Handbook to the Primates/Cercopithecinae Part II
THE BABOONS, MANGABEYS, AND MACAQUES
THE MACAQUES. GENUS MACACUS.
Macacus, Lacép., Mem. de l'Inst., iii., p. 450 (1801).
This genus embraces a large number of species which are characterised by having a thick-set body and short stout limbs, with the thumb set backward. The muzzle is considerably produced and rounded, but the nose does not extend as far out as the plane of the upper lip; the nostrils open in advance of its termination, and are directed obliquely outwards and downwards; their cheek-pouches are large, and their lips thick and protrusile; their eyes are approximated, and look out from below thick and prominent superciliary ridges; their ears are naked and applied flatly to the sides of the head and their hind upper angle is pointed; their callosities, which extend with age, are often surrounded by a portion of the buttocks, which is always nude. The tail is long, short, tufted, or reduced to a mere tubercle, and it may be quite invisible externally. Some have the hair of the head long, and radiating in all directions; others have the face encircled by a kind of mane. In some northern forms, the whole body is covered with a woolly fur, as a protection against cold.
In the skull the facial region predominates over the cranial, and the lower margin of the frontal bones are exserted to form a thick prominent ridge over the orbits and nose; the mastoid process on each side of the skull, behind the ear, is very prominent for the attachment of a muscle which assists in opening the mouth and in swallowing their food. Strong muscles also stretch from the back of the head to the spine for the support of the head. The canine teeth are long, and press against the anterior pre-molars of the lower jaw, the position of which is modified or distorted by the pressure, thus enabling these animals to crush and open hard-shelled fruits. Their anterior and median lower molars are four-cusped, while the posterior is markedly larger, and has five cusps and a posterior talon. The carpus, or wrist, possesses the central (os centrale) bone, and the fingers have their metacarpal bones elongated. The caudal vertebræ in the species of this genus are usually numerous; even in the short-tailed species they vary from fifteen to seventeen in number, the reduction in the length of the tail being the result of a great diminution in the size, not in the number, of the vertebræ. In the tail of one species (M. inuus), however, they are reduced in number to two or three; in the same species the tail lacks the chevron (or V-shaped) bones on its under side, as well as the processes to which the muscles for its movement are attached. Most of the Macaques have a throat-sac, which communicates with the larynx under the thyroid cartilage, and which fills with air, acting as a resonator to their voice.
The Macaques are among the commonest Monkeys of India and the East Indian islands. They occur also in Northern Africa (Morocco), and in Gibraltar, across the Straits. Eastwards they extend into Thibet and Northern China. They arealso found in Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Celebes, and in Timor, this being the most eastern habitat of any of the Anthropoidea except that of Cynopithecus niger. Dr. Blanford, in his "Mammals of British India," says that the species of the present genus resemble each other in their habits; they are found in flocks, often of considerable size, and generally composed of both sexes and of all ages. They are active animals, though less agile in their movements, whether on trees or on the ground, than the Langurs (vide infrà). Their food is varied, most of the species, if not all, eating insects as well as seeds, fruits, &c., and one kind feeding entirely on Crustacea. They have occasionally been known to devour Lizards, and, it is said, Frogs also. All have the habit of cramming food into their cheek-pouches for mastication at leisure.... The voice and gestures of all the species (M. silenus perhaps excepted) are similar, and differ from those of both the Gibbons and Langurs. Tickell notices this in his MS. Notes, and gives the following details, which are worthy of quotation: "Anger is generally silent, or, at most, expressed by a low hoarse monotone, 'Heu,' not so gular or guttural as a growl; ennui and a desire for company by a whining 'Hom,' invitation, deprecation, entreaty, by a smacking of the lips and a display of the incisors into a regular broad grin, accompanied with a subdued grunting chuckle, highly expressive, but not to be rendered on paper; fear and alarm by a loud harsh shriek, 'Kra,' or 'Kraouh,' which serves also as a warning to the others who may be heedless of danger. Unlike the Langurs and Gibbons, they have no voice, if calling to one another."
The majority of the species are very docile when young. They thrive well, and several of them have bred in confinement. The period of gestation is about seven months, only asingle young one, as a rule, being produced at a birth. They become adult at the age of four or five years, but breed earlier.
In regard to the expression of emotion among these Monkeys, Mr. Darwin has recorded of different species that when pleased they draw back the corners of the mouth in a species of smile, become red in the face when angry, and pale when afraid.
The term Macaque was given to these monkeys by Buffon, who took it, however, from what is supposed to have been the native name of an African species of Monkey, and misapplied it to this Indian group. Macacus is therefore the Latinised form of that word, which has now been applied too long to be changed.
I. THE BARBARY MACAQUE. MACACUS INUUS.
Simia inuus, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 34 (1766).
Simia sylvanus, Linn., t.c. p. 35.
Inuus ecaudatus, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 100 (1812); Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 32 (1870).
Le magot, F. Cuvier et Geoffr., Mamm., livr. ii. (1819); F. Cuv., Mammif., p. 114, pl. 41.
Macacus inuus, Desmar., Mamm., p. 67 (1820).
Inuus pithecus, Is. Geoffr., Cat. Méth., Primates, p. 31 (1851).
Macacus sylvanus, Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 115 (1876).
Characters.—Body short and thick-set, and about as big as a moderately-sized Dog. Head oblong, long, rounded, and wrinkled; face and chin naked; eyes approximated, set deep below the superciliary ridges; brow small; neck short. Ears pointed at their hind upper angle, and their margins haired; nose not prominent; nostrils two slit-like orifices converging at right angles to the partition; lips slender, extensile; upperlip broad; callosities less extensive than in the Baboons; tail invisible externally; toes longer than the fingers, and both much haired. Hair on the crown short and reflexed; hairs on the cheeks forming a whisker, directed backward; hair of the fore-arms directed towards the elbow.
Crown, and sides of head, cheeks, neck, shoulders, upper back, and front of fore-limbs golden-yellow, mixed with a few black hairs, the individual hairs being dark grey at the base, ringed for the rest of their length with yellow and grey; the rest of the upper part of the body greyish-yellow or yellowish-brown; under side of lower jaw, lower side of body, and inner face of limbs greyish-yellow, or yellowish-white; a dark spot of black hairs tipped with yellow at the inner angle of each eye, and stretching down on the cheeks; naked parts of face, ears, and callosities pale flesh-colour, as also is the thinly-haired skin of the inner sides of the limbs; tail represented by a small tubercle of naked skin. Length of the body, 2½ feet.
Female.—Exactly resembles the male in coloration, but is slightly smaller in size, and more amiable in disposition; the canines scarcely larger than the incisors.
Distribution.—This species, named by the French "Magot," inhabits Morocco, and Algeria in Northern Africa. It is found also on the Rock of Gibraltar, and some distance inland in Spain; but whether it has been transported from Africa, or has lived there since its ancestors were left isolated when the Straits of Gibraltar subsided and separated Europe from Africa, is a question impossible to decide now. It is certain that the Moors bring now, and probably for ages have been in the habit of bringing, captive specimens of this Monkey, to trade away on the European side; it is, therefore,not impossible that the "Apes of the Rock" may have thus been introduced. This is the only African (or European) species of the genus.
Habits.—This Monkey has been known to science for many centuries. It is now certain, as M. Frederick Cuvier remarks in his "History of Mammals," thanks to the researches of M. de Blainville upon the Monkey dissected by Galen, that the Pithecus of Aristotle was our Magot, as we know of no other species of Macaque without a tail. The Barbary Macaques, when on the ground, invariably walk on their four legs, but in an uneasy and clumsy manner compared with their motions when climbing; they are far more at home in trees or rocks, where they climb with amazing rapidity. They live chiefly on fruits and leaves, feeding themselves with their hands, and smelling everything they are uncertain about, before putting it into the mouth. They also eat grass very readily. They are found in large crowds in the forests of Barbary, which reach to the sea, and are very destructive to the cultivated fields of the Moors, on which they make constant raids, and during which, like the Baboons, they post sentinels to give warning of danger to their foraging friends. This Monkey sleeps on its side or in a sitting posture with its head dropped between its knees.
On the European side of the Mediterranean, these Apes were at one time very abundant on the Rock of Gibraltar, but as they robbed the gardens of the garrison they were killed by every means for several years, till they were eventually reduced to three. Orders were, however, issued by the authorities for their preservation, and a few additional pairs were imported from Africa. They now frequent the inaccessible ledges of the Rock, especially on its Mediterranean face, on which they climb about with marvellous rapidity.
In reply to inquiries about the present condition of the Barbary Apes (Macacus inuus) on the Rock, Dr. Sclater records in 1893 that General Sir Lothian Bell, the Governor of Gibraltar, had informed him "that they were now distinctly increasing in numbers. He had himself counted as many as thirty in one group, and, according to some reports, there were altogether as many as double that number on the Rock. In fact they were so numerous, and their depredations had become so serious that a short time ago an agitation had been got up for their reduction in numbers, and it would perhaps be necessary to thin them a little, but their extermination was quite out of the question, and would not be thought of."
These animals are remarkably affectionate parents, the mother constantly tending her single young one, while the males may often be seen carrying about some of the babies of the troop. When young the "Rock Ape" is playful and gentle; but, when old, becomes ill-natured and vicious.
When angry their jaws are moved up and down with great rapidity, while they give utterance to loud and harsh cries. The males fight with their strong canine teeth and their long and strong, though flat, nails, with which they are capable of inflicting deep wounds on each other. When in a good temper their voice is generally soft; but Mr. Darwin observed in the Zoological Gardens that a specimen there, when pleased, made a shrill note, and likewise drew back the corners of its mouth, apparently through the contraction of the same muscles as with human beings. The skin of the lower eyelids also became much wrinkled. "At the same time it rapidly moved its lower jaw or lips in a spasmodic manner, the teeth being exposed; but the noise produced was hardly more distinct than that which we call silent laughter. Two of the keepers affirmed that thisslight sound was the animal's laughter, and when I expressed some doubt on this head (being at the time quite inexperienced) they made it attack, or rather threaten, a hated Entellus Monkey, living in the same compartment. Instantly the whole expression of the face of the Inuus changed; the mouth was opened much more widely, the canine teeth were more fully exposed, and a hoarse barking noise was uttered."
II. THE BROWN MACAQUE. MACACUS ARCTOIDES.
Macacus speciosus, F. Cuvier, Mamm., pl. xlvi. (Feb., 1825) (founded on a drawing).
Macacus arctoides, Is. Geoffr., Mag. de Zool., 1833, p. cli., pl. ii.; Sclater, P. Z. S., 1872, p. 203; Anderson, Zool. Yun-nan, p. 45, pls. i. and ii. (1878) with full synonymy; Blanford, Faun. Brit. Ind., Mamm., p. 17 (1891); Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, viii., p. 116 (1876).
Papio melanotus, Ogilby, P. Z. S., 1839, p. 31.
Macacus melanotus, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 29 (1870).
Macacus thibetanus, Alph., Milne-Edwards, C. R., lxx., p. 341 (1870).
Macacus brunneus, Anderson, P. Z. S., 1871, p. 628, 1872, p. 203, pl. xii. (Jun.), 1874, p. 652.
Characters.—Body short and stout; head large; muzzle short and truncated; chin bulging; chin and throat almost nude; eyes large; ears large and rounded, with a pointed projection behind; limbs short, stout and strong; hands and fingers short, the terminal phalanges nude; tail almost rudimentary; callosities and surrounding region of buttocks naked.
Fur long and woolly (especially in those living at highaltitudes), longer on the head, back and limbs, shortest over the sacrum; hair on the head parted outwards from the centre; fingers slightly haired; tail thinly haired, or nude in old animals. In individuals living in the inclement regions of Eastern Thibet, the tail is thickly haired.
General colour dark brown or blackish; cheeks, underside of body, inner sides of arms and legs paler, washed with yellowish, the hairs being very closely ringed (in some more distinctly than in others), for their outer two-thirds, with alternating annulations of golden-yellow and brown, their terminal points dark brown. Face, ears, sub-caudal callosities, bright reddish flesh-colour, deeper round the eyes. Length of the body, 15-24 inches; tail 1½-2 inches.
In the young the fur is lighter. When first born it is of purely uniform brown, the annulations appearing and increasing in number with advancing age.
In a young Bornean specimen the sides, abdomen, and legs are light chestnut colour; the tips of many of the hairs golden, which with age changes more and more into blackish-brown. The tail is 3½ inches long, and extremely slender for the last two-thirds of its length—a part easily lost in captivity.
Tongue with numerous papillated glandular crypts for lubrication of the cheek-pouches. Throat-pouch situated in an excavated hollow in the hyoid bone, the pouch being continuous with the convergence of the vocal chords.
Skull with strong inwardly projecting supra-orbital processes; external opening for the nostrils triangular. The anterior upper incisors appear first, followed by the anterior pre-molar, the median molar, the median pre-molar, and then the canines; anterior molar four-cusped; anterior lower molar five-cusped. Caudal vertebræ eleven in number.
Distribution.—Moupin in N.W. China, living on the snow-clad mountains; Upper Burmah (Bahmo); Siam; the Cachar and Kachin hill-region on the western frontier of the Province of Yun-nan, China; North-west Borneo, on the mainland opposite Labuan. This species has been recorded, but erroneously, from Madras, whither specimens are imported from Burmah, or from the Malayan Islands.
Dr. John Anderson, the distinguished naturalist of the Yun-nan Expedition, gives the following interesting remarks in reference to the distribution of this species: "M. arctoides would seem to have a considerable range of distribution, in which, however, it conforms to that which is distinctive of a large series of the Mammalian forms which occur in the same region. It has been obtained in Cachar, and I have learned of its existence in Upper Assam, and have procured it alive in the Kachin Hills on the frontier of Yun-nan, beyond which it spreads to the south-east of Cochin-China. It seems essentially to be a hill or mountain form—occurring only in the mountainous regions of Cachar, being absent in the valley of the Irawady, but stretching round it into Yun-nan from Upper Assam, being doubtless distributed over the mountainous region that intervenes between the Irawady and Cochin-China."
Habits.—Of this Macaque little is known in a wild state. It is, however, very docile and gentle in captivity. In life the tail is rarely carried erect, and is as a rule applied over the anus; its latter fourth being doubled on itself to the left, and serving to fill up the interspace between the divergent portion of the callosities, so that the animal sits on this portion of its tail, which contains only a few rudiments of vertebræ at itsbase, and the upper surface of which is rough and somewhat callous.... Here we have a monkey which sits on its tail, and although it may be that it does not invariably do so, I am prepared to state, after careful observation, that it does so very frequently; and there is the more importance to be attached to this observation, because this habit appears to be a peculiarity of the species. (Anderson.)
III. RUFOUS STUMP-TAILED MACAQUE. MACACUS RUFESCENS.
Macacus rufescens, Anderson, P. Z. S., 1872, p. 204 (Juv.); id., Zool. Exped. Yun-nan, p. 79 (1878); Scl., P. Z. S., 1872, p. 495, pl. xxiv.; 1873, p. 194.
Macacus arctoides, Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 116 (1876; part).
Characters.—Very nearly related to M. arctoides, of which it is perhaps only a southern race. Face red, more brilliant round the orbits; nose and lips brownish; tail stumpy, thinly haired. Fur rather brilliant brick-red, especially on the cheeks, flanks, and outside of the limbs. This animal is known, however, only from young specimens.
IV. THE MOOR MACAQUE. MACACUS MAURUS.
Macacus maurus, F. Cuvier, Mamm., pl. xlv. (Avril, 1823); Anderson, Zool. Exped. Yun-nan, p. 80 (1878, pt.; with full synonymy); Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 117 (1876).
Cynocephalus niger (?), Quoy et Gaim., Voy. de l'Astrol., Zool, i., p. 67 (1830).
Macacus arctoides, Is. Geoffr., Zool. Bélang. Voy., p. 61 (1834); id., Arch. Mus., ii., p. 573.
