History of Norfolk/Volume 1/Giltcross

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==The Hundred of Giltcross==

This Hundred takes its name from some remarkable cross that was gilt, which either stood in it, or was to be seen in great part of it; though Mr. Neve observes it was spelt anciently Gydecross, from some cross that was a guide to travellers; and I am apt to think it might be Rowdham Cross, which at that time was seen in great part of this hundred, and was certainly a very remarkable one, that town taking its name from it, Rowdham, or Roodham, as it is anciently written, signifies the Town of the Cross; and thus also Bridgeham in this hundred was so called from the bridge which was the passage to this cross, which, with the road, became remarkable, from being the common way by which pilgrims took their journey out of Suffolk, and other parts of the country, to our Lady of Walsingham. This hundred contains thirteen towns, all which are in Rockland deanery, and Norfolk archdeaconry. It was in the Confessor's hands, as belonging to the manor of Kenninghall, and came to the Conqueror, who held it at the survey, as belonging to the same, it being then worth 20s. a year, the soc of the whole hundred belonging thereto, all which was committed to Earl Godric's care, who had it but a little while, for the Conqueror gave it with Kenninghall, Bokenham, Snetsham, and Wymondham manors, to William de Albaniaco, or Albany, who came into England with him, all which were to be held by the service of being the King's butler on the coronation day; William de Albany, or D'Aughbiny, his son, succeeded; and in this family it continued till Hugh D' Aubigny died seized in 1243, leaving it in dower to Isabel, his wife, daughter of William Earl Warren and Surrey, and foundress of Marham abbey. But as this hundred hath continually gone, and still remains with the manor of Kenninghall, I have no occasion to trace its owners any further. In 1236, it was found by a jury, that the King had more right of pleading in his county court, pleas of withernam, and of taking cattle, than the hundreds of Frethebridge, Smithdon, Gildcross, and Shropham, had in their hundred courts; upon which Hugh de Albany being asked, Whether he had any charters of liberties? answered, That he knew not, his deeds being deposited in Wimondham priory, for which reason he desired time to search: the court ordered him to find security to answer the King all arrears from the time of his coronation; upon which Hugh surrendered seizin of the liberties to the King, and the King deferred amercing him for damages, till he had spoken with the Earl Warren. This gives opportunity to observe, that the King was then present in the court, and judgment was given by him, though in his own cause, which is directly contrary to the opinion of divers great men. And this assertion may be further proved, by a record in the 25th year of this King, where, in an appeal for felony, the entry on the roll is thus: "And because our Sovereign Lord the King was absent, and there being but few of his council there, they which were present would not give judgment for a duell, nor do any thing else in the absence of the King, or the major part of his council;" so that we see generally the King was present, or if not, there was no judgment passed, unless the greater part of his council were there. In 1249, return was made, that Isabel Countess of Arundel held 40l. a year in land in this hundred, that her marriage was in the King's gift, and that the hundred was worth 7 marks a year, and had not liberty of return of writs, nor other liberties as some hundreds had; and that it paid yearly 40d. to the King's use. In 1274, Henry Le-Noble, Sheriff of Norfolk, let Gildcross and Brothercross hundreds for 42s. a year, which used to be let at 15l.; this was when the King had the marriage of Isabel aforesaid, or when he seized some of her estates, for her bold but true speech, that she made unto him, which you may see in Dugdale's Baronage, vol. i. fol. 121 In 1286, when Roger de Montealt held it, it was then valued at 13l. per annum, out of which he paid the King 40d. yearly, and the liberties allowed to the hundred, in an Eyre at Norwich, were these, sc. view of frankpledge, assize of bread and beer, a gallows, and weyf. In 1311, in an inquisition then taken, it was found, that Roger de Montealt, and Emme, his wife, held it as a member of their manor of Kenninghall. In 1537, it was worth 6l. 13s. 4d. a year. In the court-book of this hundred, in 1578, which is among Mr. Neve's Collections, I find the following manors are held of it, by certain yearly payments, viz. the manors of Uphall and Bokenham's in Garboldisham, of Furneaux in Middle Herling, of Seckfora's in West Herling, Mainwarring's, Fawconer's, and Felbrigg's in East Herling; Bromehall and Semere's in Blownorton, Madekyn's manor in Quidenham, and Hockham's manor there, Marshal's, Grey's, and Beckhall in Banham; Esthawe, or College manor in Rushworth, and Boldham's manor there, which also belonged to the College; Uphall and Wretham's in Gasthorp; Clarke's tenement in South Lopham, and Porter's in Riddlesworth; Styward's and Russell's tenements there; Goodson's tenement in North Lopham, with divers other lands; all which do suit and service to the hundred court at Kenninghall, every three weeks, each suit being valued at 2s. The tenement or manor of John Church of Garboldisham, and Pakenham's manor in Garboldisham, owe suit every three weeks, or 2s. each suit. The hundred court was always kept at Kenninghall every three weeks, but on account of that market's being disused, it was removed, and kept at Market-Herling.

