frequent, N. and D. Near Berwick. — Dr. G. Johnston.

2. C. pauciflora. Few-flowered Carex.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 79; Eng. Bot. 2041; Lightfoot, 543, t. 6, f. 2; With. ii. 131.
In a peat moss between a public-house called Twice-brewed Ale and the south-west end of Crag Lake near the Roman Wall, and on the Muckle Moss, N.— June 29, 1803.
The only English habitats.

4. C. stellulata. Little Prickly Carex.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 80; Eng. Bot. 806; Gooden. Linn. Tr. ii. 144; Berwick Flora, 198; With. ii. 131 ; Hook. Fl. Scot. 263; C. muricata, Lightfoot, 549; Hudson, 406.
In marshy meadows and on moors, not rare.

5. C. curta. White Carex.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 81; Eng. Bot. 1386 ; Gooden. Linn. Tr. ii. 145; With. ii. 132; Hook. Fl. Scot. 263; Berwick Flora, 198.
In bogs near Edmond byers and Crook Oak, D. In Teesdale.—Rev. J. Harriman. By Halypike Lake, near Allenheads, in Beldon Bourn, and near Gilsland, N.—On Wallington moors.—W.C. Trevelyan, Esq. In bogs near Berwick, not rare.— Dr. G. Johnston.

6. C. ovalis. Oval-spiked Carex.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 82; Gooden. Linn. Tr. ii. 148; Eng. Bot. 306; Hook. Fl. Scot. 263; With. ii. 133; Berwick Flora, 199; C. leporina, Hudson, 404; Lightfoot, 547.
In marshy meadows and on moors, not rare.

7. C. remota. Remote Carex.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 84 ; Eng. Bot. 832; Hook. Fl. Scot. 263 ; With. ii. 133 ; Berwick Flora, 199.
In Ravensworth and Cawsey woods, and in all the woods on the Derwent, D. In Tecket and Ramshaw woods, and and on the banks of Wooler Water below Langley Ford, N.

8. C. arenaria. Sand Carex.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 85; Eng. Bot. 928 ; Gr. Fl. Eds. 195 ; With. ii. 135, t. 20 ; Berwick Flora, 199. On the sands of the sea coast, frequent.

9. C. intermedia. Soft Brown Carex.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 86 ; Eng. Bot. 2042 ; Gooden. Linn. Tr. ii. 154; Hook. Fl. Scot. 262 ; Berwick Flora, 199; With. ii. 136; C. disticha, Hudson, 403.
In bogs and by slow streams not rare, N. and D. Near Berwick Dr. G. Johnston.

10. C. muricata. Greater Prickly Carex.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 88; Eng. Bot. 1097 ; Hook. Fl. Scot. 262; With. ii. 138 ; C. spicata, Hudson, 405 ; Lightfoot, 548.
Near Darlington, D.

11. C. divulsa. Grey Carex.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 89 ; Eng. Bot. 629 ; With. ii. 138; Gooden. Linn. Tr. ii. 160; C. muricata β, Wahl. Fl. Suec. 589.
Near Darlington, D. — Mr. Backhouse.

12. C. vulpina. Great Spiked Carex.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 90 ; Eng. Bot. 307 ; Gr. Fl. Eds. 191 ; With. ii. 139; Berwick Flora, 199.
On the shores of Tyne, Pont, Wear, Tees, Skerne, &c. N. and D. By the North Fluve at Goswick, and on the coast at Budle, N. — Thompson's Berwick Plants. Near Berwick. — Dr. G. Johnston.

13. C. paniculata. Great Panicled Carex.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 92 ; Eng. Bot. 1064 ; Hook. Fl. Scot. 262; With. ii. 140; Berwick Flora, 200.
On moors and in wet pastures, common.

14. C. pendula. Great Pendulous Carex.[edit]

Sm.Eng. Fl. iv. 95; Eng. Bot. 2315; Hook. Fl. Scot. 264; Berwick Flora, 200; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iii. t. 63 ; With. ii. 142.
In Ravensworth, Cocken, Beamish, and Urpeth Woods, also by the Wear near Southwick, D. By the Tees near Croft, D. — Mr. E. Robson. In Gibside Woods, D.— Mr. J. Thornhill. In Oakwood, Scotswood, Walbottle, and Denton Denes, N. On Bothal Banks, N Miss Emma Trevelyan.