Macacus ocreatus, Ogilby, P. Z. S., 1840, p. 56; Sclater, in Wolf, Zool. Sketches, ii., pl. i. (1865); id., P. Z. S., 1860, p. 420, pl. lxxxii.; Anderson, t.c., p. 81 (pt).
Macacus fusco-ater, Schinz, Syn. Mamm. i., p. 58 (1844).
Macacus inornatus, Gray, P. Z. S., 1866, p. 202, pl. xix.; id., Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 129 (1870).
Characters.—Face narrow and elongated, nude, except for a few short hairs on the upper lip; nose flat; ears rather long, rounded, thinly haired; hair on one side of the head forming a somewhat large whisker; groin, region external to the callosities, and down the thighs thinly haired; tail very short, nude, curved upwards; frontal band, face, and ears black; callosities and the surrounding parts thinly-haired; region of the buttocks flesh-coloured; hairs on the upper lip black; whisker-tufts black, with greyish tips; rest of the head and body sooty-black; lower side of neck, rump, under surface of body, inside of limbs, fore-arms, legs, and back of thighs grey; tail, black. Length of body, 21 inches; of tail, 1 inch.
In the skull the outer surface of the outer margin of the orbits is flattened; the nasal bones are short and expanded.
This species is distinguished from M. arctoides and M. fuscatus, by the colour of the face being black, instead of bright red.
Distribution.—This species, whose true home was for a long time unknown, but was assumed to be Borneo, has been certainly ascertained to be confined to the Southern Peninsula of Celebes, and to the neighbouring island of Bouton. Dr. Anderson speaks of a Monkey from the Aru Islands, far to the east of Celebes, "if not identical with M. maurus,at least so closely allied to it that I hesitate to separate it." The specimens both from Borneo and from Aru, if truly brought from these islands, must have been carried there in the stream of commerce from Celebes to the eastward in the first instance.
V. THE JAPANESE MACAQUE. MACACUS FUSCATUS.
Macacus speciosus, F. Cuv., Mammif., pl. 46 (1825); Murie, P. Z. S., 1872, p. 780; Sclater, P. Z. S., 1875, p. 418, pl. xlvii.; Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 114 (1876.)
Inuus speciosus (nec. F. Cuv.), Temm., Faun. Jap. Zool. Mamm., p. 9, pl. i., figs. 1 to 8; pl. ii., figs. 1 to 6 (1847); Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 32 (1870).
Macacus fuscatus, Blyth, J. A. S. Beng., xliv., extra no., p. 6 (1875); Sclater, P. Z. S., 1876, p. 332; Anderson, Zool. Exped. Yun-nan, p. 78 (1878; with full synonymy).
Characters.—Face nude, prolonged forwards; muzzle prominent; superciliary ridges overhanging the eyes; eyebrows meeting in the mid-line; a bar over the eyes across the forehead bald, except for a few very short hairs; fur in general, long, soft, silky, and thick; short hairs forming a sort of whisker on the cheeks, continuous with the hair on the head and the moderately long beard; abdomen, chest, and inner surface of limbs thinly haired; ears large and, except on the margins, covered with long silky hairs; tail short, equally clad with long hairs, and with a terminal tuft, varying from 2-3 inches in length. Length of body, 24 inches. Face in life intensely red, with a purplish hue; nose and lower lip washed with brown; callosities and naked parts of the scrotal region purplish-red; sparse hairs of the face dark brown; general colour of fur dark brown, or yellowish-brown, or olive, darkest alongthe middle of the back, the hairs being ringed with yellow and brown, or black and brown; sides of head, breast, under surface of body, under sides of limbs, and under side of tail greyish; beard yellowish-brown.
The hair is not annulated in the young animal.
Distribution.—Japan. Common on the hills at Kioto, according to Mr. Gower, who was H.B.M. Consul at Hiogo in 1875. Dr. J. Rein records that it is found all over the island of Nippon up to 41° N. latitude, and has consequently a further northern habitat than any other existing Monkey.
Habits.—Nothing is known of the habits of the Japanese Macaque; but they are in all probability similar to those of its Indian relatives.
VI. THE LEONINE MACAQUE. MACACUS LEONINUS.
Macacus leoninus, Blyth, Cat. Mamm. Mus. A. S. Beng., p. 7 (1863); Sclater, P. Z. S., 1870, p. 663, pl. xxxv. (male and female); Anderson, Zool. Exped. Yun-nan, p. 52 (1878; with full synonymy); Blanford, Faun. Brit. Ind. Mamm., p. 18, fig. 6 (1891).
Macacus andamanensis, Bartlett, Land and Water, viii., p. 57 (1869); P. Z. S., 1869, p. 467.
Inuus leoninus, Blyth, J. A. S. Beng., xliv., p. 2 (1875).
Characters.—A thick-set, short-limbed, somewhat Dog-like animal; head, broad, flat above; the muzzle short; tail short, turned over the back, about one-third the length of the body.
Upper surface of head with short fur radiating from the vertex, "surrounded in front and on both sides by a horse-shoe-shaped crest, the supra-orbital portion of which consists of very stiff hairs." (Blanford.) Face thinly covered with fine hairs;along the sides of the face a backwardly directed whisker meeting below the chin. Fur on the back of the neck, shoulders, and upper part of the fore-limb, long, shorter behind the shoulders and shortest on the rump; buttocks sparsely haired; tail somewhat tufted; belly and upper and inner parts of the limbs thinly haired. Length, 23 inches; tail (without the tuft), 8 inches.
Male.—Face brownish flesh-colour on the muzzle and between the eyes, bluish-white round the latter; frontal bar white; a narrow line from the outer corner of the eye backwards, red; a horse-shoe-shaped crest, mid-line of back, lower back, sacral region, and upper surface of tail, black, the hairs being grey at base, and dark brown, or black, along their outer portion; ears flesh-coloured, and the hair on and round them white; region above the eyes and round the face, chin, and throat, yellowish-brown—the hairs being ringed, above their grey bases, with dark brown and orange, and tipped with black; on the shoulders, back of the neck and upper part of the arms orange olive—the hairs having the orange rings more predominant than the brown; rest of the fore limb yellowish-olive; thighs dusky-grey, washed with black; buttocks grey; lower parts of body, inner sides of limbs, and under side of tail, light greyish-brown; caudal tuft often bright rufous. Excepting on the head, loins, tail, and buttocks, all the hairs are annulated, above their grey bases, with orange and brown, and dark-tipped. Hands and feet dusky flesh-colour.
Female.—Smaller than the males, but the black of the head and back absent, and the hairs of the under-parts not annulated; shoulders brighter than the rest of the body, which is yellowish-olive, and greyish-olive on the outside of the limbs.
Male.—Skull smaller, shorter, and more globular than that of M. nemestrinus, which is its nearest ally; muzzle less projecting; little or no depression of the nose between the eyes; supra-orbital ridges prominent; orbits large, approximated; skull of the female feebler in all respects.
Distribution.—Southern portion of Arracan, and the valley of the Irawady in Upper Burmah. The Andaman Islands, whence Mr. Bartlett described a specimen as a new species, was an erroneous habitat, as the specimen had been introduced there from Burmah.
Habits.—Very little is known of this rare species in its native state. In captivity the females and the males, when young, become very tame, and are capable of being taught various performances. A female which lived in the Zoological Society's Gardens in 1869 was educated by the blue-jackets of one of Her Majesty's ships, who had obtained her at the Andaman Islands, and kept her on board for three or four years before she was sent to the Gardens. "Jenny" exhibited an extraordinary degree of cleverness, as Mr. Bartlett, the Superintendent, has narrated in Land and Water. She could drink out of a bottle and smoke a pipe. She walked upright on her hind legs with remarkable facility, and with much less effort than even the performing Monkeys of the London streets. When in an erect attitude she would carry things.
VII. THE PIG-TAILED MACAQUE. MACACUS NEMESTRINUS.
Simia nemestrina, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 35 (1766).
Le Maimon, Audeb., Hist. Nat. Singes, Fam. ii., Sect. i., pl. i. (1797).
Inuus nemestrinus, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 101 (1812).
Macacus nemestrinus, F. Cuvier, Hist. Nat. Mamm, livr. xlii. (1820); livr. xliv. (1822); Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 29 (1870); Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 110 (1876); Anderson, Zool. Exped. Yun-nan, p. 77 (1878; with full synonymy).
Characters.—Male.—Of large size, even approaching that of "a good sized Mastiff." (Anderson.) Body short, and broad-chested; head flattened; muzzle long and Baboon-like; supra-orbital ridges large; limbs long and powerful; tail slender, about one-third the length of the body, pointed, and carried erect; face, ears, and callosities nude; sometimes a short membrane uniting the first phalanges of the fore and middle fingers and the second and third toes.
Fur short, longer over the shoulders; that on the top of the head radiating from a centre, short, erect and abundant; hair below and on the tail less abundant, that on the belly very sparse.
In the skull the protruding facial region is much larger proportionately than the cranial region; the orbits large, and nearly circular.
Face dark flesh-colour; ears and callosities the same; general colour of fur olive, the hairs being at the base grey, ringed higher up with alternate black and yellow bars, the predominance of the one bar over the other producing a brighter olive, even a yellow, or a deep brown colour; top of the head deep brown or brownish-black, extending along the middle of the back, broadening on the rump and basal part of the tail. Sides of the face blackish-grey; under surface of the body and inner side of the limbs greyish white; arms and legs lighter than the back; outer surface of the thighs olive-grey; hands and feet olive-brown.
Length of body, 18½ inches; of tail, 8 inches.
Females.—Similar to the males; the young of both sexes more brightly coloured than the adults. Gestation in the Pig-tailed Macaque lasts, according to Dr. Blanford, seven months and twenty days. A singular variety of a female from the Baram river, in Sarawak, Borneo, is of a dark fulvous above, darker in the mesial line, much paler on the lower surface, and growing nearly white on the middle of the chest.
Distribution.—Tenasserim, and chiefly in the southern parts of that province; Southern Burmah, the Malay peninsula, Bangka, Sumatra, Java, and Borneo.
Habits.—The Pig-tailed Macaque inhabits the thick jungles in the lower country, living in considerable companies, and feeding on fruits, seeds, and insects. "When young, these Monkeys are easily tamed," as Mr. Charles Hose records, "and in some places they are used to climb the cocoa-nut trees to throw down the nuts, the Monkeys having been taught to throw down only the ripe ones." This observation as to its collecting cocoa-nuts was also made many years ago by Sir Stamford Raffles in Sumatra. When old, the males are very savage, and will attack a Dog when provoked.
VIII. THE LION-TAILED MACAQUE. MACACUS SILENUS.
Simia silenus, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 35 (1766); Schreber, Säugeth., i., p. 87, pl. xi. (1775).
Cercopithecus veter, Erxl., Syst. Regn. An., p. 24 (1777).
Simia ferox, Shaw, Gen. Zool., i., p. 30, pl. xvi. (1800).
Papio silenus, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 102 (1812); Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., p. 18 (1820).
Macacus silenus, Desm., Mamm., p. 63 (1820); Anders., Zool. Exped. Yun-nan, p. 93 (1878; with full synonymy); Blanford, Faun. Brit. Ind., Mamm., p. 16, fig. 5; Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 109 (1876).
Silenus veter, Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Brit. Mus., p. 32 (1870).
Characters.—Head round; muzzle wide; hair on top of the head very short; face surrounded by long hairs, concealing the ears, and meeting under the chin; ears naked; face, hands, feet, and callosities naked; tail slender, one-half to three-quarters the length of the body and tufted with hair. Length, 24 inches; tail, 10 inches.
Skull rounded; muzzle wide in front, contracted at the base, concave beneath the orbits; orbital ridges large, and the frontal bone widely depressed behind them; pre-molars and molars small. The structure of this animal is essentially that of the ordinary Macaques, although it differs from them so much in external physiognomy. (Anderson).
Body, limbs, and tail deep black; a ruff of long hairs round the head, darkish grey; chest greyish or white; tail tipped with greyish or white; face, hands, and feet black; callosities flesh-coloured.
Distribution.—"The Lion-tailed Macaque inhabits the Western Ghats from below Goa to Cape Comorin, but there is no authentic record of its existence in a wild state in Ceylon." (Anderson.) It lives at a considerable altitude above the sea.
Habits.—This species, according to Jerdon (to whom, as Dr. Blanford observes, we are indebted for the only authentic account of this animal in a wild state), inhabits the most dense and unfrequented forests of the hills near the Malabar coast, in herds of from twelve to twenty or more. It is shy and wary.In captivity it is sulky and savage, and not easily taught. The call of the male is said to resemble the voice of a Man.
IX. HIMALAYAN MACAQUE. MACACUS ASSAMENSIS.
Macacus assamensis, McClell.; Horsfield, P. Z. S., 1839, p. 148; Blyth, J. A. Soc. Beng., xiii., p. 746 (1844); Anderson, Zool. Exp. Yun-nan, p. 64 (1878; with synonymy); Blanford, Faun. Brit. Ind., Mamm., p. 15 (1888).
Macacus pelops, Hodgs., J. A. S., Beng., ix., p. 1213 (1840); Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Brit. Mus., p. 30 (1870).
Macacus problematicus, Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Brit. Mus., p. 128 (1870); Sclater, P. Z. S., 1871, p. 222.
Macacus rheso-similis, Scl., P. Z. S., 1872, p. 495, pl. xxv. (Juv.)
Macacus erythræus, Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas., vii, p. 112 1876; (part).
Characters.—Larger and more strongly-built than M. rhesus. Fur moderately long, wavy, woolly (in some specimens), and without rings; the hair of the crown radiating from the centre of the forehead outwards and backwards; the hair round the face and on the chin rather long; that on and between the shoulders, and on the sides of the chest, longer than on the hind part of the body; hairs on the lower part of the flanks rather long; tail about, or less than, half the length of the body, not tufted, but longer, smaller, and much less densely furred than in M. rhesus; callosities surrounded by fur; ears tufted, and haired inside; beard well developed; face and ears dusky. Length, 26¾ inches; tail, 9¼ inches.
The fur above differs from that of M. rhesus, in the anterior half being uniform dark brown, wanting the ashy-grey tint; and the hinder portion brown, without the rufous seen inM. rhesus; the outside of the fore-limbs, the back of the neck, and region between the shoulders, brown, washed with yellowish or golden; upper surface of head pale yellowish-brown; flanks, front of fore-limbs, outer aspect of thighs, back of feet and tail, darker; under surface of body and inside of limbs yellowish-grey or greyish-yellow; behind the angle of the mouth, below and behind the ears, and on the chin, the hairs are yellowish-grey, tipped with black; face and callosities, pale flesh-coloured.
The skull and skeleton agree closely with those of M. rhesus, but are somewhat larger. Canine teeth long, and deeply grooved in front.
Distribution.—This Macaque inhabits the Himalayan ranges as far west as Masuri, or perhaps further, from near the base of the hills to a considerable elevation (Blanford); it extends eastwards from the Nepal Region of the Himalaya through Assam and the north-eastern portion of Bengal into the upper or hilly portion of the valley of the Irawady. (Anderson.) This species is said to have its home generally between 3,000 and 6,000 feet above the sea. Dr. Anderson obtained on the Irawady, 25 miles below Bhamo, a female out of a large colony "living below the huge Deva-faced limestone cliff, at the foot of which lies the small pagoda of Sessoungan. The crews of passing boats and pious visitors generally throw rice and fruits to these Monkeys as a work of merit."
Habits.—This species probably represents a Himalo-Burman race or sub-species of M. rhesus. Its habits are much the same as those of that species, but it is said to have a slightly different voice and to be more sluggish, according to Blanford.
X. THE BENGAL MACAQUE. MACACUS RHESUS.
Simia rhesus, var. Audeb., Hist. Nat. Singes, Fam. ii., Sec. i., p. 5, pl. i. (1797).
Simia erythræa, Schreber, Säugeth, Suppl., pl. 8, fig. c.
