Handbook to the Primates/Geographical Distribution

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III.—THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE PRIMATES.


By means of the accompanying tables and maps I have attempted to present in a concise and clear manner the distribution of the Lemuroidea and the Anthropoidea in time and in space.

For the distribution of existing forms I have followed the divisions of the Globe proposed by Dr. Bowdler Sharpe in his essay on the Zoo-Geographical Areas of the World, published in "Natural Science" (Vol. III., pp. 100-108).



I. Table showing the genera of Primates peculiar to, and common to, the Old and New Worlds.



A. LEMUROIDEA.
OLD WORLD. NEW WORLD.
(Palæogæa.) (Neogæa.)
Living. Extinct. Living. Extinct.
Fam. Chiromyidæ.
Chiromys
Fam. Tarsiidæ.
Tarsius
[ 226 ]Fam. Megaladapidæ.
Megaladapis
Fam. Lemuridæ.
Perodicticus
Loris
Nycticebus
Galago
Chirogale
Microcebus
Opolemur
Lemur
Mixocebus
Hapalemur
Lepidolemur
Avahis
Propithecus
Indris
Fam. Anaptomorphidæ.
Microchærus
Mixodectes
Cynodontomys
Omomys
Anaptomorpha
Plesiadapis
Protoadapis
[ 227 ]Fam. Adapidæ.
Adapis
Tomitherium
Laopithecus
Pelycodus
Microsyops
Hyopsodus
Indrodon
Opisthotomus
Apheliscus
Sarcolemur
Hipposyus
Bathrodon
Mesacodon
Stenacodon
B. ANTHROPOIDEA.
Fam. Hapalidæ.
Hapale
Midas
Fam. Cebidæ.
Chrysothrix
Protopithecus
Callithrix
[ 228 ]Nyctipithecus
Brachyurus
Pithecia
Alouatta
Cebus
Homunculus
Anthropops
Lagothrix
Brachyteles
Ateles
Fam. Cercopithecidæ.
Papio
Theropithecus
Cynopithecus
Oreopithecus
Macacus
Cercocebus
Cercopithecus
Dolichopithecus
Mesopithecus
Colobus
Semnopithecus
Nasalis
[ 229 ]Fam. Simiidæ.
Pliopithecus
Hylobates
Dryopithecus
Simia
Gorilla
Anthropopithecus


It will be apparent from the above tables that, while the living Lemuroidea are confined to the Eastern Hemisphere, in past times some genera were not only common to both Hemispheres, but the Order was equally well, if not indeed better, represented in the New, than in the Old, World. Among the Anthropoidea, on the other hand, then, as now, none of the genera were common to both Hemispheres; and a large number of the genera, which then existed, were identical with genera now living, to a greater extent than among the Lemuroidea.



II. Tables to illustrate the distribution of the genera of Primates in time, in the different Zoo-Geographical Regions into which the World has been divided.


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A. Palæarctic Region.


Tertiary. POST-
TERTIARY.
NOW
LIVING.
EOCENE. MIOCENE. PLIOCENE.
P
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i
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Lemuroidea.
Fam. Chiromyidæ
" Tarsiidæ
" Megaladapidæ
" Lemuridæ
" Anaptomorphidæ 2 1
" Adapidæ 2 3 3
 
Anthropoidea.
Fam. Hapalidæ
" Cebidæ
" Cercopithecidæ 2 1 1 4 1 2 2 1 3
" Simiidæ 2 1
" Hominidæ ? ? 1 1 1 1



[ 231 ]

B. Ethiopian Region.


Tertiary. POST-
TERTIARY.
NOW
LIVING.
EOCENE. MIOCENE. PLIOCENE.
P
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t
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Lemuroidea.
Chiromyidæ 1 1
Tarsiidæ
Megaladapidæ 1
Lemuridæ 1 12 42
Anaptomorphidæ
Adapidæ
 
Anthropoidea.
Hapalidæ
Cebidæ
Cercopithecidæ 6 68
Simiidæ 2 3
Hominidæ 1 1



[ 232 ]

C. Indian Region.


Tertiary. POST-
TERTIARY.
NOW
LIVING.
EOCENE. MIOCENE. PLIOCENE.
P
l
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s
t
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R
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Lemuroidea.
Chiromyidæ
Tarsiidæ 1 2
Megaladapidæ
Lemuridæ 2 2
Anaptomorphidæ
Adapidæ
 
Anthropoidea.
Hapalidæ
Cebidæ
Cercopithecidæ 3 2 4 42
Simiidæ 2 1 2 8
Hominidæ 1 1 1


LEMUROIDEA. PLATE XLII.


Plate XLII.

I. MAP, Showing the distribution of Living (Blue) and Fossil (Red) Lemuroidea.


LEMUROIDEA. PLATE XLIII.


Plate XLIII.

II. MAP, Showing the distribution of the Family Tarsiidæ (Blue), and the Sub-family Galaginæ (Red) of the Lemuridæ.