15. C. sylvatica. Pendulous Wood Carex.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 96; Eng. Bot. 995 ; Hook. Fl. Scot. 264; Gooden. Linn. Tr. ii. 138; Berwick Flora, 200; With. ii. 150; C. Drymeia, Willd. Sp. Pl. iv. 296.
In every wood, N. and D.

16. C. capillaris. Capillary Carex.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 100; Eng. Bot. 2069; Hook. Fl. Scot. 265; With. ii. 148.
Near Widdy Bank in Teesdale Forest, D., also on Cronkley Fell.
Its most southern locality in Britain.

17. C. limosa. Green and Gold Carex.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 102; Eng. Bot. 2043; Hook. Fl. Scot. 265; With. ii. 152; Berwick Flora, 200.
Near Wardrew, N. On the Wallington Moors, N. —W.C. Trevelyan, Esq. Near Berwick. — Dr. G. Johnston.

18. C. pallescens. Pale Carex.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 105; Eng. Bot. 2185; Hook. Lond. 178; Gr. Fl. Eds. 195; With. ii. 151 ; Berwick Flora, 201.
Near Beamish and the Hounds, at Birch Carr near Darlington, and on the banks of Nuckton Burn, D. In bogs near Scotswood, and at Shewing-shields, and Gilsland, N. On the banks of Wooler Water below Langley Ford, N. — Dr. G. Johnston.

19. C. flava. Yellow Carex.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 106 ; Eng. Bot. 1294 ; Hook. Fl. Scot. 266; With. ii. 144; Berwick Flora, 201.
In boggy meadows and on wet moors, frequent.

20. C. Oederi. Oederian Carex.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 107; Eng. Bot. 1773; C. flava β, Hook. Fl. Scot. 266.
On wet moors, not rare.
A dwarf variety of the last species I suspect. =====21. C.fulva. Tawny Carex.===== Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 107; Eng. Bot. 1295; Gooden. Linn. Tr. ii. 177, t. 20, f. 6; Hook. Fl. Scot. 266; C. flava, With. ii. 145, var. 2.
In bogs at Ryhope and Hilton, D. On the south side of the Ropery above Shields Law, D.—Mr. R. Waugh. At Birch Carr near Darlington. — Mr. Backhouse. At Prestwick Carr, and on the Muckle Moss near the Roman Wall, N.

22. C. extensa. Long-bracteated Carex.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 108; Eng. Bot. 833; Gooden. Linn. Tr. ii. 175, t. 21, f. 7; With. ii. 140; Gr. Fl. Eds. 195.
Near the sea coast in a marsh on the Wear at Hilton Castle, as well as at Hartlepool and Seaton, also in the west of the county of Durham, and on bogs in Waskerley Park, D. In bogs at Spencer's Quarry near Medomsley, D.—Mr. J. Thornhill. On the sea beach north of the town at Holy Island, N, —Thompson's Berwick Plants.

23. C. distans. Loose Carex.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 109; Eng. Bot. 1234; Hook. Fl. Scot. 267; With. ii. 147.
In boggy ground near the sea coast at Hilton Castle, and near the Law at South Shields, D. At the mouth of Tees, D.—J. Hogg, Esq.
On marshy ground near Willington Bourn, N.
All these may be considered maritime localities.

24. C. binervis. Green-ribbed Carex.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 110; Eng. Bot. 1235; With. ii. 147; Berwick Flora, 201; C. distans, Lightfoot, 561; Hook. Fl. Scot. 267.
On boggy and wet moors, frequent. On Newcastle Town Moor, N. Near Berwick. — Dr. G. Johnston.

25. C. praecox. Vernal, or Spring Carex.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. III; Eng. Bot. 1099; Gooden. Linn. Tr. ii. 170; Hook. Fl. Scot. 207; Lond. t. 22; With. ii. 143; Berwick Flora, 201; C. saxatilis, Hudson, 408.
On moors and in barren pastures.