Macacus erythræus, Cuv., Hist. Nat., Mamm., pl. xxxviii. (young; Oct., 1819); pls. xxxix. (1821) and xl. (1825; male); Gerv., Hist. Nat., Mamm., p. 91 (figs. ♂ and ♀; heads; 1834); Swinhoe, P. Z. S., 1870, p. 226; Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 112 (1876).
Macacus rhesus, Desm., Mamm., p. 66, pl. vii., fig. 2 (1820); Anders., Zool. Exped. Yun-nan, p. 55, pl. iii. (with synonymy); Blanford, Faun. Brit. Ind., Mamm., p. 13.
Characters.—Body thick-set and with powerful limbs; face long and narrow, the muzzle somewhat projecting; a few short and coarse hairs on the lips, chin, and cheeks; eyes rather oval; ears somewhat large and sparsely haired. Fur moderately long and straight; hair of head coarse, not radiating, beginning on the orbital ridge, covering the forehead, and directed backwards; fingers haired to the end of the first digits; nails rather claw-like; toes haired; callosities surrounded by a semi-nude part of the buttocks; tail tapering, nearly one-half the length of the body. Length of males, 22 inches, with a tail of 10 inches; females, 16-18 inches, with a tail of 7-8 inches, the hair projecting 1½ inch beyond the vertebræ.
Face flesh-coloured, and sprinkled with short, silky, buff-coloured hair; general colour of the fur on the anterior and upper surface of the body and arms, greyish-brown, the hairs ashy at base, ringed with yellowish or light brown, and tipped with darker brown, or even black, giving a rich rufous, speckled appearance; hinder quarters and outer aspect of the thighsrufous-yellow, the hairs terminating in this colour; lower parts pale yellowish-white, or pale rufous yellow; base of the tail yellowish-chestnut, the rest browner; callosities flesh-colour; eyes yellowish-brown.
Distribution.—The Bengal Monkey is distributed abundantly throughout Northern India as far south as the Godaveri river on the one side, and Bombay on the other, and was long considered to be a characteristic species of Bengal and Upper India. It occurs, however, as Dr. Anderson records, in the valleys of the mountain systems to the north and east of Akyab, and may be traced across the range of mountains that defines Arracan from Burmah, and also as far east as the left bank of the Irawady below Mandalay. It has been obtained in Assam, and by Dr. Anderson in Yun-nan during the expedition to that country. It is said to ascend to 10,000 feet in Kashmir. Mr. Swinhoe obtained this Monkey also in Hainan, and in the Province of Kiung Chow, in China.
Habits.—The Bengal Macaque, or Bandar, as it is named by the Hindoos, lives in troops of considerable size in jungle or low forest, and very often in rocky places, feeding on insects, fruits, and leaves. It is very frequently seen on the ground searching for food, according to Dr. Blanford, and near cultivation, especially around tanks or amongst trees on the banks of streams. It swims well and takes readily to water. It is a very quarrelsome species, perpetually screaming and fighting. If not really sacred to the Hindoos, it is at least rarely molested by them. Dr. Bowdler Sharpe informs the present writer that he observed a flock of these Macaques on the road to Simla, when nearing the latter place. They were running along the road, and as the "tonga" approached, they scrambled up the rocks, and jabbered vociferously, especiallythe females, who were carrying their young. On Jacko there was, in 1885, a large troop of these animals, and they did considerable damage in the kitchen gardens of the mountain residences, so that the gardeners had to keep a sharp look-out, and fire at them occasionally. When he was staying at Mr. Hume's beautiful place at Simla in 1885, it was often necessary to drive off the Monkeys, and as one or two had been wounded by the head-gardener, the fakir who lived at the top of Jacko was much offended. This man had tamed the Monkeys to such an extent that, when he called them, the trees instantly began to move in all directions with the approach of numbers of these animals hastening to him for the peas which he had in readiness for them. They clustered round him, and though they would not allow strangers to stroke them, they came within arm's length and picked up their food. One patriarch, who remained for some time after the tribe had disappeared into the trees, was called the "Subadar," and wore quite a venerable appearance. Mr. R. Swinhoe has, in the "Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London," given the following curious Chinese observations, extracted from the "Chinese Gazetteer," in reference to this species, which is often called the Hainan Rock-Monkey: "How (or Monkey). The She-Show ('Notes on Animals') states that the Monkey has no stomach, but digests its food by jumping about. According to ancient authors, Kiung Chow abounds in Monkeys, and its people make a trade by selling young ones."
"About the jungles of Nychow (S. Hainan) these Monkeys," says Mr. Swinhoe, "were very common. On our landing, abreast of the ship we saw a large party of them on the beach, but they at once retired into a grove above high-water mark. We watched them running along the boughs of the trees andjumping from branch to branch. The discharge of a fowling-piece soon made them scurry away into the thicket, but every now and again their heads would appear from the higher bushes, watching the movements of the enemy. At last, when they observed that our presence implied actual danger to themselves, they climbed the hills and posted themselves about conspicuous rocks, where they chattered and grunted out of danger. Their cries are very like those of Macacus cyclopis of Formosa."
The young clings to its mother's stomach for about a fortnight after birth, and is nursed with the greatest care by her; after that time it is able to move about by itself, and it thenceforward rapidly acquires the full use of its powers.
Mr. Darwin records that the face of the M. rhesus, when much enraged, grows red. When watching this species in the Zoological Gardens, he says: "Another Monkey attacked a Rhesus, and I saw its face redden as plainly as that of a Man in a violent passion. In the course of a few minutes, after the battle, the face of this Monkey recovered its natural tint. At the same time that the face reddened, the naked posterior part of the body, which is always red, seemed to grow still redder, but I cannot positively assert that this was the case."
XI. THE HAIRY-EARED MACAQUE. MACACUS LASIOTIS.
Macacus lasiotis, Gray, P. Z. S., 1868, p. 61, pl. vi.; id., Cat. Monkeys, Brit. Mus., p. 129 (1870); Anders., Zool. Exped. Yun-nan, p. 83 (1878; with synonymy).
Macacus rhesus, Sclater, P. Z. S., 1871, p. 222.
Macacus erythræus (nec Cuv.), Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 112 (1876).
Characters.—Very nearly allied to Macacus rhesus, from which it differs in its larger size, more hairy ears, and more richlycoloured fur, the hairs having the yellow rings rich orange or brick-red, especially on the hind quarters.
Fur long, fine, and silky, longest on the shoulders, neck, and upper surface of feet; hair on the top of the head not radiated; ears hairy; callosities surrounded by hair; a naked red spot at the outer angle of the eyes; tail about one-fourth of the body in length.
Male.—Dark rich olive-yellow; face pale flesh-colour; sides of the face, neck, and front part of the body olive-grey; hinder parts of the body brick-red; the slaty colour of the fore-limbs, and of the anterior aspect of the legs becoming black on the hands and feet; ears flesh-colour; callosities crimson; throat, chest, and inside of the fore-limbs greyish, washed with rufous above the wrists; belly and inside of the hind limbs greyish, washed with orange-red.
Female.—Fawn-colour, washed with red, especially on the lower back. Face brighter coloured than in the male. Tail one-fourth the length of the body.
Skull more massive, shorter, and markedly broader and with a more vertical muzzle than M. rhesus.
Distribution.—Province of Szechuen, W. China: Dupleix Mountains, 13,000 feet. (Bonvalot.)
Habits.—Little is known of the habits of this Chinese representative of the Bengal Macaque. In the winter it is said to have a splendid coat of rich brown hair, very long and thick. It is very fierce and powerful.
XII. THE TCHELI MACAQUE. MACACUS TCHELIENSIS.
Macacus tcheliensis, Milne Edwards, Rech. Mamm., p. 227, pls. xxxii. and xxxiii. (1868-1874); A. David, Journ. North China Branch As. Soc., 1873, p. 230.
Macacus rhesus (nec Audeb.), Scl., P. Z. S., 1871, p. 222.
Macacus erythræus, Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 112 (1876).
Macacus lasiotis, Anderson, Zool. Exped. Yun-nan, p. 83 (1878 pt.).
Characters.—The Macacus tcheliensis is another species with a very close affinity to M. rhesus, and to M. lasiotis. Dr. Anderson, indeed, has united the Tcheli and the Hairy-eared Macaques under one species; while Dr. Sclater is not prepared to consider either of them, or M. cyclopis in addition, to be distinct from M. rhesus.
M. tcheliensis has the tail as long only as the hind foot, and densely clothed with long hair. Fur rather long, soft, and silky, and thicker than in the normal M. rhesus. General colour brilliant reddish-fawn, especially on the hinder part of the back and on the tail; sides of the cheeks and shoulders greyish, the yellow rings of the hair being absent; under surface of the body and inner side of the limbs grey; hands and feet greyish-fawn.
The skulls of M. lasiotis and M. tcheliensis are scarcely distinguishable from each other.
Distribution.—North China. Dr. Bushell, of H.M. Legation in Pekin, who was the first to send this rare Monkey to Europe, writes, in a letter dated 17th January, 1880: "It was obtained by me from the mountains near Yung-ling or Eastern Mausoleum, of the reigning Manchu dynasty, situated about 70 li from Pekin, in latitude 40° N. It is covered with a thick fur fitted to endure the bitterly cold winter of this part of North China, where the thermometer frequently goes down to 10° below zero."
Habits.—Nothing has yet been recorded of the habits of this Macaque in a state of nature.
XIII. ST. JOHN'S MACAQUE. MACACUS SANCTI-JOHANNIS.
Inuus sancti-johannis, Swinhoe, P. Z. S., 1866, p. 556.
Macacus sancti-johannis, Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Brit. Mus. App., p. 129 (1870; in part); Sclater, P. Z. S., 1871, p. 222; Anderson, Zool. Exped. Yun-nan, p. 86 (1878).
Macacus rhesus, pt. Sclater, P. Z. S., 1871, p. 222.
Macacus erythræus, pt. Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 112 (1876).
Young Female.—Appears to be allied most nearly to M. lasiotis. Face narrow and somewhat projecting; eyes bright hazel; face and ears flesh-coloured; a black whisker-like tuft on either cheek; skin of the upper parts tinted with blue, and sparsely covered with hairs of a light grey; hairs of the belly buff; fur of the upper parts greyish-brown, washed with buff, which is lighter on the head, and brick-dust-red round about the rump. Tail, 4½ inches long, blackish; callosities flesh-coloured. (Swinhoe.)
Distribution.—China; North Lena Island, and most of the small islands near Hong Kong.
Habits.—Nothing is known of the habits of St. John's Macaque. "Dried bodies of this animal," writes Mr. Swinhoe its describer, "split in two are often exhibited hanging from the ceiling in druggists' shops, in Canton and Hong Kong; and its bones are used for medicinal purposes."
XIV. THE FORMOSAN ROCK-MACAQUE. MACACUS CYCLOPIS.
Macacus cyclopis, Swinh., P. Z. S., 1862, p. 353, pl. xiii., 1864, p. 380; Sclater, P. Z. S., 1864, p. 711 (woodcut); Anderson, Zool. Exped. Yun-nan, p. 87 (1878; with synonymy).
Macacus sancti-johannis, Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Brit. Mus. App., p. 129 (1870; in part); Scl., P. Z. S., 1871, p. 222.
Macacus rhesus, Scl., P. Z. S., 1871, p. 222.
Macacus erythræus, pt. Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 112 (1876).
Characters.—Allied to M. rhesus, but the head round; the face flat, and round; supra-orbital region bare, as in other species; cheeks dark-whiskered; ears small and haired; a strong ruff-like beard; tail stout, thickly haired and tufted, 12 inches long. Fur thick and woolly; hair behind the mouth, and below and behind the ears ringed; hair not longer on the shoulders than on the rest of the body.
General colour olive-grey, or slaty; the hairs finely freckled with yellow; no rufous on the lower back and hind quarters; legs dark, and a distinct black line along the top of the tail.
The characters of the head, face, whiskers, beard, and the thick tail, and the absence of the rufous colour distinguish it from M. rhesus. M. assamensis is redder than M. rhesus or M. cyclopis, and has a long head, projecting face, and a short tail.
Female.—Smaller and rather lighter coloured than the male. At the love-period the naked posterior parts with the thighs and tail become excessively swollen, and florid.
Distribution.—The island of Formosa, where it is the only known species of Monkey.
Habits.—The late Consul Swinhoe was the discoverer of this interesting animal. He has given an account of its habits in the "Proceedings of the Zoological Society," from which we quote the following: "The Formosan Rock-Macaque affects rocks and declivities that overhang the sea, and in the solitarycaverns makes its abode. On the treeless mountain in the south-west, called Apes' Hill, it was at one time especially abundant, but has since almost entirely disappeared. About the mountains of the north and east it is still numerous, being frequently seen playing and chattering among the steep rocks, miles from any tree or wood. It seems to be quite a rock-loving animal, seeking the shelter of caves during the greater part of the day, and assembling in parties in the twilight, and feeding on berries, the tender shoots of plants, Grasshoppers, Crustacea, and Mollusca. In the summer it comes in numbers during the night, and commits depredations among the fields of sugar-cane, as well as among fruit-trees, showing a partiality for the small, round, clustering berries of the Longan (Nephelium longanum). In the caverns among these hills they herd; and in June the females may frequently be seen in retired parts of the hills with their solitary young one at their breasts. These animals betray much uneasiness at human approach, disappearing in no time, and skulking in their holes till the intruder has passed. They seem, too, to possess abundance of self-complaisance and resource; for I have frequently seen a Monkey seated on a rock by himself, chattering and crying merely for his own amusement and gratification. Whatever Mr. Waterton may say of the tree-loving propensity of Monkeys in general, it is very certain that this species shows a marked preference for bare rocks, covered only with grass and bush; for if he preferred the forest he might very easily satisfy his desire by retiring a few miles further inland, where he could find it in abundance. But, on the contrary, in the forest he is only an occasional intruder, resorting thither when food fails him on the grassy hills by the sea, where he loves to make his home. The Chinese have a fanciful idea that the tail of the Monkey is a caricature of the Tartar pendant into which they twist their long black hair, and they invariably chop it off any Monkey that comes into their possession. Hence the difficulty of procuring Monkeys in China with perfect tails."
XV. THE CRAB-EATING MACAQUE. MACACUS CYNOMOLOGUS.
Simia cynomologus, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 38 (1766); Schreber, Säugeth, i., p. 91, pl. xiii. (1775).
Le Macaque, F. Cuv., Hist. Nat., Mammif., livr. xxx., xxxi. (1819).
Macacus carbonarius, F. Cuv., Hist. Nat., Mamm. livr. xxxii. (Oct., 1825).
Macacus aureus, Geoffr. in Belang. Voyage, Zool., p. 58 (1834).
Macacus philippensis, Is. Geoffr., Cat. Méth Primates, p. 29 (1851).
Inuus (Macacus) palpebrosus, Wagner in Schreb. Säugeth, Suppl., v., p. 54 (1855).
Macacus fur, Slack, Proc. Acad. Sc. Philad., 1867, p. 36, plate.
Macacus cristatus, Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Brit. Mus., p. 30 (1870).
Macacus assamensis, Gray, t. c., p. 31.
Cercocebus cynomologus, Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 101 (1876).
Macacus cynomologus, Anderson, Zool. Exped. Yun-nan, p. 73 (1878; with synonymy); Blanford, Faun. Brit. India Mamm., p. 21 (1891).
Characters.—Body large and massive; head large and broad; legs short and stout; loins slender; hinder quarters heavy; tail thick at the root, nearly equalling the body in length; muzzle long; nose not prominent above the face; eyes large; ears erect, pointed, nearly hairless; frontal ridges not much overhanging the eyes.
Face pale brown, or livid with a bluish-white patch internalto the eyes, the eyelids bluish-white; ears, hands, and feet black; callosities bright or dusky flesh-colour; fur straight; hair of the crown not elongated, directed backwards, sometimes radiated or slightly crested; general colour of the upper surface dusky or greyish-brown, varying to reddish- or golden-brown; under surface of the body and inside of the limbs brownish-grey to white, the hairs being dark at their roots, and higher up ringed with yellow and brown or black; scrotum brown, blotched with livid blue. Length, 22 inches; tail, 19 inches. The females are smaller.