It is bounded on the east by Diss hundred, on the south by the river Ouse, that parts Norfolk and Suffolk, on the west by Thetford, and on the north by Shropham hundred, which is divided from it by the river that runs from Quidenham Mere to Thetford; the superiour liberty, as to the game, and many other privileges, belongs to his Grace the Duke of Norfolk, as lord paramount of the hundred, all which is in his peculiar liberty and jurisdiction called the Duke of Norfolk's Liberty, the original of which you shall have under Lopham; and as for the rest of the owners of it, I shall refer you to

Kenninghall[edit]

A town of large extent, and great antiquity, so called from [Cyning] which in Saxon signifies a King, so that Cyning or Kenninghad, signifies the King's House, and according to the etymology, it hath been a seat of the East-Anglian Kings, who are said to have had a castle here, which indeed seems true; the site of it is now called the Candle-Yards; (because the offices for that purpose were built in it, when Thomas, the great Duke of Norfolk, built the palace, this place being distant enough, to hinder the smell reaching it;) it is southwest of the palace about a furlong, being a square of four acres, encompassed with a spacious trench, at each corner is a mount, but that to the south-east is much the largest; the manor-house continued through all its changes in this place, till the Duke pulled it down, and built that stately house at the distance before mentioned, which was after called Kenninghall Palace, or Place; it fronted east and west, and was built in form of an (H), having a porter's lodge, and all things else in the grandest manner. It was situated in the midst of a large park, which contained 700 acres, well stocked with deer, the north side guarded with woods and groves, being distant at least a mile from the town, which lies westward. At the Duke's attainder it was seized by the King, and settled on the then Lady Mary, who kept her court here. To this castle (as Stow calls it) she removed from Hunsdon in Hertfordshire, and hither resorted to her several lords and knights of this county, as Sir John Shelton, Sir Henry Bedingfield, Sir Henry Jerningham, and others, at the death of Edward VI from whence they went to Framlingham castle. Afterwards it was in Queen Elizabeth's hands, who was often here; she it was that ordered her tenant Chapman, who then lived in Fersfield lodge, to lay out the way now called Chapman's Entry, out of her own ground, the old way being so strait that the Queen could not conveniently pass through it; it is now disused, and is called Queen Bess's Lane, from her being scratched with the brambles in riding through it, as tradition tells us. It continued in the Norfolk family as their capital seat in this county, till about 90 years since, when it was pulled down, and the materials sold for a trifle, with which great numbers of chimnies and walls in the neighbourhood are built, as is evident from the Mowbrays and Arundels arms which are upon the bricks. Spelman, in his Icenia, hath nothing more of this town, than that it was the seat of some of the chiefest barons. That it belonged to the Crown in the most early times is plain, for the Confessor had it in his own hands, it being then worth 10l. a year and 5 sextaries of honey; but it was risen by the Conqueror's time to 24 l. of uncoined money, to be paid by weight, and 6l. of coined money, which was paid by tale, and a fine at each king's accession, (for so I take [Terthuma] in the Saxon to signify.) It had a freeman and 30 acres belonging to it in Gnateshall, and West Herling also was a berewic to it It was then three miles long, and one mile broad, and paid 25d. Danegeld. It always was and is now, privileged as ancient demean, the inhabitants being excused from toll, passage, and stallage, and from serving on any juries out of the lordship, and paying towards the charges of the knights of the shire, upon renewing their writ of exemption on the death of every king, and having it annually allowed by the sheriff of the county.

