Handbook to the Primates/Hapalidae
II. THE MONKEYS AND APES—SUB-ORDER ANTHROPOIDEA.
This Sub-order, though containing animals of much higher organisation than the Lemuroidea, embraces species presenting many different grades of intelligence, and ranging in size from the Pigmy Marmoset, not larger than a small Kitten, to the ponderous Gorilla and the genus Homo. In external characters the Monkeys and Apes have in general a shorter and less Dog-like nose than the Lemurs, thin lips and a more distinct face; while their eyes, situated on the face, are invariably directed forwards, and never outwards, or to the side. The opening of their nostrils is either outward (as in those inhabiting the New World), or downwards (as in the bulk of the Old World species). All of them are covered with hair; the tail may be long, short, or wanting. The proportions of the fore-limbs to the hind- vary much in the different groups. The great toe, as well as the thumb, is (except in a few species) fully opposable, so that in the majority of members of the Sub-order, the foot is as good a prehensile organ as the hand. From this circumstance comes the designation, Quadrumana, or "four-handed," so often applied to these animals. In a few species the thumb is rudimentary or absent, but the fore-finger, the absence of which characterised some of the Lemurs, is always present and well developed, and the corresponding digit in the foot (except in the Marmosets) has a flat nail instead of a claw. The mammæ of the Anthropoidea are always situated on the breast. If we examine the structures underlying the skin, we find that in the skull the orbits are entirely shut in by a bony wall, so that the finger cannot be passed into the temporal depression behind, as could be done in the Lemurine skull, and that the lachrymal foramen opens within the cavity for the eye. In the present Sub-order there is no toothless space in the mid-line of the upper jaw, the incisor teeth being set close together; but there is always a vacuity, except in Man, between the incisors and the canine tooth. The lower canine teeth do not resemble in form the incisors, nor do they protrude horizontally, as in the Lemurs. The two halves of the lower jaw are always co-ossified together, when the animal is full grown. The humerus, or arm-bone, never has an entepicondylar foramen on the inner side of its lower portion, and the bones of the fore-arm (the ulna and radius) are never ossified together, nor are those of the lower leg (the tibia and fibula); so that there is perfect freedom for every movement necessary for grasping and walking, or for rotating the hand or foot on the wrist and ankle.
With regard to the brain, the anthropoid cerebrum, or fore-brain, is greatly convoluted, and differs from that of the Lemurs by its proportionately larger size, the cerebellum, or hind-brain, being as a rule entirely covered by it.
The uterus and structures for the nutrition of the young prior to birth differ greatly in this Sub-order from the conditions existing in the Lemuroidea. The uterus is a simple and not a two-horned sac, and its inner layer, in which the fœtal and maternal structures intermingle during the growth of the embryo, is shed after the birth of the young, which is not the case in the Lemurs.
"The resemblance of Monkeys to Man," says Mr. Darwin, "is greatly caused by the relative position of the features of the face. The eyes are arched over; they are separated by a long nose, the end of which in some is very human. The mouth is not carried back, but occupies the same general position as in Man, and the forehead, so often wrinkled, is usually prominent and like that of a child. The likeness is increased by the fact that anger, sorrow, pleasure, and satisfaction, are displayed by the Monkey by nearly similar movements of the muscles and skin, chiefly above the eyebrows and round the mouth. Some few expressions are indeed almost the same, as in the weeping of certain kinds of Monkeys, and in thelaughing noise made by others, during which the corners of the mouth are drawn backward and the eyelids wrinkled. In Man the nose is much more prominent than in most Monkeys; but we may trace the commencement of an aquiline curvature in the nose of the Hoolock Gibbon, and this in the Great-nosed Monkey (Nasalis larvatus) is carried to a ridiculous extreme."
In regard to the distribution of the Anthropoidea, excluding Man (Hominidæ), two families (the Hapalidæ and Cebidæ) are known only from the New World; and two others (the Cercopithecidæ and Simiidæ) are exclusively confined to the Old World. No fossil remains of Eastern Hemisphere forms have as yet been found in the Western, or vice versâ, a fact which indicates, doubtless, a separation of great antiquity between the two groups. The various species of these families are to be found chiefly in the warmer regions on both sides of the equator. In the New World some species range as far north as to 20° N. lat. in Mexico; and South, to 30° below the equator. In the Eastern Hemisphere, the Old World species predominate in the tropical and sub-tropical regions; but certain forms have spread as far north as Thibet and Japan, and others have made the high altitudes of the Himalaya Mountains their home; while to the southward they extend in Africa nearly to the Cape of Good Hope. No indigenous species have ever been found in New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, or in the Pacific, or West Indian Islands.
The Apes of the Old World differ in many important characters from those of the New. Among the former, as already mentioned, the openings of the nostrils are directed downwards, as in Man; the nose is narrow, and the nostrils themselves are set close together, being separated from each other by a thin septum, or partition, of cartilage. On this account,  The New World Monkeys, on the other hand, have the nose flat and the opening of their nostrils directed outwards, and the one nostril widely separated from the other by a broad cartilaginous septum, and they are therefore designated Platyrrhine Monkeys (Platyrrhini).they have received the name of Catarrhine Monkeys (Catarrhini).