Of this species there are several varieties or races, one in which the prominent colour is golden-rufous (M. aureus, Geoffr.); another (M. carbonarius, F. Cuv.) in which blackish-brown is the prevailing tint of the face, naked hands, feet, and callosities; a third race has a light yellow fur (M. cristatus, Gray); still another (M. philippensis), from the Philippine Islands, is nearly white.
Distribution.—This species is one of the most widely distributed of all the Macaques. The more typical specimens are found in Burmah and Arakan. In Siam a pale variety with less orange in the annulations of its hairs occurs. In the Nicobar Islands (perhaps introduced as Dr. Blanford suggests), in the Malay Peninsula, and in Sumatra, Java, Bali, Lombock, and Timor, the darker (or M. carbonarius) variety seems to predominate. From Borneo—where it ascends to 5,000 feet above the sea—comes the crested, and perhaps also the golden-rufous coloured race (the true home of the latter being still unknown). In the Philippine Archipelago—in Mindanao, Basilan, Luzon, Negros, Samar, and others of the islets—the very light yellow coloured race is met with.
Habits.—The Crab-eating Macaque is gregarious, going about in troops of fifteen to twenty, of both sexes and all ages. They frequent the forests near the river mouths, and coastal mangrove swamps, where they may be constantly seen wading about in the mud, picking up Shrimps and Crabs, which are their favourite food. Tickell says that they swim and dive well. The females are easily trained, and also the young males; but these, when old, are apt to become ill-natured and uncertain in disposition. The mothers are good and tender to their young one, which clings closely with hands and feet for the first few weeks to the hair of the chest or arm-pits and abdomen.
Mr. Everett met with this species in the islands of Sirhassen and Bunguran in the Natuna group, where he says they were abundant. He adds: "They come down in large parties to the sea-shore, sitting in groups on the larger boulders, or playing and hunting for prey along the sands, when the tide is out. In mature animals, the face, hands, and feet are dark brown; the lower eyelids a paler brown; the upper eyelids and upper halves of the orbits whitish. In a very young male the bare skin of the face was livid brown, rather paler on the eyelids, and the hands and feet were dark brown" (Oldfield Thomas and Hartert, Nov. Zool., i., p. 654, 1894).
XVI. THE TOQUE MACAQUE. MACACUS PILEATUS.
Simia pileata, Shaw, Gen. Zool., i., p. 53 (1800).
Cercocebus sinicus, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 98 (1812).
Macacus sinicus, Desm., Mamm., p. 64 (1820); Kelaart, Fauna Zeyl., p. 8 (1852).
Macacus pileatus, Blyth, J. A. S. Beng., xvi., p. 1272 (1847); Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 29 (1870); Anderson, Zool. Exped. Yun-nan, p. 91 (1878; with synonymy); Blanf., Faun. Brit. Ind., Mamm., p. 24 (1891).
Cercocebus pileatus, Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 98 (1876).
Characters.—Closely allied to M. sinicus; muzzle narrow and protruding; hair in general long, wavy, rough; on the head elongated, radiating from the centre of the top of the head, extending down on to the forehead, and occasionally rising into an erect tuft; tail equal in length to the body; forehead thinly haired and wrinkled. Length, 13 inches; tail, 14¾, in some reaching 21 inches; tail, 18 inches.
In coloration the Toque closely resembles the Bonnet Macaque, but the upper-parts are more rufous, the hairs of the present species (though ringed as in M. sinicus) being above the grey roots rufous-brown, or golden with a shade of chestnut at the tips. It is easily distinguished, however, by the face being livid flesh-coloured, with scattered black hairs, and the margin of the upper lip black; a space about the ears whitish; hands, feet, and ears blackish; the under surface of the body and the inner aspect of the limbs whitish; upper surface of the tail brown, its apex light brown or grey; callosities livid flesh-colour.
Female.—Limbs redder than in the male; inner side of the arms, and patches on the chest and belly indigo blue.
Young.—Hair of the crown not so much flattened down or so radiating as in the adult; the face more old-fashioned and exquisitely comical; the tail nearly naked; and the cheeks, palms, soles, and callosities pale pinkish. (Templeton.)
Distribution.—The Toque Macaque holds in Ceylon the place occupied by the Bonnet Macaque in Southern India.
Habits.—Macacus pileatus closely resembles the Bonnet Macaque in size, habits, and form. It is known to the Singhalese by the name of Rilawa. "The little graceful grimacing Rilawa," as Sir J. Emerson Tennent writes, "is the universal pet and favourite of both natives and Europeans. The Tamil conjurers teach it to dance, and in their wanderings carry it from village to village, clad in a grotesque dress, to exhibit its lively performances. It does not object to smoke tobacco." Knox, in his interesting account of the island, gives an accurate description of the Rilawas, with "no beards, white faces, and long hair on the top of their heads, which parteth and hangeth down like a man's, and which do a deal of mischief to the corn, and are so impudent that they will come into their gardens and eat such fruit as grows there."
XVII. THE BONNET MACAQUE. MACACUS SINICUS.
Simia sinica, Linn., Mantissa, Plant., p. 521 (1771).
Cercocebus radiatus, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 98 (1812).
Le Toque mâle, F. Cuvier, Hist. Nat., Mamm., livr. xviii. (Juin, 1820).
Macacus sinicus, Blyth, J. A. S., Beng., xvi., p. 1272 (1847); Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 28 (1870); Anderson, Zool. Exped. Yun-nan, p. 91 (1878; with synonymy); Blanford, Faun. Brit. Ind., Mamm., p. 23 (1891).
Cercocebus sinicus, Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 99 (1876).
Characters.—Face nude; forehead thinly haired and wrinkled; cheeks hollow; muzzle narrow and protuberant; ears naked and rather prominent; tail nearly as long as the body.
Hair in general moderately long, straight and smooth, that on the crown elongated and radiating in all directions from the vertex, but not covering the forehead, on which the short andsparse hairs are parted down the middle. Length, 27 inches; tail, 24 inches, but often proportionately longer.
General colour of the back and the upper side of the tail brownish-olive; outside of the limbs greyish—the hairs grey at the roots, ringed higher up with dull yellow and black bars; under surface of the body and inside of the limbs, and under side of the tail whitish; face, ears, callosities, and other nude parts livid flesh-colour.
Skull long, lower than that of M. rhesus; orbits with the transverse diameter greater than the vertical.
Distribution.—Inhabiting all Southern India, being conterminous with the M. rhesus on the east and west coast, the latter species coming as far south as, and the Bonnet Macaque going no further north than, the Godaveri river on the one side and Bombay on the other. (See page 23.)
Habits.—The Bonnet Macaque agrees in habits with those of the species already described. It lives in troops in the forests and jungles everywhere throughout its range. It is much kept in captivity, owing to its docility and its wonderful powers of mimicry.
THE MANGABEYS. GENUS CERCOCEBUS.
Cercocebus, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 97 (1812).
This genus has been established to receive a small, and but little known, group of Monkeys, which is confined to West Africa. They are nearly related to the Macaques on the one side, and even more closely to the genus Cercopithecus, next to be described, on the other side. They all have an oval head, and in form are more slender than the Macaques; they have also the muzzle less prolonged, the supra-orbital ridges less developed, the ischial callosities larger, and the limbs proportionatelylonger. They agree with the Macaques, and differ from the Cercopitheci, or Guenons, in having a fifth hinder cusp to the posterior lower molar tooth in each jaw; and differ from both in the hairs of the body rarely being ringed with different coloured bars, as is the case with the species of both the genera just mentioned. The nose is situated behind the end of the muzzle. Their most obvious external character, however, and one from which they derive their common name of "White-eyelid" Monkeys, is their pure white upper eyelids, the white streak being more distinct on the inner half of the eyelid than on the outer. These Monkeys want the laryngeal air-sacs seen in the Macaques; but they have large cheek-pouches and a simple stomach, as in the latter. Their tail is always long, quite equalling the length of the body. The hands have a web between each of the fingers, that between the thumb and index finger being very short; in their feet, the great-toe, which is widespread, has a short web uniting it with its neighbour; the second and third toes are united nearly throughout their whole length, the fourth is webbed and united to the third and fifth as far as their mid-joints.
The Mangabeys are confined to West Africa. Like their relatives, the Macaques and the Guenons, they are arboreal, living in troops in the forest country, and feeding chiefly on fruits.
I. THE SOOTY MANGABEY. CERCOCEBUS FULIGINOSUS.
Cercocebus fuliginosus, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 97 (1812); Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 27 (1870); Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 95 (1876).
Le mangabey, F. Cuv., Hist. Nat., Mammif., livr. vi. (May, 1819).
Simia fuliginosa, F. Cuv., Mamm., livr. xxxv. (Dec., 1821).
Cercopithecus fuliginosus, Martin, P. Z. S., 1838, p. 117.
Characters.—Hair on the crown of the head not elongated, but directed backward; no beard; eyebrows prominent. Face, ears, and hands nude; tail long and carried over the back; whiskers small, directed backward, below and behind the ears. Face of a livid brownish colour; ears, hands, and feet darker; fur on the upper parts of the body and the outside of the limbs sooty-black; chin, throat, breast, cheek-whiskers to below the ears, the under side of the body, and inside of the limbs, ashy-grey; the whiskers sometimes of the same colour as the back; tail darker grey.
Distribution.—West Africa: Liberia.
Habits.—Writing of this species, Frederic Cuvier observes that it is of a happy disposition, gentle and companionable, but rather petulant. Ceaselessly active, it indulges in the most grotesque antics and attitudes, so that it has been believed [of course erroneously] that they possess more joints in their bodies than other species. The males especially have the constant habit of making a grimace which exhibits their long canine teeth. The females are still more gentle, and fond of being caressed.
Mr. Büttikofer found this species to be rather rare in Liberia. It was occasionally seen on low trees, but chiefly on the ground, where it searches for fallen fruits.
II. THE WHITE-COLLARED MANGABEY. CERCOCEBUS COLLARIS.
Mangabey à collier blanc, Buffon, Hist. Nat., xiv., p. 256, pl. 33; F. Cuvier, Mamm., livr. xxxv. (Dec., 1821)
Cercocebus æthiops, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 97 (1812), (nec Simia æthiops, Linn.).
Cercopithecus æthiops, Kuhl. Beitr. Zool., p. 97 (1820, nec S. æthiops, Linn.).
Cercopithecus æthiopicus, F. Cuvier, Mamm., livr. xxxv. (Dec., 1821).
Cercocebus collaris, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus., p. 7 (1843); id., Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 27 (1870); Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, p. 96 (1876.)
Characters.—Hair on the crown of the head not elongated, but directed backward; whiskers small, directed backward; no beard. Face, ears, hands, and callosities nude; tail long, carried over the back.
Face, ears, and hands black; the top of the head rich reddish-brown; whole of upper side of the body, hinder part of the shoulders, back, external surface of both pairs of limbs, feet, and tail, greyish slate-colour; throat, breast, whole under side of the body and inside of the limbs white, as are the nape of the neck, sides of the face, the fore part of the shoulder, and the front aspect of the arms, as far as the top of the fore-arm; in many species a somewhat broad wash of slate-grey crosses the side of the face from the cheeks to below the ear.
Distribution.—West Coast of Africa.
III. THE WHITE-CROWNED MANGABEY. CERCOCEBUS ÆTHIOPS.
Simia æthiops, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 39 (1766).
Cercocebus æthiops, Geoffr. Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 25 (1851); Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus., p. 7; id., Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 27 (1870); Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 95 (1876).
Cercopithecus lunulatus, Temm., Esquiss. Guin., p. 37 (1853).
Characters.—This species is very similar to C. collaris, but differs in being slightly darker above, and in having a spot onthe back of the head, as well as a narrow streak down the back greyish-white.
IV. THE GREY-CHEEKED MANGABEY. CERCOCEBUS ALBIGENA.
Presbytis albigena, Gray, P. Z. S., 1850, p. 77, pl. xvi; Murie, P. Z. S., 1865, p. 740.
Cercocebus albigena, Pucher., Rev. Zool., 1857, p. 241; Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 97 (1876).
Cercocebus (Semnocebus) albigena, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 27 (1870).
Characters.—Face nude, except for a few short hairs on the cheeks and lips; a tuft of long stiff hairs projecting over each eye; hair of the body elongated on the fore-quarter and arm; on the crown and nape the hair long and directed backwards, forming a crest; hands and feet short, tail long, thumb small, and great-toe large and broad; face black.
General colour of the body black; cheeks, throat, a spot behind the ear, sides of the neck, shoulder, and front of the chest greyish; hairs on the face and over the eyes black; tail black; callosities black.
A younger specimen, which died in 1865 in the Zoological Gardens in London, had the throat, sides of the neck and front of the chest, dirty-brown; hairs of the cheeks of the same colour, and some of them also black.
V. THE BLACK MANGABEY. CERCOCEBUS ATERRIMUS.
Cercopithecus aterrimus, Oudem. Zool. Gart., xxxi., p. 267 (1890).
Cercocebus aterrimus, Scl., P. Z. S., 1893, p. 256 (note).
Characters.—Closely allied to C. albigena, but distinguished by its generally deep black colour, except on the shoulders and nape, which are blackish-brown or brownish-grey—the hair here being no longer than on the rest of the body; hairs on the cheeks, fine, velvety, and whitish; whiskers thick, greyish-brown; beard very sparse, whitish.
Distribution.—South-west Africa: Stanley Falls on the Congo.
VI. THE CRESTED MANGABEY. CERCOCEBUS GALERITUS.
Cercocebus galeritus, Peters, M. B. Ak. Berl., 1879, p. 830, pls. i.B and iii. (Crania).
Characters.—A flat crest of blackish-brown hair radiating from the top of the head all round and over the forehead; the entire upper surface covered with long loose fur, the hairs grey at their base, and higher up ringed with greyish-green and blackish-brown; the fore-arms, hands, feet, and the basal three-fourths of the tail blackish-brown; the sides of the head and the whole under surface yellowish; the inside of the limbs yellowish-grey; the hair of the terminal part of the tail lighter than the rest, and ringed with yellow; face, bluish-black.
Distribution.—E. Africa; Mitola, at the mouth of the Osi and Tana rivers.
Habits.—This species was found living in the woods on the coast in small troops of from five to six in number.
THE GUENONS. GENUS CERCOPITHECUS.
Cercopithecus, Erxleben, Syst. Regn. Anim., p. 22 (1777).
The genus Cercopithecus includes a larger number of species than any other of the Anthropoidea. Its members arecharacterised by their rather round head, slender but muscular bodies, narrow loins, and long hind limbs. Their tail is long, though shorter than in the genera next to be described, viz., the Langurs and the Guerezas. Their face is short, the muzzle less elongated, the cheek-pouches larger than in the Macaques. The nose is not prominent, and the nostrils are approximated, while whiskers are generally developed, as well as a longer or shorter beard. Their callosities are less extensive than in the Macaques. They have elongated hands with fingers united by a web at their bases; their thumbs, though distinct, being less developed in comparison than their great-toes. The fur is thick and soft, and in most of the species is ringed with differently and often brilliantly coloured bars.
The Cercopitheci have the skull depressed, presenting no very distinct brow, for its superciliary ridges are less prominent and angular, and their outer margin less projecting in comparison with those of the skulls in the genera already described. The orbits are considerably approximated. Their molar teeth are strongly cusped, and the posterior lower molar has only four cusps, and not five, as in the Macaques; but as in these animals, the two front cusps are united together by a transverse ridge, and the two hind ones are united together.