26. C. pilulifera. Round-headed Carex.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 112; Eng. Bot. 885; Hook. Fl. Scot. 267; Berwick Flora, 201; With. ii. 154; C. montana, Hudson, 407.
In moist meadows and on moors, not rare.

27. C. panicea. Pink-leaved Carex.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 114; Eng. Bot. 1505; Hook. Fl. Scot. 267; With. ii. 148; Berwick Flora, 201.
In moist meadows and pastures, common.

28. C. recurva. Glaucous Heath Carex.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 114; Eng. Bot. 1506; Gooden. Linn. Tr. ii. 184; Hook. Fl. Scot. 268; With. ii. 150; Berwick Flora, 202. β C. Micheliana, Eng. Bot. 2236.
α On moors and in moist meadows, everywhere. β in bogs near Hilton Castle, D.

29. C. rigida. Rigid Carex.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 116; Eng. Bot. 2047; Berwick Flora, 202; Gooden. Linn. Tr. ii. 193, t. 22, f. 10; With. ii. 156; C. caespitosa β, Hook. Fl. Scot. 268; C. saxatilis, Wahl. Fl. Lapp. 247, according to specimens from the late Dr. Swartz.
On the summit of Cheviot, N., July 22d, 1804. On Teesdale Forest near the Cauldron Snout, D.

30. C. caespitosa. Tufted Bog Carex.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 117; Eng. Bot. 1507; With. ii. 156; Gooden. Linn. Tr. ii. 195, t. 21, f. 8; Hook. Fl. Scot. 268; Berwick Flora, 202.
In marshy meadows and on moors, not rare.

31. C. stricta. Glaucous Straight-leaved Carex.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 118; Eng. Bot. 914; Hook. Fl. Scot. 208; Gooden. Linn. Tr. ii. 190, t. 21, f. 9; With. ii. 157; C. caespitosa, Hudson, 412; C. caespitosa β, Lightfoot, 561.
In the marsh behind St. Anthon's ballast-hills, on the banks of the Ousebourn near Haddrick's Mill, and in Heaton Wood, N. In Westcrow Bourn near Wolsingham, and at Hell Kettles near Darlington, also by the Tyne below Gateshead, D.

32. C. acuta. Slender Spiked Carex.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 119; Gooden. Linn. Tr. ii. 203; Berwick Flora, 202; Hook. Fl. Scot. 269; With. ii. 160; Eng. Bot. 580; C. gracilis, Curt. Lond. Fasc. iv. t. 62.
By the river Skerne near Darlington, D. — Mr. Backhouse. On the banks of Tweed from West Ord to the Chain Bridge. — Dr. G. Johnston.

33. C. paludosa. Lesser Common Carex.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 120; Eng. Bot. 807; Hook. Fl. Scot. 269; Berwick Flora, 203; Gooden. Linn. Tr. ii. 202; With. ii. 159; C. acuta, Curt. Lond. Fasc. iv. t. 61.
In bogs and on the banks of slow rivers, frequent.

34. C. riparia. Great Common Carex.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 121; Eng. Bot. 579; Curt. Lond. Fasc. iv. t. 60; Gooden. Linn. Tr. ii. 200; Hook. Fl. Scot. 269; With. ii. 158; C. acuta, Hudson, 413; Lightfoot, 565.
On the banks of rivers and in marshy places, frequent.

35. C. laevigata. Smooth-stalked Beaked Carex.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 122; Eng. Bot. 1387; Hook. Fl. Scot. 269; With. ii. 159; Gr. Fl. Eds. 199; Berwick Flora, 203.
On the banks of Wooler Water below Langley Ford, and at the base of the hill at Hepburn near Chillingham, N.—Dr. G. Johnston.