The dental formula of the Old World forms is I 2, C 1, P 2, M 3, making a total of thirty-two teeth in all; but those of the Western Hemisphere differ in having invariably three pre-molars, and sometimes two molars, instead of three, so that they possess either thirty-two or thirty-six teeth altogether. There is always a gap, or diastema, in the series of the teeth in front of the upper and behind the lower canines; the latter teeth being taller than the rest. Many of the Catarrhine Apes have large cheek-pouches as well as bare patches, or callosities, often brightly coloured, on the part they apply to the ground when sitting. None of the Platyrrhine group have cheek-pouches or callosities, but in many of them the tail is marvellously prehensile, which is not the case in any of the Old World species. Again, in the Apes of the Eastern Hemisphere, the ear-capsules of the skull have an external bony channel (or meatus) for conveying the sound vibrations into the ear, which is absent in the American species.
As a rule the Platyrrhine Monkeys have the fore-limbs shorter than the hind-, and are more quadrupedal than those of the Old World. Their thumb is also more like a finger than the same digit in their Eastern brethren.
Of the New World Monkeys, the Hapalidæ, or Marmosets, have thirty-two teeth, and the Cebidæ, with severalsub-families, have thirty-six teeth. The former include the Marmosets (Hapale) and the Tamarins (Midas). The latter comprise the Capuchins (Cebus), which may be taken as the representative genus of American Monkeys, the Woolly Monkeys (Lagothrix), the Spider-Monkeys (Ateles and the allied Eriodes), the Howlers (Mycetes), the Sakis (Pithecia and Brachyurus), the Night-Monkeys or Douroucolis (Nyctipithecus), and the Squirrel Monkeys or Saimiris (Chrysothrix), with the allied Callithrix.
"The extensive equatorial forests of the Amazon and Orinoco, and their tributaries, constitute par excellence the home of the American Monkeys, but the majority of the genera have a very extended range, appearing in one or more species throughout the greater portion of the tract covered by the entire family. This is more particularly the case with the Sapajous (Cebus), Spider-Monkeys, Howlers, and the species of Callithrix. The range of the species, on the other hand, is not unfrequently very sharply defined, as, for example, when a natural barrier, offering insurmountable obstacles to further migration, suddenly interposes itself. Examples of such limitation, as brought about by the dominant water-courses of the equatorial forests," are numerous. Mr. Wallace cites the case of certain species of Saki Monkey (Pithecia), found on either side of the Amazon river, whose range, either southward or northward, appears to be limited by that river. "The number of species of these American Apes found in, and north of, the Isthmus of Panama is ten, of which only one (Ateles vellerosus) extends into Mexico; Mycetes villosus, the Guatemalan Howler, or 'Mono,' has thus far been found only in Guatemala and Honduras. It is a little surprising that the range of only two of the species—the Black-faced Spider-Monkey (Ateles ater)and one of the Night-Apes (Nyctipithecus vociferans)—extends beyond Colombia, in South America."
"None of the South American Monkeys appear to pass west of the Andean chain of mountains south of Ecuador, and even north of the Peruvian boundary the number of such transgressional forms is very limited. Indeed, even among the wooded slopes, a habitation along the basal line of the mountain axis seems to be much preferred. The greatest altitude at which Monkeys were observed by Tschudi in Peru was 3,000 feet (Lagothrix humboldti); Ateles ater and Cebus robustus were found at 2,500 feet. On the other hand, Salvin and Godman state that in the district of Vera Paz, in Guatemala, the 'Mono' or Howler is most abundant at an elevation of 6,000 feet; and on the Volcano of Atitlan, in the same country, Mr. Salvin found troops of the Mexican Spider-Monkey (Ateles vellerosus) in the forest region of 7,000 feet elevation.
"The range of the Marmosets and Oustitis (Hapalidæ) is nearly co-extensive with that of the Monkeys proper." (Heilbrin.) The Pigmy and the Silky Marmoset range as far north as Mexico.
THE MARMOSETS AND TAMARINS. FAMILY HAPALIDÆ.