The Guenons are entirely confined to the African continent, where they range from the Gambia to the Congo, and from Abyssinia to the Zambesi; but the different species are each confined to small restricted areas. Being essentially arboreal, they live entirely in the forest regions, herding together in large troops. They can move from tree to tree with great rapidity, and can climb even on vertical surfaces with surprising quickness. They are abrupt and energetic in their movements, restless, and noisy, incessantly chattering andmaking grimaces. The latter habit is so characteristic of them that they have obtained from it the name of Guenon, by which they are now so generally known, bestowed on them by the French. Their food consists of leaves, birds' eggs, and honey, but pre-eminently of fruits, while they are especially destructive to the ripe grain-fields of the natives near the woods in which they live. They feed voraciously, and carry off all that their cheek-pouches can hold, even after they are satisfied, or if they are called off by the warning cry of the sentinel, who is said to be always placed on guard on some point of 'vantage when the troop is busy with its depredations. The Guenons are not only restless, but very inquisitive; they are, therefore, when young, very easily tamed, and as a consequence they are frequently to be seen as performers in circuses and exhibitions. When aged they are unreliable in temper, and often very ill-dispositioned. They are said, also, to repel with missiles any intruders into the region in which they are established in any numbers.
The known species—numbering about forty—have for the purposes of description and easy subsequent discrimination, been arranged into groups (based on a few of their more or less prominent characters) by different zoologists. Of these M. Isidore Geoffroy St. Hilaire, of Paris, and Professor Schlegel, of Leyden, may be specially mentioned; the arrangement of the latter forming a very convenient key for the determination of the species. Among the zoologists who have more recently revised this genus is the well-known Secretary of the Zoological Society of London, Dr. P. L. Sclater, who has to some extent followed and improved upon Professor Schlegel's arrangement of the genus. In the present review, therefore, of the numerous species of this genus, the six groupssuggested by Dr. Sclater have been adopted. These are (I.) The Nose-spotted Guenons—Cercopitheci rhinosticti; (II.) The Green Guenons—C. chloronoti; (III.) The Rufous-backed Guenons—C. erythronoti; (IV.) The Black-limbed Guenons—C. melanochiri; (V.) The Tufted-eared Guenons—C. auriculati; (VI.) The Bearded Guenons—C. barbati; and lastly, The Three-cusped Guenons—C. trituberculati.
Group I. Cercopitheci Rhinosticti.
The members of this group have a distinct nose-spot of white, red, or blue.
I. THE LESSER WHITE-NOSED GUENON CERCOPITHECUS PETAURISTA.
Simia petaurista, Schreb., Saügeth., i., p. 103, pl. xix. B (1775).
Blanc-nez, Buff., Hist. Nat., Suppl., vii., p. 67 (1789).
Cercopithecus petaurista, Erxl., Syst. Regn. An., p. 35 (1777); Martin, Mammif. An., p. 539 (1841); Wagn. in Schreber's Säugeth., Suppl., v., p. 250 (1855); Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 20 (1870); Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 86 (1876); Scl., P. Z. S., 1893, p. 244.
Ascagne (Cercopithecus ascanius), Audeb., Hist. Nat. Singes, Fam. iv., Sect. ii., fig. xiii.; F. Cuvier, Nat. Hist., Mamm., i., livr. xiv. (Fev., 1820).
Characters.—Head round, the forehead rather elevated; nose broad; face and nose covered with short hairs; whiskers short; chin bearded. Head, back, upper side of tail, olive-green—the hairs grey at the base—ringed with darker or lighter yellow and black; facial hairs black, slightly washed with fulvous on the cheeks; skin below bluish-red or violet; lower part of the nose and half of the upper lip white; whiskers and beard white; line across the forehead above the eyes and the ears, andencircling the crown behind, black; a pencil of hair below the ears directed backward, white; throat, chest, under side of body, inside of limbs and under side of tail white; posterior aspect of fore-arms and legs grey, washed with olive; naked parts of chin, ears, and hands purplish-black.
Distribution.—West Africa: Gold Coast and Sierra Leone.
Habits.—The Ascagne, as this animal is also named, is the most common of the Guenons seen in menageries. It is gentle, graceful, and lively. They are perpetually in motion, "gambolling with their companions, and pursuing or being pursued by them, in the exuberance of playfulness. They are at the same time docile and familiar, but dislike to be taken hold of, or interfered with." (Martin.) Allamand says that his specimen, which was in general very gentle, became angry when interrupted while eating, or if it was gibed at, but its irritation did not last long.
II. JENTINK'S GUENON. CERCOPITHECUS SIGNATUS.
Cercopithecus signatus, Jentink, Notes, Leyd. Mus., viii., p. 55 (1886); Sclater, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 257.
Characters.—Very similar to C. petaurista. Sides of head grizzled—the hairs ringed with white, yellowish, and black—and separated abruptly from the reddish upper portion of the head by a black band from ear to ear over the orbits, but not running round the vertex; ears somewhat larger than in C. petaurista.
Cranial portion of skull higher, and the facial portion more produced than in C. petaurista; the jaws longer, and the orbits rounder and wider.
Distribution.—Supposed to be from West Africa, but its habitat is not known with certainty.
III. THE RED-BELLIED GUENON. CERCOPITHECUS ERYTHROGASTER.
Cercopithecus erythrogaster, Gray, P. Z. S., 1866, p. 169, pl. xvi., 1868, p. 182; id., Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 128 (1870); Murie, P. Z. S., 1866, p. 380; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 69 (1876); Sclater, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 252, 1894, p. 1.
Characters.—Fur blackish, speckled with yellow, especially on the head, the hairs being black ringed with yellow; face black; nose-spot white; moustache and frontal band from the temple to the ears black; on each cheek a whitish-yellow spot; whiskers, beard, throat, and sides of neck yellowish-white; chest and under surface of body rufous; inner side of the front of the thighs, and under side of the tail greyish-white; outer aspect of thighs and hind legs grey, speckled with black. Length of body, 13½ inches; of tail, 16 inches.
In the young female the top of the head is yellowish, this colour extending towards the nape.
Distribution.—West Africa. This species has been only once exhibited in the Zoological Gardens of London, viz., in 1866, but recently, according to Dr. Sclater, a specimen lived for a short time in the Zoological Gardens of Rotterdam.
Habits.—Nothing is known of the habits of the Red-bellied Guenon in a state of nature; but Dr. Murie has written of the one that lived for two months in the Zoological Gardens: "Its nature appeared mild and harmless, by no means grave or sedate, indeed rather inclined to be lively and playful, with but little disposition to be quarrelsome. The keeper noticed that it appeared timid, and somewhat distrustful of its more romping companions, but freely approached him, and whentaking food out of his hand seemed pleased, and gently played with his fingers without attempting to bite."
IV. BÜTTIKOFER'S GUENON. CERCOPITHECUS BUETTIKOFERI.
Cercopithecus buettikoferi, Jentink, Notes, Leyd. Mus., viii., p. 56 (1886); Sclater, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 244.
Characters.—Büttikofer's Guenon agrees in all respects with C. petaurista, but wants the black band from ear to ear round the vertex. Of this band "there is no trace, in a series of eight specimens, containing adults and young, males and females" (Jentink). Irides brown.
Distribution.—West Africa: Liberia.
V. MARTIN'S GUENON. CERCOPITHECUS MARTINI.
Cercopithecus martini, Waterh., P. Z. S., 1838, p. 58; 1841, p. 71; Martin, Mammif. Anim., p. 542 (1841); Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 21 (1870); Scl., P. Z. S., 1884, p. 176, pl. xiv.; 1893, p. 245.
Cercopithecus nictitans, Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 89 (1876).
Description.—Allied to C. petaurista. Fur tolerably long and but loosely applied to the body. Face naked; whiskers bushy; beard short; tail very long; callosities small. Length of body (type specimen), 22 inches; tail, 26. Length of a female, 19 inches; tail, 24. General colour of head, back, and upper side of the basal part of the tail olive-green, distinctly annulated, the hairs being grey at their base, ringed above with several bars of yellowish-green and black. Face blue; nose-spot, commencing in the middle of the ridge, and extending over its sides and the upper and lower lips, yellowish-white; a black line extending up the ridge of the nose from the end of the white spot to the brow and encircling the eyes;a black bar crossing the forehead from ear to ear; whiskers green; beard white; throat, chest, under side of body, inside of limbs and under side of three-fourths of the tail, greyish-white; fore-arms black; legs black; the arms and thighs of the same colour as the back; upper side of the tail beyond the basal region, and its terminal portion, black; hands and feet black.
As Dr. Sclater has pointed out (loc. cit.): "It is at once distinguishable from C. petaurista by the black fore-limbs and feet, by the greenish colour on the tail above; the greenish cheeks, without any white stripe beneath the ears, and the bluish skin of the face."
Distribution.—Martin's Guenon is generally brought to Europe from the island of Fernando Po, where it is probably indigenous. It may also inhabit the neighbouring coast of Western Africa.
VI. THE LUDIO GUENON. CERCOPITHECUS LUDIO.
Cercopithecus ludio, Gray, P. Z. S., 1849, p. 8, pl. ix., fig. 1; id., P. Z. S., 1868, p. 182; id., Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 21 (1870), Wagner, in Schreb., Säugeth. Suppl., v., p. 51 (1855); Sclater, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 245.
Cercopithecus ascanias, Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 87 (1876).
Characters.—Spot on lower half of nose large, oblong, higher than broad. General colour of fur black or dark greenish-olive, minutely speckled with greyish-yellow. Face and lips blackish-blue, the nose-spot white; ridge of nose above the white spot, superciliary band, crown of head, shoulders and fore-limbs, black; outer and inner aspects of hind-limbs and extremity of tail black; chin, chest, inner side of the upper part of the arms, and under side of body, whitish;whiskers black; rump and under side of the base of the tail rufous.
Distinguished from C. petaurista by its black limbs, reddish rump and base of tail.
Distribution.—West Africa: Cameroons and the Delta of the Niger.
VII. THE BLACK-CHEEKED GUENON. CERCOPITHECUS MELANOGENYS.
Cercopithecus melanogenys, Gray, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., xvi., p. 212 (1845); id., P. Z. S., 1849, p. 7, pl. ix., fig. 2; id., P. Z. S., 1868, p. 182; id., Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 21 (1870); Scl., P. Z. S., 1860, p. 246; Monteiro, P. Z. S., 1860, p. 112; Jentink, Notes, Leyden Mus., x., p. 11 (1888); Sclater, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 245.
Cercopithecus picturatus, Santos, Journ. Sci. Lisb., xi., p. 98 (1886).
Characters.—The white nose-spot cordate in shape; a band across the forehead above the eyes passing backwards over the ears, and over the lower cheeks, black; region between the eye and the ear whitish; back finely grizzled with black and orange; centre of the back washed with deep rufous; outside of the legs dark grey, becoming black on the hands and feet; tail dark rufous. Length of body, 15¾ inches; tail, about 17 inches.
The black lower cheeks, and the white region between the eye and the ear distinguish C. melanogenys from C. nictitans and C. stampflii.
Distribution.—West Africa: Angola. "It is very abundant at Encôge, three days' journey to the south of Bemba." (Monteiro.)
VIII. STAMPFLI'S GUENON. CERCOPITHECUS STAMPFLII.
Cercopithecus melanogenys, Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 90 (1876, nec Gray).
Cercopithecus stampflii, Jentink, Notes, Leyden Mus., x., p. 10 (1888); Sclater, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 257.
Characters.—Nose-spot white, with its broader part lowest, and the point upwards; crown of head, nape of neck, legs and hinder portion of tail black; spot on lower lip black; chin, breast, anterior portion of belly, and inside of fore-arms white; forehead, cheeks, back, sides of body, and the basal portion of the tail, rufous-green, the hairs being ringed with black and rufous-yellow. Length of body, 25¼ inches; tail, 38½ inches.
Distinguished from C. nictitans by its white under surface.
Distribution.—West Africa: Liberia. Obtained in the Pessi country by Messrs. Büttikofer and Stampfli.
IX. SCHMIDT'S GUENON. CERCOPITHECUS SCHMIDTI.
Cercopithecus ascanias (?), Scl., P. Z. S., 1887, p. 502.
Cercopithecus schmidti, Matschie, Zool. Anz., p. 161 (1892); Sclater, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 245, pl. xvi.
Characters.—Closely allied to C. melanogenys, the white nose-spot cordate. Face and superciliary region blue; nose above the white spot black; a bar between the nose-spot, reaching to the whiskers, on each side, black; upper and lower lips flesh-coloured; whiskers white, conspicuous, and with a very narrow black streak on their lower edge; beard white; above the superciliary region, and between the flesh-coloured ears, a black frontal bar; top of head, back, outer aspect of arms, thighs, and of the basal third of tail, olive-green and morepunctulated than in C. melanogenys; throat, under side of body, and inner side of the upper part of the limbs, white; fore-arms, hands, legs, and feet black; posterior two-thirds of tail rufous.
Distribution.—This species was obtained by the Rev. W. C. Willoughby, in 1883, at Uniamwezi, in Eastern Equatorial Africa, and was said to have been brought thither from the Manyuema country, on the western shore of Lake Tanganyika. His specimen lived in the Zoological Gardens in London for nearly three years. It has also been obtained in Uganda, further to the north.
X. THE HOCHEUR GUENON. CERCOPITHECUS NICTITANS.
Simia nictitans, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 40 (1766).
Cercopithecus nictitans, Erxl., Syst. Règne Anim., p. 35 (1777); Martin, Mammif. An., p. 536 (1841); Wagner, in Schreber's Säugeth. Suppl., v., p. 50 (1855); Gray, P. Z. S., 1868, p. 182; id., Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 21 (1870); Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 89 (1876); Scl., P. Z. S., 1893, p. 246.
Cercopithecus nictitans (Hocheur), F. Cuvier, Hist. Nat., Mamm. i., pl. 17 (1825); Audebert, Hist. Nat. des Singes, Fam. iv., Sect. i., p. 9, pl. 2.
Characters.—Head round; forehead elevated; face depressed; nose broad, short-haired. "Hair of the head very full; boldly over-reaching the eyes, obscuring the ears, and adding to the breadth and elevation of the top of the head." (Martin.) Nose-spot narrow above, commencing between the eyes, broad below; the lips and a broad ring round the eyes, nude, or very short-haired, elsewhere haired; whiskers bushy; callosities covered with hair; thumbs very short; muzzle shorter than isusually the case in the genus; no beard; tail long, thinly-haired, tapering.
General colour all over, black, speckled with white or yellowish, the hairs being grey at their roots, then black, tipped with white or yellowish-white; face purplish-black; nose-spot pure white; no white on the lips; ears black; no black stripes on the face, a character distinguishing it from all the other spotted-nosed Monkeys; under surface of body and basal part of tail blackish-grey, the inside of the limbs less distinctly so.
Some specimens are not so black, but are greyer, especially on the under side, which may be washed with brown.
The white colour of the nose not extending on to the upper lip distinguishes this species from C. petaurista, independently of the general colouring.
Distribution.—West Africa. Although the "Hocheur" is not uncommon in European menageries, it is still uncertain in exactly what part of that extensive region it has its home.
Habits.—Nothing is known of the habits of this species, except what has been observed from examples living in captivity. In durance the species is mild and gentle in disposition, and very active, and has a way of incessantly shaking its head, a habit from which it derives its French appellation of "Hocheur."
XI. THE RED-EARED GUENON. CERCOPITHECUS ERYTHROTIS.
Cercopithecus erythrotis, Waterh., P. Z. S., 1838, p. 59; 1841, p. 71; Martin, Mammif. An., p. 535 (1841); Fraser, Zool. Typ., pl. iv. (1848); Wagn., in Schreb. Säugeth. Suppl., v., p. 49 (1855); Gray, P. Z. S., 1868, p. 182; id., Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 21 (1870); Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 70 (1876); Scl., P. Z. S., 1884, p. 176, 1893, p. 246.
Characters.—General colour of back, sides, and outer aspect of the hind-limbs, black, speckled with yellowish-grey, or with golden-yellow on the hinder part of the back—the hairs being black, ringed with yellow or gold respectively; face nearly nude, except for a few short hairs on the upper part of the nose; region round the eyes, livid blue; nose red; chin white; a black bar from the eye to the ear; below this a broad white whisker-streak on the cheeks, beneath which again there arises from the corner of the mouth and cheeks another black, yellow-ringed, tuft of hair; ears rusty-red internally; external aspect of the fore-limbs blackish; throat, under surface of the body, and inner side of the limbs greyish-white; tail bright rufous, except for a dark line along its upper surface; anal hairs bright red. Length of body, 17 inches; tail, 23 inches.