It remained but little while in the Crown, being given by the Conqueror to William de Albini, Albiniaco, or Albany, and his heirs, together with the lordship of Bokenham, &c. to be held by the service of being chief butler to the Kings of England, on the day of their coronation, upon which account he was after called Pincerna Regis; but as I must treat of this family largely under Bokenham, the priory there, as well as that at Wimondham, being founded by them, I shall say no more of them here, than what is necessary, as to the history of this manor, which is this, that it always went with Bokenham, till the division of the Albany's estate between the four sisters and coheirs of Hugh de Albini, who died without issue, leaving this manor in dower to Isabel his wife, daughter of William Earl Warren and Surrey, who, in 1243, had it, among others, assigned to her by the King's license; at her death it went to Roger de Montealt, or De-Montealto, who had married Cecily, one of the sisters and coheirs of Hugh de Albani; this Robert died seized in 1274, leaving it to Robert de Montealt, and Emma his wife, who had it settled upon Roger of Rising, parson of Hawardyn, her trustee, for her use, upon a writ of ad quod damnum, which was brought, the manor being held in capite of the King; the writ is dated at York, March 6, 1276, and the return thereof was the 5th day of April following, when the jury, sc. Roger del Hill of Harlyng, John, son of William of Garboldisham, Richard at Quidenham-Bridge, and others, found that it would be no damage to the King, if the manor was settled on Emma and her trustee; and they further say, that this manor, with Bokenham and Wymondham, are held in chief of the King, by the service of butler, as aforesaid, and that it hath a certain capital messuage, called East Hall, and another called a Grange, with a ruinous dove-house, and 400 acres of land, 100 of which are arable, and yearly worth 10l. besides 18 acres of meadow, worth 18d. each acre, a windmill let for 13s. 4d. a large park, the herbage of which is yearly worth 5l. and the underwood 40s. a year. There is a market kept every Monday, which is let at 20s. a year, and also a fair, let at 2s. a year; the yearly quitrents are 8l. payable by equal portions, at St. Martin, Christmas, Easter, and Midsummer; also 1200 days works in autumn, worth 1d. each day, also the fishery called the Sewer, worth 2s. a year, the pleas, perquisites of courts, and views of frankpledge, and leets belonging thereto, are yearly worth 8l. To this manor also belongs Giltcross hundred, the pleas and perquisites of the hundred court, with all the views of frankpledge and leets belonging thereto, are worth 5l. a year, the whole of the value being 44l. 15s. And the jury further say, that the said Robert hath the manors of Rising and Snetesham, and the hundred of Smithdon, and the fourth part of Lyn Tolbooth unsettled, all which are valued at 80l. per annum. From this Robert it came to Roger de Montealt, who, in 1286, had the following privileges allowed to this mananor, viz. freewarren, view of frankpledge, assize of bread and ale, a pillory, cucking-stool, gallows, and weyf, with a yearly fair, on the day of the Translation of St. Thomas [Becket], and a weekly market on Monday. In the 1st year of Edward III. this Robert petitioned the Barons of the Exchequer, to be admitted chief butler on the coronation day, by reason of his manor of Kenninghall, which office he recovered against the Earl of Arundell, who claimed it as belonging to his earldom, and performed the office accordingly, and obtained a decree, that that office henceforward should be performed by the several lords of the manors of Kenninghall, Bokenham, and Wymondham, or their deputies, by turns, upon proving that Hugh D'Aubeney, late Earl of Arundell, held these and Snetesham manors, of King Henry III. by the said office, which he performed at that King's coronation, and died so seized, upon which Bokenham and Wymondham descended to Sir Robert de Tateshall, whose heir now holds them, and is under age; and Kenninghall and Snetesham came to the said Robert de Montealt, (or Mohaut,) who now holds them; and at the coronation of King Edward II. he claimed, and offered to perform, his part of the said service, in right of his said manors; but Edmund Earl of Arundell, by his great power (though he never had any of the said manors) performed the said service, to the disherison of him and his parcener, for which reason now, at the coronation of King Edward III. the said Robert claimed and performed the whole service, Tateshale's heirs being under age. The return upon search of the records says, that as to Snetesham having a turn in the office, they at present could find nothing of it, but that at the coronation of Eleanor, daughter of Hugh Earl of Province, grandmother to the present King, Hugh de Albani, then Earl of Arundell, in right of these manors, and not of his earldom, served the said office by his deputy, the Earl Warren, because he was then excommunicated by the Archbishop of Canterbury, for taking away the archbishop's dogs from him, as he hunted in the said Earl's forest in Sussex, the archbishop alleging, that he had a right to hunt in any forest in England, whenever he would. This office still continues by turns to these manors, though in a petition directed to the Lords commissioned to receive all claims of services to be performed at the coronation of Quen Anne, by reason of their tenures, I find that Charles Earl of Carlisle, Earl-Marshal of England during the minority of Thomas Duke of Norfolk, and Earl of Arundell, who was then out of the realm, claimed to perform this service, in a double capacity, viz. in right of this manor and of his earldom, setting forth that he held the manor by this grand serjeantry, which was performed in right of it at the coronation of Eleanor aforesaid, and at the coronation of Richard II. by the Earl of Arundell and Surrey, and of Henry IV. by Thomas then Earl of Arundell and Surrey, and by Henry Earl of Arundell, at the coronation of Edward VI. in right (as was said) of the earldom of Arundell, and by Henry Duke of Norfolk and Earl of Arundell, by his deputy, at the coronation of King William and Queen Mary, who then received all the fees and profits belonging to the office, viz. the best gold cup that the King drank out of on the coronation day, with the cloths, napkins, and linen then used, the cups both of gold and of silver used that day in the King's winecellar; with all wine vessels, pots, cups, glasses, &c. In 1327, a fine was levied between this Robert, who was then Steward of Chester, and Emma his wife, by which this manor was settled on themselves, and their heirs male, remainder to Isabel Queen of England for life, and then to John of Eltham, the King's brother, in tail, remainder to Edward King of England, and his heirs. Robert and Emma had no male heirs, and so it came to Queen Isabel, and John of Eltham dying without heirs, the reversion after the Queen's death was in the King, who, in 1336, gave it to Sir William de Monteacuto, or Montague, who, upon paying the Queen 600 marks, had a release from her, and immediate possession of it: he died seized in 1343, and was buried in the White Friar's, London, leaving the manor to William de Montague, his son and heir, in whom it continued till 1377, and then he settled it upon Sir William Montague, Knt. his son, upon his marriage with Elizabeth, daughter to Richard Fitz-Alan Earl of Arundell, and the issue of their bodies, but he being unhappily slain in a tilting at Windsor, by his own father, in 1382, he left no issue. Upon his death King Richard II. kept court here, but soon after delivered it up to Elizabeth, widow of the said William, who according to the settlement, enjoyed it for life, and at her death it was to revert to her father-in-law, William Earl of Salisbury and Lord of Man. This Earl it was who, in 1355, (before he had settled it on his son,) granted to Albred de Pakenham of Garboldisham a fold course for 300 sheep and 30 muttons, with common of pasture for his cattle, through the whole year, from a place called Howardsty, northward, partly to Kenninghall Gap, and from thence westward to Ringmere. and thence by the way leading from Kenninghall to Bury, as the way leads to Garboldisham Field, paying him a yearly rent for it, which right is now enjoyed, as belonging to Garboldisham, Uphall, or Pakenham's. This lady held the manor in 1388, at which time she was married to Thomas Lord Mowbray, Earl-Marshal of England, who was to hold it for her life in her right; and this year Richard Fitz-Alan Earl of Arundell and Surrey, her father, purchased the perpetual inheritance of it, of William Earl of Salisbury aforesaid, and had a fine levied to settle it on him and his heirs, Sir Payne Tiptoft, Knt. and others; being trustees, but upon his attainder in 1397, the King granted the reversion of the manor and hundred, they being forfeited to the Crown, to Thomas de Mowbray Duke of Norfolk, and he being banished the year following, the King granted it by letters patent, dated at Leicester, to John de Montague Earl of Salisbury, his great favourite, to be held by him of the Crown, in as free manner as William de Montague, his uncle, Richard Earl of Arundell, or Thomas Duke of Norfolk ever held it; but he dying in 1399, never enjoyed it, it being then held by Elizabeth Dutchess of Norfolk, who was then married to Sir Gerard Usflet, her third husband. In 1411, Edmund Blankpaine is said to hold the manor and hundred, as trustee only, I suppose; for in 1422, it was settled by Elizabeth Dutchess of Norfolk, late wife of Gerard Usflet, on divers trustees, to several uses; this was upon her fourth marriage with Robert Gowshall, Knt. who, in 1426, held the manor and hundred in her right; she died soon after, for in 1428, Thomas de Montague Earl of Salisbury died seized, leaving them to Alice, his only daughter by his first wife, then married to Richard Nevill, eldest son to Ralph Nevill, Earl of Westmorland, which Richard, on her account, was made Earl of Salisbury, and had livery of her lands this very year; but soon after, he gave this manor and hundred in marriage with Joan, his daughter, to William Fitz-Alan Earl of Arundell, who in the Feodary is said then to hold it; he, in all likelihood, sold it to John Duke of Bedford, who about 1435 sold it again to the Prior of Thetford, in trust for John Mowbray Duke of Norfolk, who settled it on Elizabeth his wife, for life, and their heirs; he died in 1475, and she enjoyed it to her death, when it descended to Sir John Howard, Knt. son of Sir Robert Howard, Knt. by Margaret his wife, who was one of the coheiresses of Thomas Mowbray first Duke of Norfolk, it being assigned to him as part of the half of the Mowbrays inheritance. This John was created Duke of Norfolk in 1483, by King Richard III. and was slain with him in Bosworth Field in 1485, at whose death it went to his eldest son, Thomas, then Earl of Surrey, and afterwards Duke of Norfolk, he being restored in 1488, to that earldom and estate; in 1506, he had special livery of all the lands his father died seized of, was made Earl-Marshal of England by Henry VIII. in the second year of his reign, and afterwards Duke of Norfolk; he died in 1524, leaving Thomas his son, heir to his estate and honour.