Of the New World, or Platyrrhine, Apes, the Marmosets come to be described first, as they have many characters which mark them out as the lowest of the Anthropoidea, and rank them nearer to the Lemuroidea than any of the others. They are specially characterised by having only thirty-two teeth, their dental formula being I 2, C 1, P 3, M 2. In the actual number of their teeth they agree with their Eastern relations, but with this difference, that in the latter the pre-molars are two, and the molars three, above and below on each side. Their flattened nose, with its wide partition between the nostrils, and their non-prehensile bushy tails, are also distinguishing characters. The face is nude, the ears large and sometimes fringed. Their hind-limbs are proportionately larger and longer than their fore-limbs, while the nails of their fingers and toes are not flattened as in the Old World Apes, but all form sharp curved claws, except on the much shortened great toe. The thumb is elongated and lies parallel, but quite unopposable to, nor indeed is it separable at will from, the rest of the digits. The fore-foot, consequently, "is a mere paw, and the term 'hand' is not applicable to it."... The plantar surface of the hind-foot "is very long, and the digits are very short. It follows from these facts that the term 'quadrumanous' is not applicable in any sense to the Marmosets." (Huxley.) These animals have no callosities over the ischial (or buttock) bones, and no cheek-pouches. In their smooth and rounded skull superciliary ridges are conspicuously absent; and the ear-capsules have, as has been already observed, no external bony canal for conducting sound vibrations to the inner ear. The hyoid bone resembles that of the Lemurs.
This family has been divided into two genera, distinguished from each other only by a variation in the relative length of their incisor and canine teeth, which is so slight as to render it doubtful whether these differences really warrant the generic separation of the two groups. As, however, the distinction has been maintained by nearly all writers upon these animals, the arrangement has been followed here, and the various species of the family will be described as true Marmosets (Hapale) andTamarins (Midas). They are most numerous in the equatorial forests of South America.
THE MARMOSETS. GENUS HAPALE.
Hapale, Illiger, Prodr. Syst. Mamm., p. 71 (1811).
The members of this genus, which are often kept in captivity as pets, are very small animals, covered with thick and silky fur, and having bushy tails, equal to or even exceeding the length of their body. The head is round, the eyes large and watchful, the face short and nude, and often abundantly whiskered. The mouth is large; the ears also large and often fringed, and the neck sometimes clothed, with long hair. They are distinguished from the Tamarins (Midas) by having their upper incisor teeth long, narrow, and protruding outwards and forwards; the incisors of the lower jaw are also very long, and its canines small and shorter than the incisors, both being protrusive, as among the Lemurs. The cranial region of the smooth skull is conspicuously large in comparison with its facial portion, but the cerebrum shows a low type of organisation, and indicates a small degree of intelligence in its possessor; it is smooth and almost devoid of convolutions; the cerebrum, too, unlike that of the Lemuroidea, completely covers the cerebellum. The orbits are large, and almost completely walled in from the temporal depression behind. The stomach in form resembles that found in the higher groups, but its orifices for the entrance and exit of food are nearer to each other than in any of the other American Monkeys.
The female produces two or three young at a birth, instead of one, as is the general rule among the Anthropoidea. The species vary much in coloration, and some of them resemble the Lemurs in being ring-tailed.
The Marmosets are all gentle and playful in disposition, and are, on this account, very largely brought to Europe as pets; but they are very delicate, and rarely survive long in confinement after the advent of the Northern winter. They are arboreal, living in troops, and feeding on insects and fruit, and not disdaining flesh, especially of fishes, when they can obtain it. They emit a characteristic chirping noise.
I. THE COMMON MARMOSET. HAPALE JACCHUS.
Simia jacchus, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 40 (1766).
Jacchus pencillatus, Geoffr. Ann. Mus., xix., p. 119 (1812); Spix, t. c. p. 34, pl. 26 (1823).
Jacchus leucocephalus, Geoffr., t. c. p. 119.
Jacchus vulgaris, Geoffr., t. c. p. 119; Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 63 (1870, in part).
Hapale jacchus, Kuhl, Beitr., Zool., p. 46 (1820); Schleg., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 271 (1876).
Hapale albicollis, Spix, Sim. et Vespert. Bras., p. 33, pl. 25 (1823); Geoffr., Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 59 (1851).
Characters.—Head small; eyes gentle; nose flat; face black, with a white spot in front; ears naked, with a tuft of long hairs on the front edge of its opening, either black, white, or grey; hair of the sides of the head elongated; back cross-banded with black and grey, the hair at the base dusky, reddish-brown in the middle, grey at the top. Tail banded with black or grey.
Several species have been described under the names of the White-necked Marmoset (H. albicollis, Spix), the Black-eared Marmoset (H. penicillata, Kuhl), and the White-headed Marmoset (H. leucocephala, Kuhl), but Dr. Gray considered these to be only varieties of the common species, which hassometimes the head and neck greyish-white, or the head, neck and ear-tufts black, or the head alone white.
Distribution.—Island of Marajo, at the mouth of the Amazon.
Habits.—The Common Marmoset is an inhabitant of the forests, feeding chiefly on fruits and insects. It is very susceptible to cold, and lives but a short time when removed from the tropics, unless extreme care be taken. Mr. Bates, the author of "The Naturalist on the River Amazons," states that when in Para, he counted in a short time thirteen different species of Monkey in semi-domestication in the city, either at the doors or windows of houses, or in the native canoes. Two of them he did not meet with afterwards in any other part of the country. One of these was the well-known Hapale jacchus, a little creature resembling a Kitten, banded with black and grey all over the body and tail, and having a fringe of long white hairs surrounding the ears. It was seated on the shoulder of a young mulatto girl as she was walking about the street, and he was told that it had been captured in the island of Marajo.