Distribution.—This rare and very beautiful Monkey has its home in the island of Fernando Po.
XII. THE MOUSTACHED GUENON. CERCOPITHECUS CEPHUS.
Simia cephus, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 39 (1766).
Cercopithecus cephus (Moustac), F. Cuvier, Hist. Nat., Mamm., i., livr. xxvi. (1821); Martin, Mammif. An., p. 532 (1841); Wagner, in Schreber's Säugeth. Suppl., v., p. 49 (1855); Gray, P. Z. S., 1868, p. 182; id., Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 20 (1870); Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 91 (1876); Scl., P. Z. S., 1893, p. 246.
Le moustac, Audebert, Hist. Nat. Singes, Fam. iv., Sect, ii., p. 19, fig. xii.
Characters.—Face and nose naked; muzzle short; whiskers thick and bushy, directed backward and downward. Face, except the lips, violet-blue; margin of the upper lip black, thiscolour extending as a bar back to the whiskers; between this black margin and the nose is a white bar, extending also across the cheek to the whiskers; under lip and chin, black; whiskers between the eyes and ears golden-yellow, paler below the ears, and white on the under jaw; ears black, with yellowish-white hairs. Head greenish, darker on the back than on the front; the neck, back, shoulders, outer side of arms, flanks, buttocks, and upper side of the base of the tail greenish-brown—the hairs being grey at their roots and ringed above with yellow and black, or brown, the predominance of the one or the other producing the brown, or brighter or fainter green colour; on the outer side of the thighs, the green hue is deeper. The rest of the outer aspect of the limbs is grey washed with yellow; hands and feet dusky brown or dull black; under side of the body and inside of the limbs dark grey, lighter on the throat, breast, and fore part of the belly; under side of the base of the tail dark grey; the remaining two-thirds rufous. Length of body, 19 inches; of tail, 26 inches.
Distribution.—West Africa: from Gaboon to the Congo.
Habits.—This species is not at all uncommon in menageries. Numerous specimens have from time to time been exhibited in the Zoological Gardens in London. Little is known, however, of the habits of the Moustached Monkey in its native forests. In captivity it is intelligent, lively, and good-tempered, but very shy. Its delicate constitution cannot resist the rigours of our climate for any length of time.
II. Cercopitheci Chloronoti.
In this section of the Guenons, the fur is more or less olive-green above; the under side and whiskers white, and the arms and legs grey.
XIII. THE MALBROUCK GUENON. CERCOPITHECUS CYNOSURUS.
Simia cynosurus, Scop. Delic. Flor. et Faun. Insubr., i., p. 44, pl. xix. (1786).
Cercopithecus cynosurus (Malbrouck), F. Cuvier, Hist. Nat., Mamm., i., livr. ii. (Janvier, 1819); Desmarest, Mamm., p. 60 (1820); Martin, Mammif. An., p. 515 (1841); Geoffr., Dict. d'Hist. Nat., iii., p. 306 (1849); Wagner, in Schreber's Säugeth. Suppl., v., p. 38 (1855); Schleg. Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 72 (1876); Sclater, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 247.
Cercopithecus tephrops, Bennett, P. Z. S., 1833, p. 109.
Chlorocebus cynosurus, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 26 (1870).
Characters.—Head broad, and rounded above; muzzle thick. Face naked, flesh-coloured; nose and cheeks black-haired; ears nude, black; hands short, thumbs rudimentary; hairs on the side of the head not forming whiskers. Top of head and upper surface of body olive-green—the hairs being grey at their roots and ringed with black and yellow; external surface of the fore-arms and legs grizzled-grey, the hairs with black and white rings; sides of the neck, under surface of the body, inside of the limbs, and the under side of the tail white; an indistinct band across the forehead over the eyes, white; tail dark grey above; callosities scarlet; scrotal region in the male deep blue; hairs beneath the tail and round the scrotal region rufous. Length of body about 18 inches; tail, 16 inches.
Distribution.—West Africa. Probably Senegambia, but the exact habitat still unknown.
Habits.—Of the habits of the Malbrouck in its own home nothing has been recorded; but Mr. Martin remarks that in captivity it combines in its disposition a certain degree ofsluggishness with a savage and vindictive temper. One of the specimens, he says, "in the menagerie of the Zoological Society, an adult male, was gentle, familiar, and pleased to be noticed or caressed; but, at the same time, it was neither lively nor playful. The other was deceitful, and though apparently calm, very suspicious; it was roused by the slightest provocation to anger, and would turn upon its disturber with the utmost malevolence depicted in its countenance, making every possible effort to assault him, exhibiting its teeth and gazing fixedly in his face.... On the whole, indolence and ferocity form the character of the adult, at least, in captivity."
XIV. THE GRIVET GUENON. CERCOPITHECUS SABÆUS.
Simia sabæa, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 38 (1766).
Cercopithecus griseus (Le Grivet), F. Cuvier, Mamm., i., livr. vii. (Juin, 1819).
Cercopithecus griseo-viridis, Desmarest, Mamm., p. 61 (1820); Martin, Mammif. An., p. 518 (1841); Rüppell, Neue Wirbelth. Säugeth., p. 8 (1835); Blanford, Zool. Abyss. Exp., p. 224 (1870); Sclater, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 248.
Cercopithecus sabæus, Geoffr., Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 22 (1851); Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 74 (1876).
Chlorocebus engythithea, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 26 (1870).
Characters.—Head more pyramidal than in C. cynosurus, and the muzzle thinner; an angular patch of hair at the corner of each eye, pointing backwards; whiskers forming long and thick ear-tufts, directed backwards and partly concealing the ears; ears small; hands short and small. Face, ears, and lips darkviolet; region round the eyes livid flesh-colour; the superciliary band joining the whiskers white; top of the head, back as far as the rump, shoulders and arms greyish olive-green—the hairs ringed with greyish-black and pale yellow; whiskers, chin, breast, under surface of body, fore part of shoulders, the inner side of the limbs, and the under side of the tail, white; forearms, rump, and thighs grey, slightly washed with olive; hands and feet entirely grey; upper side of the tail greyish-black, the tip paler. Scrotal region coppery-green, covered with orange hairs.
Distinguished from the Malbrouck by the form of the head, the greyer shade of the hair, and the colour of the scrotal region; and from C. callitrichus, described below, by the more sombre colour of its hair, the white superciliary band, and the long white whiskers. Length of body, about 19 inches; tail, 22 inches.
Distribution.—North-east Africa: throughout Abyssinia, Sennaar, and Kordofan, up to 4,000 feet.
Habits.—According to Dr. Blanford, this species is a true tree Monkey, and is very rarely seen except in the forest. "On the highlands of Abyssinia," he says, "I only once saw a flock—this was near Dildi, south of Lake Ashangi. I met with larger flocks on the Anseba, where they inhabited the high trees on the banks of the stream. The flocks seen were small, not exceeding twenty to thirty individuals. I had but few opportunities of observing their habits, but they appeared to differ but little from those of Macacus or Inuus, except that Cercopithecus is a quieter animal and less mischievous. In captivity they are well known as excessively docile and good tempered, and fairly intelligent."
XV. WERNER'S GUENON. CERCOPITHECUS WERNERI.
Cercopithecus werneri, Geoffr., C. R., xxxi., p. 874 (1850); id., Arch. Mus., v., p. 539, pl. xxvii. (1851); Wagner, in Schreb. Säugeth. Suppl., v., p. 42 (1855); Sclater, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 258.
Characters.—Nearly related to C. sabæus, but all the parts are olive-green where that species is greyish-green—the hairs being ringed with reddish-fawn and black; the former taking the place of the green rings in the hairs of the C. sabæus, and the black ones being much broader; the face black; the tail yellow at the tip as in C. sabæus.
Distribution.—The exact habitat of this species is unknown.
XVI. THE GREEN GUENON. CERCOPITHECUS CALLITRICHUS.
Singe Verte, Adanson, Voy. Sénég., p. 178 (1735).
Cercopithecus sabæa (nec Linn.), Erxleb., Syst. Regne An., p. 33 (1777).
Cercopithecus sabæus, Wagner in Schreb. Säugeth., v., p. 40 (1855); Martin, Mammif. An., p. 519 (1841).
Le Callitriche, F. Cuv., Hist. Nat., Mamm., i., livr. iv. (Mars, 1819).
Simia sabæa, Audebert, Singes, Fam. iv., Sect., ii., p. 7, fig. iv. (1797).
Cercopithecus callitrichus, Is. Geoffr., Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 23 (1851); Schleg, Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 73 (1876); Sclater, P. Z. S., 1866, p. 79; 1893, pp. 248, 616.
Chlorocebus sabæus, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 25 (1870).
Characters.—Muzzle rather long; ears large, naked, and somewhat pointed behind; hairs on the side of the head long, thick, frill-like, and directed backwards toward the ears; hands and feet long, but the feet longer than the hands. Face, ears, palms, and soles, black; superciliary band bright yellow or white; head, back, shoulders, arms, and upper part of the forearms, the thighs, upper part of the legs, and upper side of the tail rich yellowish-green,—the hairs being ringed with broader bars of yellow, and narrower bars of black; external surface of the lower part of the fore- and hind-limbs grey, the hairs being ringed with white, or very pale yellow and black; cheeks, throat, under surface of the body, and inner side of the limbs, white, washed with yellow on the cheeks, throat, and along the mid-line of the belly. Tail tipped with a long tuft of bright yellow; under side of the tail greyish-green; hairs beneath the tail and on the scrotal region bright yellow; naked skin of the scrotal parts, green. Length of body, 24 inches; of tail, 29 inches.
Distribution.—West Africa: from Senegambia to the Niger. It is said to be now abundant in a wild state in the island of St. Kitts, in the West Indies, and Colonel Feilden identified it in Barbadoes. Into both of these islands it has been introduced from Africa, in the same way as into St. Jago, one of the Cape Verde Islands.
Habits.—The Green Monkeys frequent high trees in the great forests, living in small troops or sitting alone. They move about very noiselessly, and would seem to be devoid of voice, remaining silent even when attacked or wounded; although they knit their brows, gnash their teeth, and evince every sign of vexation and anger. This species is one of the commonest Monkeys introduced into Europe, as it appears to be able to stand, better than most of the other members of the genus, the northern climate. It has even bred in the ZoologicalGardens in London. It is very active and intelligent, and when young it is gentle and of a good disposition, but as it grows older it becomes treacherous, malicious, and savage.
XVII. THE VERVET GUENON. CERCOPITHECUS PYGERYTHRUS.
Cercopithecus pygerythra (Le Vervet), F. Cuvier, Hist. Nat. Mamm., iii., livr. xxiv. (Janvier, 1821).
Cercopithecus pygerithræus, Desmarest, Mamm., Suppl., p. 534 (1820).
Cercopithecus pygerythrus, Lesson, Spec. des Mamm. Bimanes et Quadrum., p. 83 (1840); Geoffr., Dict. Hist. Nat., iii., p. 305 (1849); id., Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 21 (1851); Wagner, in Schreb. Säugeth., v., p. 39 (1855); Peters, Reis. Mossamb. Säugeth., p. 4; Martin, Mammif. An., p. 521 (1841); Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 76 (1876); Thomas, P. Z. S., 1885, p. 219; H. H. Johnston, Kilimanjaro Exped., p. 352 (1886); Scl., P. Z. S., 1893, p. 249 (nec Martin, nec. Schl.).
Cercopithecus pusillus, Delalande in Desmoul, Dict. Class., vii., p. 568.
Cercopithecus lalandii, Geoffr., Dict. d'Hist. Nat., iii., p. 305 (1849); Wagner, in Schreber's Säugeth., v., p. 39 (1855); Sclater, P. Z. S., 1893, pp. 248 and 615.
Cercopithecus rufo-viridis, Is. Geoffr., C. R., xv., p. 1038 (1842); Scl., P. Z. S., 1860, p. 420.
Chlorocebus pygerythrus, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus, p. 25 (1870).
Characters.—Very nearly allied to the Grivet (C. sabæus), to the Malbrouck (C. cynosurus), and to the last species, the Green Guenon. Distinguished from the Grivet by the chin, the hands and the feet, beyond the ankle, and the wrist being very black, instead of grey; and the tip of the tail (or itsentire length) black, instead of being grey or yellow, as in the Malbrouck. It differs from both the Malbrouck and Grivet in having, according to Martin, long coarse fur, greyer in tint above, with a slighter wash of olive (= C. lalandii of Geoffroy); or in being more reddish-yellow or yellowish-green above (the true C. pygerythrus); also by having conspicuous superciliary bristles. The less thick and heavy muzzle and the green scrotal region distinguish it from the Malbrouck; the rust-red coloured hair on the space below the root of the tail distinguishes it from the Grivet. Length of body, 22 inches; tail, 27 inches.
The female is slightly smaller than the male.
Distribution.—South Africa: Cape Colony. "The Vervet is common in the forests along the Great Fish river, and other streams between Algoa Bay and Cape Town. Its range extends also along the Natal coast, throughout the Amakozi country, and Caffreland generally." (Martin.) Zambesia. On Kilimanjaro. Mr. H. H. Johnston observed it to be common, at 5,000 feet, in the cultivated gardens round the village of Moshi, and in the forests lower down, at Taveita.
Habits.—Their food consists of fruits, and particularly of the gum which exudes from various species of Acacia. In confinement, when irritated, they utter, it is said, a barking noise, display their teeth, and gaze with hatred in their eyes. They are very treacherous, ferocious, and daring, and their cage requires to be approached with much precaution. Mr. Johnston, when living on the slopes of Kilimanjaro, found them to be exceedingly familiar and mischievous, and given to stealing fruits, &c. They are entirely without the fear of Man.
This Monkey is very commonly to be seen alive in Europeanmenageries, where it appears to stand the northern climate fairly well. At a meeting of the Zoological Society in November, 1893, Dr. Sclater remarked that Cercopithecus callitrichus (= C. pygerythrus) had recently bred in the Gardens. Concerning the latter birth a curious fact had been observed and reported by the keepers—that the young Monkey, which lived about two months, had been in the habit of sucking both of the mother's teats at once.
XVIII. THE TANTALUS GUENON. CERCOPITHECUS TANTALUS.
Cercopithecus tantalus, Ogilby, P. Z. S., 1841, p. 33; Sclater, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 258; Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 73 (1876).
Cercocebus tantalus, var. f., Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 26 (1870).
Characters.—Head rounder and face shorter than in C. callitrichus. Face covered with very short hairs; nose prominent, and narrow between the eyes, flatter and broader towards the tip. Head, back, and sides, a mixture of yellowish-brown and green, of the same shade as prevails in the upper parts of C. callitrichus and C. pygerythrus; outer surface of the limbs clearer ashy-grey; whiskers, throat, breast, under side of the body, and inner side of the limbs, yellowish-white; tail brown at the root, pale grey at the tip; back of hands and feet light grey; face livid flesh-colour round the eyes, the short hairs on the nose and cheeks black; lips light brown; eyebrows black, surmounted by a broad white band across the forehead; scrotal region covered with yellowish hairs. (Ogilby.)
Distribution.—Africa, but the exact habitat is unknown.
III. Cercopitheci Erythronoti.
The next three species constitute the red-furred group of Geoffroy and Sclater, being bright rufous above, and white beneath.
XIX. THE PATAS GUENON. CERCOPITHECUS PATAS.
Simia patas, Schreber, Säugeth., i., p. 98, pl. xvi. (1775).
Cercopithecus patas, Erxleb. Syst. Règne An., p. 34 (1777); Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 84 (1876); Scl., P. Z. S., 1893, p. 249.