In 1537, the quitrents were 33l. 3s. 11d. a year; the farm of the hundred 6l. 13s. 4d. the agistments of the park, and perquisites of the fair, 5l. besides the warren, windmill, and fishery. This Thomas being attainted, his estate was seized, and settled on the Lady Mary, who resided here; but it was restored to him again, upon her coming to the Crown, and he came and died here in 1547, leaving Thomas, his grandchild, his heir, who resided here with Margaret, daughter of Thomas Audeley Baron Audeley, his second wife, in 1560; he was beheaded in 1572, from which time it passed as Fersfield manor, the Duke of Norfolk being now lord.

In 1610, the quitrents were 47l. 7s. 6d. the farm of the hundred 6l. 13s. 4d. the profits of the fair 5l. the keeper of the palace's wages per annum 3l. 10d. the park-keeper's wages 3l. 0s. 10d. the gardener 4l. per annum, the whole park within the pale contained 700 acres. There was a rent paid out of the New Park, which was due to the late priory of Thetford, with which it came to the Duke, and then ceased. In this year the townsmen purchased the sheeps-walk of the lord, and so made their lands whole-year lands: at this time also the inhabitants paid a small sum to the lord, as an acknowledgment, or freerent, for their new entrenched grounds, they having by consent enclosed their common, called the Park Common, and appropriated the several parts to divers uses; but this remained but a small time, for the commoners disagreeing among themselves, they were all laid common as at first, though the banks and trenches are still visible [1736.]

The Customs of this Manor and the Rectory Manor are the same, viz. the copyhold descends to the youngest son; the fine is certain, at 6d. an acre; they give dower, and the tenants can waste their copyhold-houses, fell timber, plant, and cut down wood and timber on the waste against their own lands, without license.

The Rectory Manor[edit]

Went with the rectory till its appropriation, and then became part of the possessions of Bokenham priory, till its dissolution, and was then granted, with the impropriation, to the Norfolk family, forfeited at the Duke's attainder in Queen Elizabeth's time to the Crown, and by her, with the impropriation, given to the Bishoprick of Ely, from which it was seized in the Rebellion, and the manor only, in 1554, sold by Sir John Woolaston, and others, trustees for sale of bishops' lands, according to an ordinance of Parliament, to Robert Benson, and his heirs, it extending then into Quidenham and Herling, the church and churchyard being excepted out of the conveyance, as also all lands and tithes, except a messuage or tenement with the curtilages thereto belonging, called the Granary, which belonged to the said rectory. In 1657, it was again sold by Robert Benson, Gent. for 149l. to Thomas Kendall of Thetford, and Thomas West, from whom it was seized by the Bishop of Ely, at the Restoration, and by him leased out; (the advowson of the vicarage being excepted;) and having passed through many hands, is at this time in Mr. Phillips Gretton, clerk, who is now, by virtue of the Bishop's lease, both lord and impropriator [1736.]