II. THE WHITE-SHOULDERED MARMOSET. HAPALE HUMERALIFER.
Hapale humeralifer, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 120 (1812); Bates, Nat. Amaz., ii., p. 55 (1863).
Characters.—Face partly naked, flesh-coloured; ears fringed with long white hairs. Fore-part of body white; hands grey; hind part black, with the rump and under side reddish-tawny; tail banded with grey and black; long white hair on the shoulders. Length about 8 inches, exclusive of the tail.
Distribution.—Mr. Bates says that this species seems to occuronly in the dry woods bordering the Campos in the interior of Brazil.
Habits.—"One would mistake it," writes Mr. Bates in reference to this rare little Marmoset—the prettiest species of its family—"at first sight for a Kitten, from its small size, varied colours, and the softness of its fur. It was a most timid creature, screaming and biting when anyone attempted to handle it. It became familiar, however, with the people of the house, a few days after it came into their possession. When hungry or uneasy, it uttered a weak querulous cry, a shrill note which was sometimes prolonged so as to resemble the stridulation of a grasshopper."
III. THE WHITE-EARED MARMOSET. HAPALE AURITA.
Jacchus auritus, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 19 (1812).
Hapale aurita, Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., p. 48 (1820); Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 276 (1876).
Characters.—Larger than Hapale jacchus; ears naked, external, exposed, with a band of long hairs across the inner surface of the conch, forming a short grey tuft; tail ringed, blackish, the hair minutely punctulated with yellow or red; sides of the head, limbs, and hinder part of body blackish-brown; face more or less white; back blackish, without indication of cross-bands.
IV. THE WHITE-FOOTED MARMOSET. HAPALE LEUCOPUS.
Hapale leucopus, Günth., P. Z. S., 1876, p. 743, pl. lxxii.
Characters.—Hair of back and sides moderately long, silky, brownish-grey; nape and occiput darker; face and head covered with short sparse white hair; ears large, naked, and without tufts; throat greyish-brown; under side of body andinside of legs rusty-red; fore-arm, hands, and feet white—the hairs short, blackish or black, with white tips. Head and body, 11½ inches long; tail, 14½ inches. Dorsal and lumbar vertebræ together, 19.
Female.—Similar to the male, but with the hairs of the upper parts silver-tipped.
Distribution.—Medellin, in the province of Antioquia, United States of Colombia.
V. THE GOLDEN MARMOSET. HAPALE CHRYSOLEUCA.
Hapale chrysoleucos, Wagner in Wiegm. Arch., 1842, i., p. 357; id. in Schreb. Säugeth., Suppl., v., p. 125 (1855); Sclater, P. Z. S., 1869, p. 594.
Mico sericeus, Gray, P. Z. S., 1868, p. 256, pl. xxiv.
Miocella chrysoleucos, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 131 (1870).
Miocella sericeus, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus. App., p. 131 (1870).
Hapale chrysoleuca, Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 227 (1876).
Characters.—Ears large, naked, exposed, margined with long white hairs. General colour white; limbs, under surface, and tail, uniform greyish-yellow, or reddish-brown in some varieties.
Distribution.—Forests of Brazil; vicinity of Borba, on the Rio Madeira.
VI. THE PIGMY MARMOSET. HAPALE PYGMÆA.
Jacchus pygmæus, Spix, Sim. et Vespert. Bras., pl. xxiv., fig. 2 (1823).
Hapale pygmæa, Wagner in Schreber, Säugeth., v., p. 126 (1855). Castelnau, Voy. Amér. Sud, pl. 5, figs. 1, 2; Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 277 (1876).
Cibuella pygmæa, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 64 (1870).
Characters.—Face with long brown whiskers, naturally brushed back over the ears; ears small, with a few scattered hairs over them, but no ear-tufts, sunk in the long fur of the head. General colour brownish-tawny; tail ringed with black. The young resemble the adults from their earliest days.
This is the most diminutive Monkey known, and measures only six inches in length.
Distribution.—Forests of Brazil, extending north into Mexico. Mr. Bates remarks in reference to this species: "I was surprised on my return to England to learn that the Pigmy Marmoset was found also in Mexico, no other Amazonian Monkey being known to wander far from the great river plain. Thus the smallest, and apparently the feeblest, species of the whole order is one which has by some means become the most widely dispersed."
Habits.—Little or nothing is known of the habits of this individual species, but there is very little doubt that they agree closely with those of the Common Marmoset.
VII. THE BLACK-TAILED MARMOSET. HAPALE MELANURA.
Simia argentata, Linn., Syst. Nat., p. 40 (1766), albino var.
Jacchus melanura, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 120 (1812); Gray, P. Z. S., 1865, p. 734.
Jacchus argentatus, Geoffr., t. c. p. 120.