Simia rubra, Gm., Syst. Nat., i., p. 34 (1788); Fischer, Synops. Mamm., p. 24 (1829).
Cercopithecus ruber, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 96 (1812); id., Dict. d'Hist. Nat., iii., p. 307 (1849); Desmar. Mamm., p. 59 (1820); Martin, Mammif. An., p. 509 (1841, pt.); Wagner, in Schreber, Säugeth. Suppl., v., p. 42 (1855); Scl., P. Z. S., 1874, p. 664.
Le Patas et Le Patas à bandeau noir, F. Cuvier, Hist. Mamm. i., livr. xv. (Avril, 1820).
Chlorocebus ruber, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 25 (1870).
Characters.—Head broad and flattened; nose depressed; muzzle short; fur long and silky on the back of the head, elsewhere short. Orbits narrow; cheeks and muzzle naked; whiskers thick and bushy, encroaching far on the cheeks, and extending back below the ears; chin with a few hairs, but no beard. Head, back, sides, and hinder aspect of the arms and fore-arms, and of the thighs and legs, and of the upper and lower sides of the base, and the upper side of the rest of the tail, foxy red; shoulders, chest, front and rest of the fore-limbs, entire under side of the body, and of the terminal portionof the tail, and inner side of the limbs, with the entire hands and feet, grey or greyish-white,—the hairs being ringed with black and white. The nude parts of the face and of the ears, hands, and feet, violet flesh-colour; a distinct superciliary arch black; a white bar from the eye to behind the ear; a black line from the superciliary stripe, extending down the nose-ridge and expanding on the tip; on the upper lip, a short moustache of black hairs; whiskers greyish-white, washed with yellow. This species varies considerably in size and in coloration.
In young animals the grey is often washed with rufous.
Distribution.—West Africa: Senegal.
Habits.—The Patas in its native forest lives in large troops, which unite together, as De la Brue has recorded, against a common enemy. He relates that as he passed along a river in his boat, the Patas came down to the tips of the branches out of curiosity, but after watching the party for a time they threw dry branches and other handy objects at them, till some of their number were at last shot. This so infuriated the survivors, that they redoubled their attack with stones and other missiles, giving utterance meanwhile to the most frightful cries. Mr. Martin, from whom we have condensed De la Brue's account, says that this species is lively in captivity, but very spiteful and capricious, its temper becoming worse with age.
XX. THE NISNAS GUENON. CERCOPITHECUS PYRRHONOTUS.
Cercopithecus pyrrhonotus, Hempr. et Ehrenb., Symb. Phys., pl. x. (1838); Geoffr., Dict. Hist. Nat., iii., p. 307 (1849); Wagner, in Schreber's Säugeth., v., p. 42 (1855); Sclater, P. Z. S., 1871, p. 623; 1893, p. 250; Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 84 (1876).
Cercopithecus ruber, Rüpp., Neue Wirb. Säugeth., p. 8 (1835); Martin, Mammif. An., p. 509 (1841) (in part).
Le Nisnas, F. Cuvier, Hist. Nat. Mamm., i., pl. 27 (1830).
Chlorocebus ruber, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 25 (1870).
Characters.—Of the same size as C. patas, and very similar to it. Fur above, and on the lower part of the limbs rufous, and on the lower part of the back, and under side of the tail, much darker rufous than elsewhere; nose white, not black as in the preceding species; shoulders and external aspect of arms rufous like the rest of the body, and not grey as in C. patas.
Distribution.—North-east Africa: Kordofan and Darfur, to a height of 3,000 feet above the sea. A specimen living in the Zoological Gardens in 1882 was stated to have come from Somali-land.
Allied to the Patas and the Nisnas is Peters' Guenon (Cercopithecus ochraceus, Peters, Reis. Mossamb. Säugeth., p. 2, pl. 1a), from Querimba, Mozambique, which has the upper side yellowish, and is probably but a variety of C. pyrrhonotus.
XXI. THE REDDISH-GREEN GUENON. CERCOPITHECUS RUFO-VIRIDIS.
Cercopithecus rufo-viridis, Geoffr., C. R., xv., p. 1038 (1842); id. Dict. Hist. Nat., iii., p. 307 (1849); Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 78 (1876); Scl., P. Z. S., 1893, p. 258.
Chlorocebus rufo-viridis, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 25 (1870).
? Cercopithecus flavidus, Peters, Reis. Mossamb., p. 3, pl. i.b.
Characters.—Face black; a large frontal band white; head above olive-green; back green washed with rufous, gradually becoming bright rufous, slightly speckled with black on the sidesof the body between the fore- and hind-limbs; shoulders and thighs grey, washed with green; the rest of the external aspect of the limbs grey; under side of body and inner side of limbs white; hands speckled black; the feet greyish; tail, dark grey above, pale grey below.
Distribution and Habits.—Unknown. The form described by Peters as C. flavidus comes from Mozambique.
IV. Cercopitheci Melanochiri.
The species which we now proceed to describe belong to Prof. Schlegel's Section v., and Dr. Sclater's Cercopitheci melanochiri, of which the members have the arms and legs either black or dark grey, and have a black band from the outer corner of the eyes to the ears.
XXII. THE MONA GUENON. CERCOPITHECUS MONA.
Simia mona, Schreber, Säugeth., i., p. 97, pl. xv. (1775).
Cercopithecus mona, Erxleb. Syst. Regne An., p. 32 (1777); Geoffr., Dict. Hist. Nat., p. 304 (1849); Martin, Mammif. An., p. 527 (1841); Wagner, in Schreb. Säugeth. Suppl., v., p. 47 (1855); Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 22 (1870); Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 80 (1876); Sclater, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 250.
La mone, F. Cuvier, Hist. Nat. Mamm., i., livr. ix. (Août, 1819).
Characters.—Top of the head brilliant golden-green, the hairs being black at the roots, yellow further up and tipped with black; back, sides of body, shoulders, and haunches chestnut-brown, speckled with black,—the hairs being grey at the base, ringed alternately with red, or brown and black; frontal band pale greenish; rump, with the exception of a distinctive elliptical white bar on each side, at the base of the tail, black; the hands and feet, and external aspect of the legs,thighs, and fore-arms, black; the under side of the body and inner side of the limbs pure white, separated by an abrupt line from the colours of the outer surfaces; the transverse black band above the eyebrows extending from the outer corner of the eyes to the ears; nude parts of face, ears, and hands livid flesh-colour; the whiskers bushy, covering much of the cheeks, descending on the sides and lower part of the neck, pale yellow, speckled with black marks.
The white bars on each side of the tail, on the rump, and the white frontal band distinguish this species from all others.
Distribution.—West Africa: Cameroons.
XXIII. SYKES' GUENON. CERCOPITHECUS ALBIGULARIS.
Semnopithecus albogularis, Sykes, P. Z. S., 1831, p. 106.
Cercopithecus albigularis, Sykes, P. Z. S., 1832, p. 18; Owen, P. Z. S., 1832, p. 18 (anatomy); Martin, Mamm. An., p. 512 (1841); Frazer, Zool. Typ., pl. ii. (1848); Wagner in Schreb. Säugeth. Suppl., v., p. 45 (1855); Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 24 (1870); Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 79 (1876); True. Pr. U. S. Nat. Mus., xv., p. 448 (1893); Sclater, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 251; Matschie, S.B., Nat. Fr. Berl., 1893, p. 215; Thomas, P. Z. S., 1894, p. 137.
Cercopithecus erythrarchus, Peters, Reis. Mossamb. Säugeth., p. 1, pl. i.; Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 77 (1876); Kirk, P. Z. S., 1864, p. 649; Reuvens, Zool. Gart., xxx., p. 207 (1889); Oudem, op. cit., xxxi., p. 267 (1890); Scl., P. Z. S., 1893, p. 249 (female).
? Cercopithecus monoides, Geoffr., Arch. du Mus., ii., p. 558, pl. 31 (1841); id., C. R., xv., p. 1038 (1842); id., Dict. Hist. Nat., iii., p. 303 (1849); Scl., P. Z. S., 1893, p. 256.
Characters.—Male.—Head rounded, short; ears small, rounded, and nearly concealed in the long fur of the head; eyes deep-set; superciliary hairs long; whiskers thick and bushy; no beard; facial angle large; cheek-pouches small but distinct, not observable even when filled, being concealed by the bushy whiskers; thumbs short; great-toes long; very small callosities; tail half as long as the body. Larynx with the usual two wide lateral sacs and a middle pouch extending forward about three inches under the skin of the neck, communicating with the larynx by a large opening.
Entire upper surface black, mixed with yellow,—the hairs being black, ringed with brownish-yellow bars. Face, cheeks, and lips black; shoulders, fore-limbs and hind-limbs (washed with yellowish), black, from the absence of the yellow bars, which predominate on the back and sides; under side of the body black, speckled with white; chin and throat white; no white thigh patches; tail, black.
Female.—Differs from the male in being smaller, and in having the rump, the upper and lower sides of the base of the tail, the region round the anus, and the posterior aspect of the upper part of the thighs and arms strongly tinged with reddish-brown. The lower side of the body and inner sides of the limbs whitish—the hairs towards their extremities being ringed with black and greyish-yellow. It has been described as Cercopithecus erythrarchus of Peters and other writers.
Distribution.—West Africa: Gold Coast (Pel); also said to have been obtained on the Congo. East Africa: Mozambique; believed to abound about Cape Corrientes (Peters). Quilimane and the Lower Zambesi are further given as habitats both by Dr. Peters and Sir J. Kirk. Mr. H. H. Johnston, H.M. Commissioner in Nyasa Land, has sent it from the Milanji Plateau, where it ranges from 3,000 to 6,000 feet above the sea. This species was at one time supposed, but quite erroneously, to come from Madagascar.
Habits.—This Monkey is very frequently brought alive to Europe, and almost all that we know of its habits has been obtained from observing it in captivity. Colonel Sykes, who first brought this species to England and described it, says that "its manners in captivity are grave and sedate. Its disposition is gentle, but not affectionate; and though free from that capricious petulance and mischievous irascibility characteristic of so many of the African species, still it quickly resents irritating treatment, and evinces its resentment by very smart blows with its anterior hands. It never bit any person on board ship, but so seriously lacerated three Monkeys, its fellow passengers, that two of them died from the wounds. It readily ate meat, and would choose to pick a bone even when plentifully supplied with vegetables and dried fruits." Another individual, seen by Mr. Ogilby, exhibited the same antipathy to other Monkeys.
XXIV. BOUTOURLINI'S GUENON. CERCOPITHECUS BOUTOURLINII.
Cercopithecus boutourlinii, Giglioli, Zool. Anz., x., p. 510 (1887); Scl., P. Z. S., 1893, pp. 256, 441.
Cercopithecus albigularis, Giglioli, Ann. Mus. Genov. (2), vi., p. 8 (1888).
Characters.—Male.—Body-hairs long and rough; upper surface black, with pale fulvous annellations, except on a line between the shoulders, which is nearly black; ears nearly nude, with an inner hairy pencil; nose, upper lip, chin, and throat, pure white; rest of the under surface and of the limbs and tail black,except the base of the tail, which has ringed hairs like the back all round. Length of body, 21 inches; of tail, 24 inches. (Sclater.)
Female.—Nearly similar, but smaller, and having the hairs less ringed on the back and the head. (Sclater.)
Distinguished from C. albigularis by its white nose and upper lips, black under surface, and blacker limbs.
Distribution.—North-east Africa: Kaffa, a province to the south of Shoa; and Gimma, a province in Central Abyssinia, to the south of Gojan.
XXV. CAMPBELL'S GUENON. CERCOPITHECUS CAMPBELLI.
Cercopithecus campbelli, Waterh., P. Z. S., 1838, p. 61; Fraser, Zool. Typ., pl. iii. (1848); Martin, Mammif. An., p. 544 (1841); Wagner in Schreber Säugeth. Suppl., v., p. 47 (1855); Gray, P. Z. S., 1868, p. 182; id., Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 24 (1870); Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 82 (1876); Jentink, Notes, Leyden Mus., x., p. 9 (1888); Sclater, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 251.
Cercopithecus burnetti, Gray, Ann. N. H., x., p. 256 (1842).
Characters.—Fur long, longer on the hinder part of the back than on the front, separated along the back—the hairs black with broad yellow rings. Face bluish-black; lips flesh-coloured; band across the forehead white, washed with rufous—the hairs tipped with black; head as far as the nape of the neck, yellowish-brown; the fore part of the back brownish-black, the lower part of the back, the outer side of the hind-legs, the fore-legs, and basal third of the tail olive-black, washed with yellow; the long hair on the cheeks and side of the neck, which partly conceals the ears, greyish-white, ringed towards the tips with black andyellow; the inner side of the ears furnished with long yellow-flecked grey hairs; the chest, throat, under side of the body, inner side of limbs and fore part of the thighs white; posterior two-thirds of the tail yellowish-grey, the hairs ringed with black and faded yellow, those of the under side with brown and grey; tip of the tail with a small black tuft.
Distribution.—West Africa: from Sierra Leone to the Gold Coast.
Habits.—This is the commonest Monkey, both in the interior and on the coast of this region of Africa. It frequents the moderate-sized trees of the forest in troops of fifty or more in number; and it occasionally even takes to the water of its own accord.
XXVI. THE SAMANGO GUENON. CERCOPITHECUS SAMANGO.
Cercopithecus samango, Sundev. Öfvers. K. Vet.-Akad. Förh. Stockh., i., p. 160 (1844); Wagner in Schreber Säugeth. Suppl., v., p. 44 (1855); Peters, Reis. Mossamb., Säugeth., p. 4; Gray, P. Z. S., 1868, p. 182; id., Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 24 (1870); Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 79 (1876; in part); Scl., P. Z. S., 1893, p. 251.
Characters.—Distinguished by the dirty white tint along the basal half of the tail, except along the median line of the upper side, which is black; end of the tail black. Back entirely blackish-olive—the hairs being yellowish-olive, ringed with black; inner side of the limbs, and entire under surface from the arms to the chin, dirty white; outer surface of the arms black, of the legs grey; the feet black; ears covered with whitish hairs.
Distribution,—South and East Africa: Natal and Mozambique; extending to Angola in the west.
XXVII. THE WHITE-LIPPED GUENON. CERCOPITHECUS LABIATUS.
Cercopithecus labiatus, Geoffr., C. R., xv., p. 1038 (1842); id., Dict. d'Hist. Nat., iii., p. 302 (1849); Sclater, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 256.
Cercopithecus samango, Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 79 (1876; in part).
Characters.—Fur thick; a bunch of long hairs directed backwards on the cheeks; inner aspect of the ears covered with reddish-grey hairs; upper side of the body dark grey, speckled with pale olive-yellow; top of the head black, speckled with yellowish-green; forehead and jaws greenish-yellow, speckled with black; a black spot on the face above the commissure of the lips; rest of the lips and region of the mouth white; outer side of the fore-limbs, hands, and feet black; outer side of the hind-limbs greyish-brown; under side of the body faded white; inner side of the limbs ashy-grey; round the anus and the greater part of the under side of the tail, pale yellowish-brown; upper side of the tail, for same distance, reddish-black; remainder black.
Distribution and Habits.—Unknown.
XXVIII. THE RUMP-SPOTTED GUENON. CERCOPITHECUS OPISTHOSTICTUS.
Cercopithecus opisthostictus, Scl., P. Z. S., 1893, p. 725.
Characters.—Back black, speckled with pale grey; head darker; back of the neck, shoulders, external aspect of the hands and feet, and the tail (except at its base), black; a small spot on the lower back on each side of the tail rufous; under side blackish. Length of body, 24 inches; of tail, 25 inches. (Sclater.)
Distribution.—British Central Africa: near Lake Mweru.
Habits.—Unknown. The skin of this Monkey is used by the natives to form dresses, and from specimens of these, collected by Mr. A. Sharpe, H.B.M. Vice-Consul in Southern Nyasa Land, during his journey from the north end of Lake Nyasa to Lake Mweru and the Luapula, this species has been described by Dr. P. L. Sclater.