This manor, when the rectory was appropriated, had a leet, and the amerciaments of all its own tenants, with the assize of bread and ale, and corrections of weights and measures, and also common of pasture on a common called Suchach, or (Southagh, now Southwell,) in the said town, this common being appropriated to it. It was taxed in 1428, with the other spirituals of that priory in this town, at xvi. marks.

This Vicarage[edit]

Is in Rockland deanery, and Norfolk archdeaconry, valued at 5l. 7s. 1d. and being sworn of the clear yearly value of 40l. is discharged from first fruits and tenths, though it still answers 2s. for synodals, and 7s. 7d. 0b. for procurations, there being a mean vicarage-house joining to the east end of the churchyard, and 5 acres and a half of glebe.

It was originally a rectory, in the gift of the lord of the manor, to which belonged a manor, and a good quantity of demean lands, and such it continued, till William de Albany, the second Earl of Arundell of that name, gave it to the priory of St. James at Old Bokenham, which his father had founded. This William died the 4th of the ides of October, 1176, from which time the Prior presented to this rectory, till about 1223, and then, at the petition of Walter the then prior, and the convent there, Pandulff Bishop of Norwich appropriated it to that convent, reserving power to ordain a vicarage worth 8 marks a year, to be settled upon the vicar, which was accordingly done, and was to consist, according to the endowment, (the original of which, Mr. Le Neve says, is in the hands of the Dean of Norwich) in all the alterage, and all other small tithes whatsoever, together with the small tithes of the Earl's House, and all the hay, and great and small tithes of 140 acres of free land, which belonged to the rectory, before the appropriation, and in other things particularly mentioned in the endowment. By this means the convent got into their hands all the tithe corn, and the rectory manor with all it rents and profits, with most of the glebe. The rents of assize were 3l. 7s. a year, as I learn from the accompt book of that priory, fo. 2; but for this they were obliged to give the nomination of the vicars for ever to the See of Norwich, the Bishops of which ever after nominated to the Prior such persons as they pleased, and if they did not immediately present the person nominated, the Bishop collated him according to the agreement; and least there should be any future claim from the lords of the manor of Kenninghall, to which the advowson formerly belonged, the Prior and Convent got Roger de Montealt, then lord, to confirm to them the advowson, manor, and appropriation. I do not meet with any of the rectors names, but the

Vicars[edit]

here follow in their order.

  • 1304, 8 Dec. William of Iselham, collated by the Bishop, at his own nomination, the Prior refusing to present him.
  • 1313, 8 kal. June, Walter, son of Robert Cook of Ely, resigned, and in
  • 1337, 29 Octob. Reginald de Wrthstede, priest, succeeded.
  • 1357, 9 June, Galfrid or Jeffry Man of Talyngton, priest.
  • 1361, 14 Octob. John de Bolton, super Birne, priest, of York diocese.
  • 1366, 26 Jan. He changed with Peter Stiward of Great Cressingham, priest, for Ovington rectory; he resigned in
  • 1386, 20 June, to Walter de Brunham, priest, who was buried in the chancel in 1416.
  • 1416, 7 July, John Aleyn, priest.
  • 1485, 13 March, William Lynaker, priest.
  • 1505, 29 Nov. Will. Clark, on Lynaker's death.
  • 1506, 3 Dec. Will. Bartram, on Clark's death.

The above ten were nominated by the Bishops of Norwich, and presented by the Priors of Old Bokenham.

  • 1540, 25 Febr. William Andrew, chaplain to Thomas Duke of Norfolk, his patron.
  • 1549, 2 April, Master Thomas Briggs, D.D. Mary, sister to King Edward VI.
  • 1557, 13 Jan. Robert Nuham. Thomas Duke of Norfolk.
  • 1571, 5 May, John Richardson, clerk, on Nukam's resignation. Thomas Duke of Norfolk.
  • 1603, John Wilde.
  • 1634, 8 June, Tho. Davye, A. M. buried here July 12, 1684, aged 83.
  • 1684, 4 July, Tho. Davye, his son, buried here Aug. 26, 1691.
  • 1691, 8 Octob. Alex. Malcolm, A. M. he resigned, and was succeeded in
  • 1692, 20 Dec. By William Raite, A. M. who was buried Apr. 24, 1712.
  • 1712, 17 May, Tho. Ibbot; he resigned, and in
  • 1717, 29 Aug. the Rev. Mr. Humphry Clayton, the present [1736] vicar was instituted, who holds it united to Brisingham.

The last seven were presented by the Bishop of Ely, who is now patron.

The Church is situate on a hill, having a large square tower at its west end, which was designed to be carried to a greater height, but was never finished, its head being shortened by the misfortunes of its founder, Thomas Duke of Norfolk, whose crest remains on the buttresses at this time [1736.] Here are five very large tuneable bells; on the three biggest are these inscriptions:

On the third, Dona repende pia. Rogo Magdalena Maria.