Hapale melanura (nec Kuhl); Wagner in Schreb., Säugeth., i., p. 127, fig. 36 (1840), and Suppl. v., p. 15, fig. 13 (1855); Scl., P. Z. S., 1875, p. 419, pl. l.; Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 267 (1876).
Midas argentatus, Bates, Nat. Amaz., i., p. 162 (1863).
Mico melanurus, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 64 (1870).
Hapale argentata, Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 268 (1876).
Characters.—Face naked, flesh-coloured; ears naked, flesh-coloured, exposed; no ear-pencils, as in H. chrysoleuca; tail uniform black; head and fore-limbs pale brown; front of the body paler; front edges of the thighs, and a band across the loins, white. Length, 7 inches, without the tail. Some varieties have the body entirely covered with long, white, silky hairs.
Distribution.—Bolivia and Brazil. Mr. Bates says that the Black-tailed Marmoset is one of the rarest of the American Monkeys. He did not hear of its being found anywhere in Amazonia except near Cametá, on the River Tocantins.
Habits.—Little is known of the habits of this species, few naturalists having had the good fortune to observe it in its native state. Mr. Bates, however, once saw three individuals together, running along a branch, and looking like white Kittens. "I afterwards saw a pet animal," he says in his book, "of this species, and heard that there were many so kept, and that they were esteemed as choice treasures.... It was a most timid and sensitive thing. The woman who owned it carried it constantly in her bosom, and no money would induce her to part with her pet.... The nervous little creature would not permit strangers to touch it. If anyone attempted to do so, it shrank back, the whole body trembling with fear, and its teeth chattered, whilst it uttered its tremulous, frightened tones. The expression of its features was like that of its more robust brother, Midas ursulus; the eyes, which were black, were full of curiosity and mistrust, and it always kept them fixed on the person who attempted to advance towards it."
THE TAMARINS. GENUS MIDAS.
Midas, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 120 (1812).
This genus differs from the preceding only in the characters of some of the teeth. The canine teeth in the lower jaw are longer than their neighbouring incisors; but, as has been pointed out by Prof. St. George Mivart, it is a question whether this generic distinction can be maintained, as an intermediate condition exists in some forms.
For the convenience of description the species of this genus have been divided into two groups—(a) those with long hair on the head and neck, and (b) those with short hairs on the back of the head. The number of species in the latter group is greater than in the former; and they are further divided into those with, and those without, white lips.
I. THE SILKY TAMARIN. MIDAS ROSALIA.
Simia rosalia, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 41, pl. i. (1766).
Midas rosalia, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 121 (1812).
Leontopithecus rosalia, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 65 (1870).
Hapale rosalia, Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 250 (1876).
Characters.—This is the first species of the long-whiskered and maned group; fur soft and silky; tail equal in length to the body, bushy at the tip; hair round the face and on the back of the neck very long, forming a conspicuous ruff. Face, hands, and feet purple; general colour of the hair golden yellow, more or less red, and glossy.
These animals are said to possess an air-sac in the throat, at the back of the trachea (or windpipe), as in Ateles. Length, 11 inches; tail, 12 inches.
Distribution.—The Silky Tamarin is found in the forests of South-eastern Brazil, in the coastal forests of New Granada, and as far north as the Isthmus of Panama.
Habits.—The "Marakina," as this exceedingly beautiful species is often called, lives in small troops, ascending to the slender branches at the tops of the highest trees in the forest. The species is very playful and intelligent.
Closely related to the Silky Tamarin, if indeed it is really distinct from it, is the Maned Tamarin (M. leoninus, of Humboldt), which inhabits the same region, and is only seven inches in length, exclusive of the tail. "It is named leoninus," remarks Mr. Bates, "on account of the long brown mane which depends from the neck, and which gives it very much the appearance of a diminutive Lion." In referring to their intelligence, the same writer continues, "Isidore Geoffroy St. Hilaire relates of a species of this genus, that it distinguished between different objects depicted on an engraving. M. Audouin showed it the portraits of a cat and a wasp; at these it became much terrified, whereas at the sight of a figure of a grasshopper or beetle it precipitated itself on the picture as if to seize the objects there represented."
Another species, the Golden-headed Tamarin (M. chrysomelas, of Kuhl), which is in general colour black, with the head, fore-arms, hands, and a line beneath the tail, golden-yellow, is, according to Dr. Gray, "very like a melanism of Leontopithecus (= Midas) rosalia; but the hands and feet, which are sometimes blackish in that species, are yellow—that is to say, not changed."
II. GEOFFROY'S TAMARIN. MIDAS GEOFFROYI.
Midas œdipus, var. Spix, Sim. et Vespert. Bras., p. 30, pl. 23 (1823).
Hapale geoffroyi, Pucher., Rev. Zool., 1845, p. 336; Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 258 (1876).
Midas geoffroyi, Is. Geoffr., Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 63 (1851); Sclater, P. Z. S., 1871, p. 478, pl. xxxviii.