30. C. vesicaria. Short-spiked Bladder Carex.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 123; Eng. Bot. 779; Hook. Fl. Scot. 269; With. ii. 161; Gr. Fl. Eds. 199; C. inflata, Lightfoot, 567.
On the banks of the river Team, in bogs near Castle Eden, and near Darlington, D. In Heaton Wood, by Craglake near Shewing-shields, and on the Muckle Moss, N. On moors near Wallington, N.— W. C. Trevelyan, Esq. At Prestwick Carr, N.—Mr. J. Thornhill.

37. C. ampullacea. Slender-beaked Bladder Carex.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 124; Eng. Bot. 780; Gooden. Linn. Tr. ii. 207; Hook. Fl. Scot. 270; With, ii. 101; Berwick Flora, 203; C. vesicaria, Hudson, 413; Lightfoot, 506.
On the banks of lakes, rivers, and on bogs, N. and D. On the Wallington Moors, N.—W.C. Trevelyan, Esq. In the vicinity of Berwick. — Dr. G. Johnston.

38. C. hirta. Hairy Carex.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 125; Eng. Bot. 685; Hook. Fl. Scot. 270; With. ii. 162; Berwick Flora, 203.
In marshy meadows and on bogs, frequent. ====358. ELYNA.====

1. E. caricina. Compound-headed Elyna.[edit]

Hook. Br. Fl. 401; Kobresia caricina, Willd. Sp. Pl. iv. 206; Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 129; Schoenus monoicus, Eng. Bot. 1410; Northumberland and Durham Guide, v. 5.
On the Widdy Bank in Teesdale Forest, D., also on Cronkley Fell.
This plant was pointed out to me in these localities, Aug. 25, 1799, by the Rev. J. Harriman.


MONOECIA TETRANDRIA.[edit]

359. LITTORELLA.[edit]

1. L. lacustris. Plantain Shore-weed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 130; Eng. Bot. 468; Hook. Fl. Scot. 271; Lond. t. 168; With. ii. 270; Berwick Flora, 204.
At Prestwick Carr, and on the shores of Bromley and Greenley Loughs, also by Holy Island Lough, N. By Roadley Lake. — W.C. Trevelyan, Esq. By Hoseley Lough, N.— Dr. Richardson, Dill. Ray Syn. 316.

360. ALNUS.[edit]

1. A. glutinosa. Common Alder.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 131; Hook. Lond. t. 59; Fl. Scot. 271; Betula alnus, With. ii. 286; Berwick Flora, 204; Eng. Bot. 1508.
By rivers, lakes, and pools of water.

361. URTICA.[edit]

1. U. pilulifera. Roman Nettle.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 134; Eng. Bot. 148; With. iii. 280.
On the ballast-hills of Tyne and Wear, N. and D., rare.

2. U. urens. Small Nettle.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 134; Eng. Bot. 1230; Curt. Lond. Fasc. vi. t. 70; Hook. Fl. Scot. 271.
Everywhere on cultivated ground.

3. U. dioica. Great Nettle.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 135; Eng. Bot. 1750; Curt. Lond. Fasc. vi. t. 69; Hook. Fl. Scot. 271.
On waste ground everywhere.


MONOECIA PENTANDRIA.[edit]

362. XANTHIUM.[edit]

1. X. strumarium. Broad-leaved Bur-weed.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 136; Eng. Bot. 2544; With. ii. 384.
On Byker and Willington ballast-hills, N. On Jarrow and South Shields ballast-hills, D. On Sunderland ballast-hills, D.— W. Weighell's Herb.

363. AMARANTHUS.[edit]

1. A. Blitum. Wild Amaranth.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 137; Eng. Bot. 2212; With. ii. 248.
On Willington ballast-hills, N. On Hebburn and Jarrow ballast-hills, D. On Sunderland ballast-hills, D.— W. Weighell's Herb.

364. BRYONIA.[edit]

1. B. dioica. Red-berried Bryony.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 138; Eng. Bot. 439; With. ii. 102; B. alba, Lightfoot, 159; Woodv. t. 189.
In hedges near Birtley, Gainford, Darlington, and Bishop Auckland, D. At Barneyside, Miss Forster, delin.; and Rugley near Alnwick, N. — Mr. J. Davison.
Not a common plant in the north.