On the fourth, Hac non bade bia, nisi dicas Abe Maria Sit semper sine Ue, qui Michi dicat Abe.

On the fifth, Tripler Persona, Trinitas, nunc gaudia dona, Dui Regnas trinus Personis, et Deus unus.

The nave is 40 yards long and 7 broad, having a porch joined to its south side, and an isle to its north, all which are covered with lead, and seem to be much older than the tower; the chancel is also leaded, and was built by John Millgate, the last Prior of Bokenham, whose monument remains in the south wall, though it is robbed of its arms and inscription, which remained in Mr. Weaver's time, for he tells us, fo. 859, that it appeared by his tomb that he built the chancel, though there are two grand mistakes in his relation of it, for he is called there Shildgate, instead of Milgate, and said to be Prior of Windham, instead of Bokenham. He bare for arms three escalops, which are to be seen on a brick in the chancel wall, two lions being the supporters, as also upon a wall of a house at Thompson, in which Roger Colman, clerk, lately dwelt, with this under them:

Perpetuis Annis, Milgate Memento Johannis.

And this motto:

HELP HANDIS.

By which it should seem as if this house also was built by him. Whether these were his paternal arms or no, I cannot say, but rather think they were not; the escalops might be assumed (for want of arms) as the badge of St. James, to whom his priory was dedicated, and the rampant lions might be placed significantly enough as supporters, that house being founded by William de Albany Earl of Arundell, whose arms were, gul. a lion rampant or. In digging a grave for one Mr. Watts, near this tomb, they happened on a vault close to the wall, in which this prior's bones till that time laid undisturbed. To the north side of the chancel joins a chapel or chantry, now converted into a school-house, and vestry; it hath [W.B.] cut in stone over the north door; and in a window is a broken effigies kneeling, and this,

DOMINUS MICHI GRACIA. IN DOMINO CONFIDO..

The step up to the altar still remains, and the altar stone is taken down, and laid level with the pavement, north and south, exactly as it stood, before which lies a large stone which hath been taken up, and hath this lately cut on it:

Here lyeth the Body of Habbak Layman, Surgeon, who departed this life the 5th Day of April, Ano Dom. 1699. Ætatis suæ 51.

This stone is robbed of a large brass effigies and four shields, by which I learn, that it is the grave-stone of George Hasset, (or Bleverhasset,) Esq. who first married the daughter of Jarnegan, and after the daughter of L'Estrange; for I find in a MSS. of Mr. Anstis's, marked E. 26, fol. 29, that he is here buried under a fair grave-stone, with his arms quartered, and there is no stone here that ever had any arms, but this only, and the [W.B.] cut in stone over the door of this chantry might signifie William Bleverhasset, by whom it is very likely it might be founded.

The screens between the church and chancel, and the cover of the font, which is neatly carved, are old, and seem to be put up at the expense of one Oakelye, for in the arch there is carved on a stone, an acorn on an oaken branch, and [leye] under it, as a rebus or device for that name.

On an old seat in the nave are two images, much defaced, under which with difficulty this may be read,

Orate pro Animabus Roberti Whattys, et Elizabete uroris eius.

Some of the Wattses are still living here.

On another old seat, which seems to have been part of the screens of the chantry, at the east end of the north isle, is this,

Orate pro anima Johannis Lynn

In the nave are several stones pillaged of their brasses; but on a very large one before the desk, the portraitures of a woman and five boys and five girls are still left, the inscription and man's effigies being lost; under this stone, it is probable, Roger Dennis is interred, for whom, in Mr. Weaver's time, this was remaining,

Orate pro anima Rogery Dennys, Seneschalli Castal

In the chancel is a small altar tomb against the north wall, having had an effigies, inscription, circumscription, and four shields, which are all gone; Weaver says it was erected for George Lord Audeley, and his wife, the daughter of the Earl of Bath; and indeed the arms on the south side of it, which are painted, and now whited over, did intimate, that it was erected for some of that family, the first being

Audeley, gul. a fret or, quartering Touchett, erm. a chevron gul.

Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, and Margaret Audeley, his second wife, resided here in 1560, about which time he adorned the windows of the church with the following arms, some of which are now lost:

Audeley quartering Touchet, in a garter.

Audely impaling Bourchier, ar. a cross ingrailed gul. between four water-boudgets sab.

Lovaine, gul. a fess between six billets or. Quartered with Audely.

Fitz-Warren, quarterly gul. and ar. per fess indented.

Audely impales gul. three bows ar.

Audely impales Badelesmere, ar. a fess between two bars gemels gul.

Ar. two bars wavy gul. Duke of Buckingham and Mowbray's arms.

Howard impales az. six lions rampant ar.

Howard quarters az. on a bend sab. three annulets of the first.

In a garter with a ducal coronet, four coats quartered, 1st.— 2d. Howard with the augmentation, 3d. Earl Warren. 4th. Mowbray. And this inscription,

ME: ------- hys Mede, --- All helpys of this Dede.

This Duke's effigies, in his coat armour, having his hatchment in the garter, was three times in one window, but all are now gone. In the east chancel window is a large white rose, the badge of the house of York. And,

England with a label of three points ar. impaling

Lord Talbot, gul. a lion rampant in a bordure ingrailed or, quartering,

Ar. two lions passant gul.