Midas ursulus (nec Geoffr.), Rep. Council Zool. Soc., 1858, p. 16.
Œdipus geoffroyi, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 65 (1870).
Characters.—Face black; a patch on the top of the head white; back of neck and shoulders, lower part of back, and upper side of base of tail rusty-brown; ears, back, outer side of arms and thighs, and outer side of upper part of leg, brownish-grey; throat, under surface of body, outer and inner surface of fore-arms and legs, white; remainder of tail black.
Hair on the crown of the head short, forming a narrow oblong patch; that on the nape of the neck elongated.
Distribution.—At present only known from Panama.
III. THE PINCHÉ MONKEY. MIDAS ŒDIPUS.
Simia œdipus, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 41 (1766); Audeb. Singes, Fam. vi., Sect, ii., pl. iv fig. 2. (1727).
Midas œdipus, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 122 (1812).
Œdipus titi, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 65 (1870).
Hapale œdipus, Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 258 (1876).
Characters.—Face and sides of head nearly naked; top of head with large, erect, crest; hair of neck elongated; tail not ringed.
General colour greyish-brown; outside of limbs and base of tail, washed with rusty-red; crest, throat, and lower surface of body, fore-limbs and front edge of hind-limbs white; extremity of the tail black.
Differs from the preceding species, M. geoffroyi, in having a crest.
Distribution.—The Pinché Monkey is found in the forests of New Granada, near the coast.
With the succeeding species we commence the description of the Tamarins which have no conspicuous mane on the back of the neck, and that section whose members have a patch of white hairs around the mouth, each looking at a short distance, as Mr. Bates remarks, "as though it held a ball of snow-white cotton in its teeth."
IV. THE WHITE-LIPPED TAMARIN. MIDAS LABIATUS.
Midas labiatus, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 121 (1812); Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 66 (1870).
Jacchus labiatus, Desmarest, Mammalog., p. 95 (1820); Humb., Rec. d'Obs. Zool., Prod. sp. 44 (1811).
Hapale labiata, Wagner in Schreb., Säugeth., i., p. 246 (1840); Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 260 (1876, part).
Characters.—General colour black; under side reddish, the black terminating on the front of the chest in a straight line, the hinder part of the back washed with grey; the hinder part of the chest, belly, inside of the limbs, and the under side of the root of the tail, rust-colour; tip of nose and edges of upper and lower lips white.
Distribution.—The forests on the north side of the Amazon.
V. THE RED-BELLIED TAMARIN. MIDAS RUFIVENTER.
Midas rufiventer, Gray, Ann. and Mag. N. H., xii., p. 398 (1843); id. P. Z. S., 1865, p. 735; id. Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 66 (1870).
Midas elegantulus, Slack, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad., 1861, p. 463.
Hapale labiata (nec Geoffr.), Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 260 (part).
Characters.—Head, throat, fore-limbs, tail, and hands deep glossy black; hairs of back, sides, and posterior limbs black, broadly tipped with white, not regularly ringed; belly, breast and inner surface of limbs bright brick-red, separated by a distinct line from the black of the back and outer surface of the limbs. On the back of the head a small patch of the same colour as the back; on the top of the head a golden-yellow triangular patch. Lips and tip of the nose, white.
This species is distinguished from the White-lipped Tamarin (M. labiatus) by the spot on the crown and nape; and by the rufous of the under side extending forward nearer to the throat.
Distribution.—Banks of the Upper Amazon. Mr. Bates shot a specimen at Tunantins in 69° W. long., and 4° S. lat.
Habits.—Nothing is known of the habits of this species.
Closely allied to the Red-bellied Tamarin is the so-called Moustached Tamarin (Midas mystax, Spix), in which the head, shoulders, and tail are black; the body above brown, sometimes ringed with white, and the belly bright rust-coloured. It can be distinguished, as Dr. Slack points out, from M. rufiventer, by the want of the ashy tips to the hairs of the back and posterior limbs, and the triangular golden spot on the vertex. The hairs of this spot are golden throughout their entire length, in this respect resembling another closely related Upper Amazonian species, the so-called Bonneted Tamarin (M. pileatus, Is. Geoffr.), from which it can readily be distinguished by the black colour of the under surface. The back of the Bonneted Tamarin is also varied, black and grey, the limbs and tail are blackish, and the lips white.
VI. DEVILLE'S TAMARIN. MIDAS WEDDELLI.
Midas weddellii, Deville, Rev. et Mag. de Zool., 1849, p. 55.
Midas devillii, Is. Geoffr., Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 64 (1851); Castelnau, Expéd. Amér. Sud, Mamm., pl. vi., fig. 2 (1855); Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 67 (1870).
Midas leucogenys, Gray, P. Z. S., 1865, p. 735; id. Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 67 (1870).
Hapale devillei, Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 262 (1876).
Hapale weddelii, Schl., t. c. p. 262.