MONOECIA POLYANDRIA.[edit]

365. CERATOPHYLLUM.[edit]

1. C. demersum. Common Hornwort.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 141; Eng. Bot. 947; Hook. Fl. Scot. 272; With. ii. 579.
In ditches on Durham Moor. — Rev. J. Symons.

366. MYRIOPHYLLUM.[edit]

1. M. spicatum. Spiked Water-Milfoil.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 143; Eng. Bot. 83; Hook. Fl. Scot. 272; With. ii. 519; Berwick Flora, 205.
In loughs, ponds, and rivulets, frequent, N. and D. In Tweed and ponds near Berwick. — Dr. G. Johnston.

2. M. verticillatum. Verticillate Water Milfoil.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 143; Eng. Bot. 218; With. ii. 519.
At Polam, D.— Mr. Backhouse.
The limit of its range to the north.

367. SAGITTARIA.[edit]

1. S. sagittifolia. Common Arrow-head.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 144; Eng. Bot. 84; With, iii; 678.
Near Bellingham and Norton. — Mr. Backhouse. In becks near Witton, Thorp, Portrack, and Stockton, D. — J. Hogg, Esq.
The most northern localities.

368. ARUM.[edit]

1. A. maculatum. Cuckow-pint, Wake Robin.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 146; Eng. Bot. 1298; Woodv. t. 25; Curt. Lond. Fasc. ii. t. 63; Hook. Fl. Scot. 272; Berwick Flora, 205.
In woods and under hedges, frequent.

369. POTERIUM.[edit]

1. P. Sanguisorba. Common Burnet.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 147; Eng. Bot. 860; Hook. Fl. Scot. 273; Curt. Lond. Fasc. ii. t. 64; With. iii. 654; Berwick Flora, 206.
On dry Limestone hills, not very rare. On Spindlestone Hills, N. — Dr. G. Johnstone.

370. QUERCUS.[edit]

1. Q. Robur. Common British Oak.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 148; Eng. Bot. 1342; Hook. Fl. Scot. 373; Berwick Flora, 206; Woodv. t. 126; Q. foemina, With. ii. 516; Q. pedunculata. Willd. Sp. Pl. iv. 450.
In woods and hedges, everywhere. =====2. Q. sessiliflora. Sessile-fruited Oak.===== Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 150; Eng. Bot. 1845; Hook. Fl. Scot. 273; Berwick Flora, 207; Q. Robur, With. ii. 515.
In woods and hedges, frequent.

371. FAGUS.[edit]

1. F. Castanea. Chesnut-tree.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 151; Eng. Bot. 886; With. ii. 583; Castanea vulgaris, Hook. Br. Fl. 408.
In plantations.
Not a native of the north of England.

2. F. sylvatica. Beech-tree.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 152; Eng. Bot. 1847; Hook. Fl. Scot. 274; Berwick Flora, 207.
In woods and hedges, common.

372. BETULA.[edit]

1. B. alba. Common Birch.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 153; Eng. Bot. 2198; Hook. Fl. Scot. 274; Berwick Flora, 208.
β B. pendula, Lindley's Syn. 229.
In mountainous woods and by lakes, frequent. Roth and Lindley consider Betula pendula a distinct species from B. alba, owing to its weeping branches; and, when young, its bark being smooth and warted.

373. CARPINUS.[edit]

1. C. Betulus. Horn-beam.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 155; Eng. Bot. 2032; Hook. Fl. Scot. 274.
In plantations.
Not originally a native of the north of England.

374. CORYLUS.[edit]

1. C. Avellana, Hazel-nut-tree.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 157; Eng. Bot. 723; Hook. Fl. Scot. 275; Lond. t. 17; Berwick Flora, 208.
In woods, hedges, and denes, common.


MONOECIA MONADELPHIA.[edit]

375. PINUS.[edit]

1. P. sylvestris Scotch Fir.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 158; Eng. Bot. 2460; Lightfoot, 587; Woodv. t. 207; With. iii. 811.
Only in planted woods at present, though the roots and trunks of the Fir abound in all the bogs on our highest moors.