Mowbray single, and Brotherton and Mowbray.

There are two marbles in the isle for John Bringloe, who died March the 18th, 1706, aged 58 years; and Hannah his wife, who died the 15th of Jan. Ao dom. 1682.

Another stone at the west end, for Mary, daughter of Mr. James Watson, surgeon, and Sarah his wife, who died June 29, 1723, aged 4 years.

On an altar tomb on the north side of this stone,

Here resteth the Body of JOHN KETT, late of Diss, Gentleman, who died Oct. the 1st 1728, aged 76 Years: Also the Body of MARY his Wife, who died Augt. the 21st 1729. To whose Memory their Kinsman Mr. JAMES WATSON of this Parish, Surgeon, erected this Tomb.

Though we did live so many Years, Prepare O Youth for Death; For if he should at Noon appear, You must give up your Breath.

On an altar tomb in the nave under the gallery,

Here resteth in Hopes of a joyfull Resurrection the Body of Elizabeth the Wife of JOHN BURRISH of Banham, who departed this Life the 25th of June 1728, in the 62d. Year of her age, And also Eliz. Robt. and Ann Foster her Grand-childeren, Eliz. died Jan. 26 1724. Robt. died June 19th 1728, Ann died Apr. 21, 1732, all in their infancy.

As in a Moment we are gone, And as our Time do's fly, Let us always prepared be For blest Eternity.

There is a stone in the chancel for Andrew Burlingham who died May the 24th, 1735, aged 55 years.

All you that stop to read my Stone, Consider how soon I was gone, Death sometimes doth no Warning give, Therefore be carefull how you live.

There are four old stones in the nave, in shape of coffins, but no inscriptions. And on a stone in the wall of the porch is a horse carved.

Though there are no memorials of any kind remaining over the places of their sepulture, yet I find that on the 30th day of June Ao 1593, here was buried Jane Countess of Westmoreland, wife to Charles Lord Nevile of Westmoreland, lord of Raby, Standrop, Branspeth, Warkworth, Sheryhuton, and Midelham, daughter of Henry Howard Earl of Surrey, and sister of Thomas Howard Duke of Norfolk.

Here lieth also, Elizabeth Dutchess of Norfolk, who was buried the 18th of Sept. 1567, she was 3d wife to Thomas Howard 4th Duke of Norfolk, daughter of Sir Francis Leibourne, Knt. and widow of Thomas Lord D'Aere of Gillesland and Greystock.

Thomas Duke of Norfolk, who died at his palace here in 1554, is not buried here, (as by some asserted,) but at Framlingham in Suffolk.

On an altar tomb in the churchyard, by the south side of the nave,

Here lyeth the Body of FRANCIS GROOME, who departed this Life, May the 5th 1711, Aged 83 Years. And also FRANCES his Wife who died Sept. 3, 1712, Aged 92 Years. Also the Body of Nicholas Groome, Son of FRANCIS GROOME, and FRANCES his Wife, who departed this Life Octob. the 3d 1728, in the 67th Year of his Age.

On a coffin stone against the chancel, though at some distance,

Here lyeth the Body of Robart Button, who died June the 29th betwixt 6 & 7 a Clock at Night, aged 74 Yeares.

Though they were so punctual for the hour, they forgot to insert the year of his death, which was in 1711.

Another altar tomb not far from the porch hath this,

In hopes of a joyful resurrection, lyeth the Body of SUSAN, the Wife of WILLIAM SARE, who died Decr. the 9th 1727, aged 67 Years. Also WILLIAM SARE, her Husband, died Jan. the 15 1727, Aged 74 Years.

This church is dedicated to St. Mary, as appears from the will of Jaffry Elingham, who gave 5 marks towards building the bell sollar. The most eminent person that this town hath produced among our authors, was Brother John of Kennynghale, who became a Carmelite, or white friar, in the convent at Norwich, and afterward was provincial prior of the whole order throughout all England; he died April 28, 1451, and was buried in that monastery. He wrote divers treatises on several pieces of Aristotle, and twelve sermons upon Christ's death and resurrection, with other works that are now lost. Bale, from Leland, gives us an account of another, who from his name seems to have belonged to this town, and that was Peter Keningall, a Carmelite friar and noted preacher, of a good family, born indeed in France, but of English parents; he studied at Oxford for several years, and died there anno 1494, and was buried in his convent. He wrote certain Sermons, or Discourses to the People, and some disputations.

The Commons belonging to this town are very large, containing more than all the enclosed lands, and are thus called: the Park Common, because it joined to the park, Southache, or Southagh, now Southwell Common, the Heath, which is appropriated for sheep, (as the others are for great beasts,) besides other small greens which are common, though of no great extent.

The Town Lands are: three pieces in Quidenham Fields, let to the farmer at Quidenham for 10s. per annum; one acre in Gobbit's Close, let to the vicar (the rest of that close being glebe) for 6s. per annum; Barly-Clove's hempland, lying against the park common, let at 7s. 6d. per annum; one acre in Mill Close, let at 6s. per annum; one acre in Camping Close, let at 6s. per annum; five roods in Upper Furlong, and one acre in Pollswill Furlong, let at 10s. per annum; Hilbridge Close about 2 acres, lying by Harling Field, let at 10s. per annum. Mrs. Dorothy Gawdie gave 20s. a year, to be paid out of lands in Garboldisham, to the poor of Kenninghall.