Characters.—Fur of back ringed with grey; that of the head, neck, and front of the fore- and hind-limbs, tail, hands, and feet black; loins, thighs, legs, and base of tail bright maroon.
Distribution.—Obtained by MM. Castelnau and Deville, at Sarayacu, in the Peruvian Amazons.
VII. THE BLACK-FRONTED TAMARIN. MIDAS NIGRIFRONS.
Midas nigrifrons, Geoffr., Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 64 (1851).
Midas flavifrons, var. c. Midas nigrifrons, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 67 (1870).
Hapale nigrifrons, Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 263 (1876).
Characters.—Differs from M. weddelli in having the fur washed with rufous, and the hairs finely ringed.
VIII. THE BROWN-HEADED TAMARIN. MIDAS FUSCICOLLIS.
Midas fuscicollis, Spix, Sim. et Vespert. Bras., p. 27, pl. 20 (1823).
Midas flavifrons, Is. Geoffr., Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 64 (1851); Castelnau, Expéd. Amér. Sud, Mamm., pl. vi., fig. 1 (1855); Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Brit. Mus., p. 67 (1870).
Midas devillii (nec Is. Geoffr.), Slack, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad., 1861, p. 464.
Hapale fuscicollis, Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 264 (1876).
Hapale chrysomelas (nec Kuhl), Schl., t. c. p. 254.
Characters.—Pelage mostly black; head and face brown or reddish-brown, with some grey hairs; lips white, but the nose black; top of the head yellow, or yellowish-red; back yellow and black; hands and feet black; outside of the limbs and base of the tail reddish; under side of the body and inside of the limbs brownish-red.
The female differs in having the outside of the limbs and the underpart of the body blackish.
Habits.—Nothing is known of the individual habits of this species.
IX. THE YELLOW-TAILED TAMARIN. MIDAS CHRYSOPYGUS.
Hapale chrysopyga, Wagner, in Schreb. Säugeth., i., Simiæ, p. 249 (1840); Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 254 (1876).
Characters.—Similar to M. fuscicollis. Black, with the thighs, legs, and base of tail rusty-red.
Distribution.—Brazil, near Ypanéma, Province of St. Paulo.
X. THE BLACK AND RED TAMARIN. MIDAS NIGRICOLLIS.
Midas nigricollis, Spix, Sim. et Vespert. Bras., p. 28, pl. 21 (1823).
Midas rufoniger, I. Geoffr. et Deville, C. R., xxvii., p. 499 (1848); Is. Geoffr., Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 64 (1851); Castelnau, Expéd. Amér. Sud, pl. v., fig. 3 (1855); Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 67 (1870).
Hapale nigricollis, Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 264 (1876).
Characters.—Differs from M. fuscicollis in having the back, loins, thighs, and legs bright reddish-chestnut. (Gray.) Mouth bordered with longish white hairs.
Distribution.—The Upper Amazon Region. (Bates.) The Black and Red Tamarin is considered by Mr. Bates to be a form or race of the same stock as M. ursulus, modified to suit the altered local conditions of its home, for in the Upper Amazon Region, as Mr. Wallace has pointed out, the seasons, as well as the nature of the country, differ very considerably.
Habits.—Mr. Bates states that in its habits the present species is similar to Midas ursulus. "One day," he says, "whilst walking along a forest pathway, I saw one of these lively little fellows miss his grasp as he was passing from one tree to another along with his troop. He fell head foremost from a height of at least fifty feet; but managed cleverly to alight on his legs on the pathway; quickly turning round, he gave me a good stare for a few minutes, and then bounded off gaily to climb another tree."
XI. ILLIGER'S TAMARIN. MIDAS ILLIGERI.
Hapale illigeri, Pucher., Rev. Zool., 1845, p. 336.
Midas illigeri, Geoffr., Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 65 (1851); Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 65 (1876).
Midas flavifrons, var. d. Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 67 (1870).
Midas devillii (nec Geoffr.), Sclater, P. Z. S., 1871, p. 220, pl. xiii.
Characters.—Head black; back black, washed with grey; back of head, nape of neck, shoulders and humeral region black, washed with reddish-brown; under side and the outer and inner surface of both limbs red; tail at base and tip red, intermediate portion black.
The sexes hardly differ; the male being merely rather larger and darker, especially on the head and nape, where the hair is longer.
Distribution.—Mr. E. Bartlett says that this was the only Midas met with by him in Eastern Peru. It was plentiful everywhere in the Peruvian Amazons; and he obtained specimens both on the Huallaga and Ucayali rivers.
Habits.—This species is extremely delicate, and will not bear the least cold. "I have had them alive," writes Mr. Edward Bartlett, "for two or three weeks; but they appear to suffer from cold and die. They are kept, however, by the Indian women, who make pets of them and put them into the long hair on their heads. With this protection they are able to live for a long time. Having become tame, they frequently hop out and feed, or, having captured a spider or two, scamper back again, and hide under the luxuriant crop of their owners, who are generally unwilling to part with them."