DIOECIA DIANDRIA.[edit]

376. SALIX.[edit]

1. S. triandra. Long-leaved Triandrous Willow.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 166; Eng. Bot. 1435; With. ii. 65; Hook. Fl. Scot. 278.
In hedges near Chester-le- Street, D. On the banks of the Pont at Ponteland, N.
Rare in the north.

2. S. amygdalina. Broad-leaved Triandrous Willow, Almond-leaved Willow.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 169; Eng. Bot. 1637; With. ii. 66.
In hedges near Birtley, and at Chester-le-Street new bridge, also at Beamish and on the banks of the Derwent, D. In Heaton Wood, and in hedges near Gilsland and Cambo, at Allan Heads, and on the banks of Little Cow Lough, also near the Roman station at Risingham, N.

3. S. pentandra. Sweet Willow, Bay-leaved Willow.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 171; Eng. Bot. 1805; Hook. Fl. Scot. 279; With. ii. 69; Berwick Flora, 212.
In the Roman Foss between Shewing-shields and Carrow, in hedges near Gilsland and House-steads, in Heaton Wood, on the banks of North Tyne and of Tweed, N. By the Team near Beamish and Pockerley, on the banks of Wear near Chester-le-Street new bridge, and of Tees near Eglestone, also between Norton and Billingham, D. Near West Boldon and Cleadon, D.— Mr. R. Waugh and Mr. J. Thornhill. Near Berwick, not uncommon. — Dr. G. Johnston.

4. S. radicans. Rooting-branched Willow.[edit]

Sm. Fl. Brit. iii. 1053; Hook. Fl. Scot. 280; Br. Fl. 428; Northumberland and Durham Guide, ii. 21; S. phylicifolia, Sm. Fl. Brit. iii. 1049; Eng. Fl. iv. 173; Eng. Bot. 1958; With.ii. 71.
By ditches communicating with Prestwick Carr, N. On both banks of Derwent above Blanchland, N. and D.
That this is not Salix phylicifolia of the Swedish botanists I am certain, from Lapland specimens communicated by the late Dr. Swartz. The figure in the English Botany is good, and agrees with the plant received from Sir J. Smith.

5. S. bicolor. Shining dark-green Willow.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 178; Eng. Bot. 1806; With. ii. 70; S. lamina, Sm. Linn. Tr. vi. 122.
On the banks of Wear near Lumley Castle, and on Tees from Croft to Middleton, D. On the banks of Derwent, and of Beldon and Nuckton bourns above Blanchland, D. and N. In the hedges north of Cambo, N. By the Lune at its junction with the Tees.— W.C. Trevelyan, Esq.

6. S. vitellina. Yellow Willow.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 182; Eng. Bot. 1389; Hook. Fl. Scot. 281; With. ii. 72.
On the banks of Team, Tyne, and Wear, D. and N. At Morton Carrs, D. — Mr. Janson.

7. S. decipiens. Deceiving Willow.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 183; Eng. Bot. 1937; With. ii. 68; Berwick Flora, 212.
On the banks of Tyne, Wear, Team, and Derwent, N. and D. By the sides of Grange Bourn near Berwick. — Dr. G. Johnston.

8. S. fragilis. Crack Willow.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 184; Eng. Bot. 1807; Hook. Fl. Scot. 279; With. ii. 73.
In denes and on the banks of rivers, frequent.

9. S. Russelliana. Bedford Willow, Leicestershire or Dishley Willow.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 186; Eng. Bot. 1808; Hook. Fl. Scot. 279; With. ii. 67; Berwick Flora, 212.
On the banks of Wear and Tees, D. Near Haughton and Cockerton, D. — Mr. Janson. Near Cambo and Wallington, also by the Pont and in Heaton Dene, N. By the Tweed, common. — Dr. G. Johnston. Near Alnwick, N. — Miss Forster, delin.

10. S. Helix. Rose Willow.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 188 : Eng. Bot. 1343; With. ii. 63; Berwick Flora, 212; S. monandra, Curt. Lond. Fasc. vi. t. 71, excluding f. 2. On the banks of the rivers Tweed, Tyne, Derwent, Wear, and Tees, N. and D., but not very abundant, nor does it occur near Newcastle.