XXIX. STAIRS' GUENON. CERCOPITHECUS STAIRSI.
Cercopithecus stairsi, Sclater, P. Z. S., 1892, p. 580, pl. xl.; 1893, pp. 252, 443, and 612.
Characters.—Adult Male.—Face black, except a ring round the eyes, which is flesh-coloured; ridge of the nose and a band above the eyes from ear to ear black, surmounted by another band of long erect yellowish-white hairs; ears naked; whiskers bushy, greyish-white, washed with greenish-yellow; on each side of the forehead a bright chestnut band is carried over the head behind the ears; back of the head, nape, and anterior part of the back grey, variegated by black lines and washed with yellowish; back of the shoulders dark grey; back, especially the lower part, yellowish-grey, with a rufous patch on the rump above the tail; external surface of the arms blackish-grey; hands black; outside of the legs grey; feet not so black as the hands; anal region, and about three inches of the base of the tail rufous-yellow; scrotum dark indigo blue; throat, under surface of body, and inner side of limbs milky white; the whole of the hair of the upper parts minutely grizzled. Length of body, 18 inches; tail injured. (Sclater.)
Young Female.—Differs from the male in being lighter in colour; back below the nape, sides, thighs, legs, and uppersurface of the basal third of the tail ochre yellow, washed with rufous; shoulders and fore-limbs grey; hands and feet black, under side of the body and inner side of the limbs and the throat (where the hairs are long) milky white; terminal two-thirds of the tail blackish-grey, darker at the tip.
The chestnut auricular spots in both sexes of this species distinguish it from all others.
Distribution.—The Zambesi Delta. The typical specimen (which is the female above described) was given, as Dr. Sclater tells us in his original account of this beautiful species, by Mr. Hillier, at Chindi, to Dr. Moloney (of Lieut. Stairs' Expedition). The latter brought it home alive, and presented it in 1892 to the Zoological Society's Gardens, where it lived till the beginning of 1893. The type specimen is now in the British Museum. A second specimen, the adult male (described above) was presented to the Society in June, 1893, by Mr. F. Hintz, whose brother had brought it from Mozambique, and had had it in captivity for eight years.
XXX. MOLONEY'S GUENON. CERCOPITHECUS MOLONEYI.
Cercopithecus moloneyi, Sclater, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 252, pl. xvii.
Characters.—Related to C. samango, but larger; hairs long above, olivaceous, speckled with black; head darker; a broad band covering the middle and lower back, and the base of the upper side of the tail rufous—the hairs ringed with black; arms, externally from the shoulders down to the hands, and internally on the lower part of the fore-arm, black; outer aspect of the thighs and legs blackish-grey, washed posteriorly with yellowish; tail, except at the very tip, deep black; the face, lips,and ears naked, and black; a fulvous band across the forehead above the eyes; sides of the head fulvous, speckled with black; throat, creamy yellow; under side of body pale fulvous, the hairs ringed with black; the inside of the arms, thighs, and upper part of the legs greyish fulvous; feet black. Length of body, 28 inches; of tail, 26 inches.
Distribution.—British Central Africa. Procured from the natives of N-Konde, and brought from Karonga, at the north end of Lake Nyasa, by Dr. Moloney.
XXXI. SCHLEGEL'S GUENON. CERCOPITHECUS NEGLECTUS.
Cercopithecus leucocampyx (nec Fischer), Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 22 (1870).
Cercopithecus neglectus, Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 70 (1876); Giglioli, Zool. Anz., x., p. 510 (1887); Scl., P. Z. S., 1893, p. 253.
Characters.—General colour greyish-brown, finely grizzled; under side of body black; crown, outside of limbs and base of tail black; anterior aspect of thighs and a band across the haunches white.
Distinguished from the true C. leucampyx by the colour of the front of the thighs, and by its banded haunch.
Distribution.—The White Nile, where it was obtained by Consul Petherick.
XXXII. THE DIADEM GUENON. CERCOPITHECUS LEUCAMPYX.
Simia leucampyx, Fischer, Syn. Mamm., p. 20 (1829).
Le Diane femelle, F. Cuv., Hist. Nat., Mamm., livr. xlii. (June, 1824).
Cercopithecus diadematus, Geoffr. in Bélang., Voy. Zool. p. 51 (1834).
Cercopithecus leucampyx, Martin, Mamm. An., p. 529 (1841); Geoffr., Dict. Univ. Hist. Nat., iii., p. 304 (1849); Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 83 (1876); Giglioli, Zool. Anz., x., p. 510 (1887); Sclater, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 253 (♀).
Cercopithecus pluto, Gray, P. Z. S., 1848, p. 56, pl. iii.; 1868, p. 182; id., Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 23 (1870); Wagner in Schreb. Säugeth. Suppl., v., p. 48 (1855); Sclater, P. Z. S., 1870, p. 670, 1871, p. 36, 1892, p. 97.
Characters.—Face, nose, and lips black; whiskers rounded and bushy; no beard; fur long and harsh; form robust and powerful; whiskers grizzled, the hairs ringed with black and white; across the forehead, over the eyes, a broad white bar (or diadem); the back beyond the shoulders, the sides and haunches, and the posterior aspect of the thighs, grizzly-grey, the hairs ringed with numerous greenish-white and black bars; tail grey at its base, rest black; a few yellowish hairs on the callosities, but all the rest of the body deep black. Length of body, 23 inches; of tail, 21.
Distribution.—West Africa: Angola, and the Congo, to Nyasa Land.
V. Cercopitheci Auriculati.
The following three species form the fifth group of the Guenons, distinguished by their yellowish or rufous ear-tufts, and the three black lines over the forehead.
XXXIII. ERXLEBEN'S GUENON. CERCOPITHECUS GRAYI.
Cercopithecus grayi, Fraser, Cat. Knowsl. Coll., p. 8 (1850); Gray, P. Z. S., 1868, p. 182; id., Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 22 (1870); Sclater, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 256.
Cercopithecus erxlebenii, Dahlb. et Puch., Rev. et Mag. de Zool., 1856, p. 96; 1857, p. 196; Dahlb., Zool. Stud., p. 109, pl. 5 (1856); Gray, P. Z. S., 1868, p. 182; id., Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 23 (1870; in part); Sclater, P. Z. S., 1871, p. 36; 1893, p. 254; 1894, p. 484.
Cercopithecus pogonias, Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 82 (part).
Characters.—Face and ears naked, flesh-coloured; whiskers commencing under the eyes, bushy, yellow; the ears with a rufous or yellow tuft internally; head yellow, but interrupted by three broad black streaks, extending from above each eye and from the nose to the back of the head; back, anterior aspect of the thighs, and the sides yellowish rufous, darker towards the lower back—the hairs ringed with black and yellow, upper surface and entire terminal third of the tail black. Under surface of the body, inner side of the limbs, anterior aspect of the thighs and legs, and the under side of the basal two-thirds of the tail, yellow or rufous yellow; region of the anus white; external aspect of the fore-limbs black; the hands and feet black.
A female specimen of this species which lived for some years in the menagerie of Lord Derby at Knowsley, and died in 1836, is now in the Derby Museum, Liverpool. It is the type of C. grayi, with which C. erxlebeni is identical.
Distribution.—West Africa: River Congo.
XXXIV. THE BEARDED GUENON. CERCOPITHECUS POGONIAS.
Cercopithecus pogonias, Bennett, P. Z. S., 1833, p. 67; Wagner in Schreber Säugeth. Suppl., v., p. 43 (1855); Lesson, Spec. Mamm., p. 74 (1840); Martin, Mammif. An., p. 543 (1841); Gray, P. Z. S., 1868, p. 182; id., Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 23 (1870); Sclater, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 254; Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 82 (1876).
Characters.—Similar to C. grayi, but differs in the yellow forehead being interrupted in the middle by only a few black hairs, and not by a streak; the whiskers paler; the back part of the head, the fore part of the back, and the sides grizzled, the hairs being black, ringed with white; while down the middle of the back to the base of the tail runs a broad black stripe.
XXXV. THE BLACK-FOOTED GUENON. CERCOPITHECUS NIGRIPES.
Cercopithecus nigripes, Du Chaillu, Pr. Bost. N. H. Soc., vii., p. 360 (1860); Gray, P. Z. S., 1868, p. 182; Scl., P. Z. S., 1893, p. 254.
Cercopithecus erxlebenii, var. nigripes, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 23 (1870).
Cercopithecus pogonias, Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 182 (1876).
Characters.—Very similar to C. pogonias, but differs in being darker, and in having the dorsal stripe wider and more diffused lower down. It is probably only a variety of the preceding.
Distribution.—Gaboon, where it was discovered by Du Chaillu.
XXXVI. WOLF'S GUENON. CERCOPITHECUS WOLFI.
Cercopithecus wolfi, Meyer, Notes, Leyden Mus., xiii., p. 63 (1891); id., P. Z. S., 1894, p. 83, pl. vii.; Sclater, P. Z. S, 1893, p. 258.
Characters.—Face, except the lips, which are flesh-colour, and the temples, greyish-black; a yellowish-white bar across the forehead from ear to ear; whiskers greyish-yellow; ear-tufts reddish-brown; upper surface dark slate-grey; sides blue-grey, the hairs barred with several pale rings, and tipped with black; dorsal stripe, narrowing towards the tail, olive-yellowish, brighter on the crown, and brownish-yellow towards the tail; basal half of the tail above, ashy-grey, below white; an orange-yellow patch on the sides; chin, sides of neck, under surface of body and inner side of limbs white; belly washed slightly with orange; shoulders and outer aspect of the fore-limb, black—the hairs ringed with grey; on the hinder edge of the fore-arms an ochre-coloured stripe; outer side of thighs and legs bright red-brown, becoming orange on their anterior and posterior internal margin. Length of body, 18¼ inches; of tail, 24 inches.
Distribution.—West Africa: the exact locality is unknown.
VI. Cercopitheci Barbati.
The members of this group are distinguished by possessing a beard and a frontal crest.
XXXVII. THE DIANA GUENON. CERCOPITHECUS DIANA.
Simia diana, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 38 (1766).
Cercopithecus diana, Erxleb., Syst. Regne An., p. 30 (1777); Desmar., Mamm., p. 60 (1820); Martin, Mammif. An., p. 523 (1841); Geoffr., Dict. Hist. Nat., iii., p. 304 (1849); Wagner in Schreb. Säugeth. Suppl., v., p. 48 (1855); Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 22 (1870; pt.); Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 92 (1876; pt.); Jentink, Notes, Leyd. Mus., x., p. 12; Sclater, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 254.
Cercopithecus diana, var. ignita, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 22 (1870).
Characters.—Face black. Sides of face with long bushy whiskers, terminating on the chin in a pointed white beard a few inches long; across the forehead run two arched lines of erect hairs, the lower black, the upper white; top of the head, back of the neck, shoulders, the sides, middle of belly, ashy-grey—the hairs being white and black ringed, and white-tipped; outside of limbs darker, the hands black; tail grey, the tip black; neck, chest, and anterior part of the arms white; from the middle of the back a deep chestnut spot extends, and widens to the root of the tail; from the base of the tail, the outer aspect of the thighs, white; posterior part of under side of body and inner side of thighs, orange-yellow, or orange red, or bright red bay (C. ignita of Gray). Length of body, 18 inches; of tail, 24 inches.
Distribution.—West Africa: from Liberia to the Congo.
Habits.—This beautiful and graceful Monkey is not uncommon in captivity, and nearly all we know of its habits has been obtained from such specimens. "Like the rest of its tribe," writes Mr. Martin, "it is gentle, lively, active, and familiar while young, but as age advances it becomes reserved and treacherous.... Its frontal crest of white hairs, and its white peaked beard 'of formal cut,' give a singular aspect to its physiognomy. This latter ornament it has been observed, so Mr. Ogilby states, to be solicitous in keeping neat and clean; when about to drink it takes the beard in its hand with amazing gravity, and holds it back in order to prevent it from dipping into the fluid."
XXXVIII. THE PALATINE GUENON. CERCOPITHECUS PALATINUS.
Le Roloway ou la Palatine, Buff., Hist. Nat. Suppl., xv., p. 77 (1789).
Cercopithecus roloway, Erxleb., Syst. Régn. An., p. 42 (1777); Geoffr., Dict. Hist. Nat., iii., p. 304 (1849); Fisch., Synop. Mamm., p. 20 (1829).
Cercopithecus palatinus, Wagner, in Schreb. Säugeth. Suppl., v., p. 47 (1855); Scl., P. Z. S., 1893, p. 257.
Cercopithecus diana, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 22 (1870; pt.); Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 92 (1876; pt.).
Characters.—Very similar to C. diana, but differs in having the back very dark brown, nearly black, instead of chestnut; the head, flanks, thighs, limbs dark grey; where the belly in C. diana is black, in C. palatinus it is white.
XXXIX. DE BRAZZA'S GUENON. CERCOPITHECUS BRAZZÆ.
Cercopithecus brazzæ, Milne-Edwards, Rev. Sc. (3), xii., p. 15 (1886); Sclater, P. Z. S., 1893 pp. 255, 443, pl. xxxiii.
Characters.—Top of head, back, sides of face, outside of thighs, and root of tail pale fulvous, densely ringed with black; a frontal band, of dense erect hairs, chestnut,white-tipped, bordered behind by a broad black band from ear to ear; ears nearly naked; upper part of nose and a narrow line above the eyes, in front of the chestnut band, black; lower nose and upper lip white; a longish white beard on the chin and throat; belly dark fulvous, the hairs densely ringed with black; hands and feet black; inner side of thighs, arms, and a streak along the posterior aspect of the thighs, white; tail, except at its base, black. Length, 21 inches; tail, 22 inches. (Sclater.) Nearly related to C. neglectus.
Distribution.—West Africa: Upper Congo.
VII. Cercopitheci Trituberculati.
This section of the Family contains but one species, distinguished by the posterior lower molars having only three, instead of four, tubercles to their crowns. On this account it has been considered by some systematists to be the type of a distinct genus, Miopithecus.
XL. THE TALAPOIN. CERCOPITHECUS TALAPOIN.
Talapoin, Buff., Hist. Nat., xiv., p. 287, pl. xl. (1766).
Cercopithecus talapoin, Erxleb., Syst. Régn. Anim., p. 36, no. 15 (1777), Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 93 (1812); Desm., Mamm., p. 56; Martin, Mammif. Anim., p. 534 (1841); Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 71 (1876).
Simia talapoin, Gm., Syst. Nat., i., p. 101 (1788); Schreber, Säugeth., i., p. 101, no. 18, pl. 17; Fischer, Synops. Mamm., p. 21 (1829).
Cercopithecus pileatus, Desm., Mamm., p. 57 (1820; nec Shaw).
Miopithecus talapoin, Geoffr., Dict. Nat. Hist., iii., p. 308 (1849); Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 20 (1870).
Miopithecus capillatus, Geoffr., C. R., xv., p. 720 (1842.)
Simia melarhinus, Schinz, Synop. Mamm., i., p. 47 (1844).
Characters.—Small in size; head globular; muzzle very short; eyes large; ears very expanded; nose but slightly protruding, with oblong nostrils opening laterally, the septum thick; hands short, fingers united by a web.
Skull large; superciliary ridges and orbits also large; posterior molar in both jaws small; those in the lower jaw only three-cusped (two cusps in front, one behind); anterior and median lower molars four-cusped.
Naked skin round the eyes orange; upper lip yellow; whiskers directed downward, bright straw-yellow; upper eyelids white; nose black; ears naked, black; frontal hairs erect, forming a distinct curved crest. Fur speckled olive-green—the hairs grey at the roots, olive-green in the middle and black-tipped; fur darker on the body, paler and more washed with yellow on the outer side of the body and upper side of the hands and feet. Under surface of the body and the inside of the limbs white; tail ashy-grey. Length of body, 13½ inches.
Distribution.—West Africa: Gaboon.
Habits.—Nothing is known of the habits of this rare species, which is the smallest of the Guenons.