With the succeeding species commences the group of Tamarins with no mane and without white lips.
XII. THE PIED TAMARIN. MIDAS BICOLOR.
Midas bicolor, Spix, Sim. et Vespert. Bras, p. 31, pl. 24, fig. 1 (1823).
Hapale bicolor, Wagner in Schreb., Säugeth., v., p. 135, pl. 12 (1855); Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 257 (1876).
Seniocebus bicolor, Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Brit. Mus., p. 68 (1870).
Characters.—Head naked in front of the ears in the adult; hind-part of the head covered with long white hairs; ears exposed, naked; tail not ringed, the upper side black; nose and lips black; neck, chest and arms white; face, body, and hind-limbs brown; under side of tail, inner side of limbs, and the abdomen ferruginous.
In the young animal, the face is rather hairy and the forehead naked. (Gray.)
Distribution.—The eastern bank of the Rio Negro, a northern tributary of the Amazon. Mr. Bates obtained a specimen at Barra, where it was rather common in the forest; and, he adds: "This place, a waterfall near Barra, which its citizens consider as the chief natural curiosity of their neighbourhood, is classic ground to the naturalist, from having been a favourite spot with the celebrated travellers Spix and Martius, during their stay at Barra in 1820. Von Martius was so much impressed by its magical beauty, that he commemorated the visit by making a sketch of the scenery, to serve as background in one of the plates of his great work on the Palms."
Habits.—Keeping together in small troops, running along the main boughs of the loftier trees, climbing perpendicular trunks, but never taking flying leaps.
XIII. LACÉPEDE'S TAMARIN. MIDAS MIDAS.
Simia midas, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 42 (1766).
Simia lacepedii, Fischer, Bull. Soc. Mosc., 1806, p. 23.
Midas rufimanus, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 121 (1812).
Midas ursulus, var. Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 68 (1870).
Hapale midas, Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 266 (1876).
Characters.—General colour black; hands and feet golden-yellow or bright rusty-red; ears short, haired. The young males resemble the adults.
XIV. THE NEGRO TAMARIN. MIDAS URSULUS.
Midas ursulus, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 121 (1812); Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 68 (1870).
Midas tamarin, Slack, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad., 1861, p. 464.
Hapale ursula, Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 265 (1876).
Characters.—Body long, slender, covered with soft thick fur; ears large, naked; the face haired. General colour black; nose and lips black; hinder part of the body rather mottled or banded with reddish-brown or greyish-white; the hands sometimes black and sometimes yellow. Length, 9 inches; tail, 15 inches.
Distribution.—Found on the Lower Amazon, near Para. Mr. Bates says it is not met with in the Upper Amazon Region, but in its stead a closely allied species (Midas nigricollis), presents itself.
Habits.—"The Midas ursulus is never seen," writes Mr. Bates, "in large flocks; three or four is the greatest number observed together. It seems to be less afraid of the neighbourhood of Man than any other Monkey. I sometimes saw it in the woods which border the suburban streets, and once I espied two individuals in a thicket behind the English Consul's house at Nazareth. Its mode of progression along the main boughs of the lofty trees is like that of the Squirrels; it does not ascend to the slender branches, or take wonderful flying leaps like those Monkeys whose prehensile tails and flexible hands fit them for such headlong travelling. It confines itself to the larger boughs and trunks of trees, its long nails being of great assistance to the creature, enabling it to cling securely to the bark; and it is often seen passing rapidly round the perpendicular cylindrical trunks. It is a quick, restless, timid little creature, and has a great share of curiosity, for when a person passes by under the trees along which a flock is running, they always stop for a few moments to have a stare at the intruder." In Para, the Negro Tamarin "is often seen in a tame state in the houses of the inhabitants.... When first taken, or when kept tied up, it is very timid and irritable. It will not allow itself to be approached, but keeps retreating backwards when anyone attempts to coax it. It is always in a querulous humour, uttering a twittering, complaining noise; its dark, watchful eyes, expressive of distrust, are observant of every movement which takes place near it. When treated kindly, however, as it generally is in the houses of the natives, it becomes very tame and familiar.... It is generally fed on sweet fruits, such as the banana; but it is also fond of insects, especially soft-bodied spiders and grasshoppers, which it will snap up with eagerness when within reach. The expression of countenance in these small Monkeys is intelligent and pleasing. This is partly owing to the open facial angle, which is given as one of 60°, but the quick movements of the head, and the way they have of inclining it on one side, when their curiosity is excited, contribute very much to give them a knowing expression.... In mobility of expression of countenance, intelligence and general manners, these small Monkeys resemble the higher Apes far more than they do any rodent animal with which I am acquainted, notwithstanding their apparently low organisation in many points."
This description of the habits of the Negro Tamarin may be taken as representative of those of the various species of the genus, of whom only glimpses can be caught in their homes, which are the safe altitudes of the giants of the virgin forests of Brazil.
- , down; , nose.
- , flat; , nose.
- Vide anteà, p. 145.