11. S. Forbiana. Basket Osier.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 191; Eng. Bot. 1344; With. ii. 64; Berwick Flora, 214; S. fissa, Sm. Linn. Tr. vi. 115.
Mas. and Foem. On the banks of Team, Derwent, Tees, Tyne, and Wear, N. and D. By the Tyne at Hopper's Fishery below Paradise, N. On the banks of Wooler Water, N. — Dr. G. Johnston.
Very distinct from S. Helix in the shape and texture of its leaves and its mode of growth. The figure in the English Botany is but indifferent.

12. S. rubra. Green-leaved Osier.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 191; Eng. Bot. 1145; With. ii. 64; S. fissa. Hoff. Sal. i. 61, t. 13, 14.
Mas. and Foem. By the Wear at Durham, and Chester-le-Street new bridge, also on the banks of the Derwent near Ebchester, D. — Foem. About Newcastle N., and Gateshead D.

13. S. Croweana. Broad-leaved Monadelphous Willow.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 192; Eng. Bot. 1146; With. ii. 65; S. Weigilliana β, Hook. Br. Fl. 429; S. nitens, Foem. Eng. Bot. t. 2655.
Mas. North of Cambo, and near Roadley Lake, N. — Mas. and Foem. On the banks of Tees near Eglestone, and above Middleton-in-Teesdale, also of Wear at Burtreeford in Weardale, D. On the banks of Derwent, and of Beldon and Nuckton Bourns above Blanchland, N. and D.
With us, the stamens of this willow are combined, proving it to be distinct from Salix Weigelliana, of Willdenow, its germens are also downy as Smith correctly described them.— See Hook. Eng. Fl. p. 430.

14. S. arenaria. Downy Mountain Willow.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl iv. 204; Eng. Bot. 1809; Hook. Fl. Scot. 283; With. ii. 78; S. lapponum, Lightfoot, 604; Hudson, 651.
Foem. On the Teesdale moors, but I do not know the exact spot, D. — Rev. J. Harriman, Sp.
Its most southern locality.

15. S. argentea. Silky Sand Willow.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 206; Eng. Bot. 1364; With. ii. 78; Berwick Flora, 214; S. arenaria, Lightfoot, 604; S. repens, Hook. Fl. Scot. 284.
Near Percy's Cross and by Roadley Lake, N. On the sea sands near Berwick. — Dr. G. Johnston. At Birch Carr, D.—Mr. Janson.
Probably an erect growing variety of S. repens.

16. S. repens. Creeping Dwarf Willow.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 209; Eng. Bot. 183; With. ii. 81; Hook. Fl. Scot. 284; Berwick Flora, 214; S. prostrata, Eng. Bot. 1959; Berwick Flora, 214; S. parvifolia, 1969; S. ascendens, Eng. Bot. 1962.
On wet moors, not rare. Newcastle Town Moor, N.; Gateshead Fell D. Near Berwick. — Dr. G.Johnston.

17. S. fusca. Brownish Dwarf Willow.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 210; Eng. Bot. 1960; With. ii. 80; S. repens δ, Hook. Fl. Scot. 284.
Mas. In barren pastures near Shewing Shields, on the Roman Wall, N. On the banks of Waskerley Bourn, D.
This little willow is well figured in the English Botany, it is a dwarf, but upright shrub, with nearly smooth leaves. Having never seen female catkins, I will not take upon me to say that it may not be one of the endless varieties of Salix repens.

18. S. rosmarinifolia. Rosemary-leaved Willow.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 214; Eng. Bot. 1365; With. ii. 82.
Foem. On the banks of the Derwent, near Friar Side, D. Near Ebchester, D.— Mr. J. Thornhill.

19. S. aurita. Round-eared Willow, Trailing Sallow.[edit]

Sm. Eng. Fl. iv. 216; Eng. Bot. 1487; With. ii. 83; Berwick Flora, 215; Hook. Fl. Scot. 285;
β Dill. Ray, 450.
α In woods and hedges; β on sterile moors.