In 1603 there were 370 communicants, and now [1736] there are about 114 houses, 132 families, and 700 inhabitants. It paid to the tenths 3l. 10s. and is now valued to the King's tax at 1059l. 15s. It is a neat compact village, standing round the market-place, which must be a very convenient one, when the market was kept there.

I am lately informed [1736] that there is exactly eleven acres and one rood of glebe, that there is a cup which weighs 6 ounces, and a cover of the same weight; that the 1st bell weighs 700 lbs. the 2d 1000, the 3d 1200, the 4th 1400, and the 5th 2500.


LOPHAM[edit]

Joins to the south part of Kenninghall; what this town's name signifies, I know not, and which is remarkable, it never altered its spelling from the Conqueror's time to this day, for in Domesday we find it the same. In the Confessor's time Lopham was two distinct towns and different manors, Lopham-Magna, now North Lopham, belonged to Ofl, a freeman, his manor having three carucates of land in demean, and the other Lopham, called afterwards LophamParva, and now South Lopham, belonged to Alsius, a freeman, whose manor then contained two carucates in demean. This Alsius had a manor in Norton, which in the Conqueror's days he joined to this, making it a berewic to it, after which it came into the Conqueror's hands, who gave them to Roger Bygot Earl of Norfolk, who joined the two Lophams, and granted off the Norton part to Alured an Englishman; from this time Lopham hath continued as one manor to this day, though they are two distinct parishes, each having their separate bounds and officers.

Roger Bygot, who was possessed of this manor at the survey, died in 1107, and was buried in the abbey of Thetford, which he had built, leaving William, his son and heir, who gave the church of Lopham to the monks of Thetford, in the time of Henry I. which was appropriated and then confirmed to that house, with all its appurtenances, by King Henry II. This was South Lopham church, which by its conventual form, and Gothick tower, was in all likelihood built at this time, and it is probable some of those monks had a cell here, and served it for some time, and this is the reason that this church never had any institution, though the monks quitted all their right in it to the lord, who had a release of it from the abbey, and added it, with the appurtenances, to the rector of the other church, who took the cure upon him from that time; this must be very early, for, before 1340, it was taxed at 26 marks, a value that must include the whole. This William being Steward of the Household to King Henry I. perished with that King's children, and divers other of the nobility, by shipwreck, as they came from Normandy into England in the year 1119, leaving

Hugh Bygod, his brother, his heir, who by King Stephen was made Earl of the East Angles, or Norfolk, which was again confirmed to him by King Henry II. together with the stewardship of that King's household; yet, notwithstanding all these favours, he took part with the Earl of Leicester, in the rebellion began by him, adhering to young Henry (whom King Henry his father had crowned) in his rebellious practices; but meeting with no success, he was forced to make his peace with the King, for a fine of 1000 marks, and not long after, he went into the Holy Land with the Earl of Flanders, and there died in 1177, upon which the King seized all his treasure, and retained it in his hands.

Roger Bygod, his son, inherited, who in 1189, was restored by King Richard I. to his earldom, stewardship, and estate, upon paying a fine of 1000 marks for these favours: he died about 1218, for then

Hugh Bygod, his son, had livery of his lands, performing his homage; he died in 1225, and left

Roger, his son and heir, who died without issue in 1269, and his inheritance went to

Roger, his nephew, son to his brother Hugh, who had then livery of that great inheritance, being 25 years old, but he also having no issue, in 1301, settled all his estate (except the manors of Acle and Castre, and the advowson of Geldeston church in Norfolk, and others in Yorkshire) upon King Edward I. after his and his wife Alice's death, together with the marshal's rod, upon condition to be rendered back in case he should have any children; though at the same time John Bygod, his own brother, and heir apparent, was living, who by this means was cut off from all, but the manors that were excepted. This Roger, jointly with Alice his wife, held this manor of the King's grant upon the settlement, at which time the manor house had a demean of 335 acres of land, 15 of meadow, and 20 acres of pasture, with a park, 2 windmills, and the fourth part of Harling mill. He died about 1305, seized of this and many other manors, leaving John, his brother, 40 years old, his next heir, who inherited nothing but the part excepted, the estate going to King Edward I. From which time it remained in the Crown till Edward II. in the 9th year of his reign, gave it, with the rest of the Bygod's estate, to

Thomas de Brotherton, his brother, whom he this year created Earl of Norfolk, and Marshal of England; he died in 1338, leaving his two daughters his heirs, Alice married to Edward de Monteacute, and Margaret first married to John Lord Segrave, and after to Sir Walter Manny, Knt. of the Garter, to whose share, this, among other manors, was allotted: in her right John de Segrave became Lord and patron, upon Thomas de Brotherton's death, and held it till he died in 1351, leaving Elizabeth his daughter and heir, then married to John, son of John Lord Mowbray, though this manor remained in the aforesaid Margaret's hands, and came to her second husband, Walter de Manny, Knt. who had it till he died in 1371, from which time it continued in the said Margaret, till the 24th of March 1399, when she died. She was created Dutchess of Norfolk for term of her life, by Richard II. in 1397. It appears that there were great uneasinesses between her and the Lord Segrave, her first husband, for she went in person to Rome, in order to obtain a sentence of divorce from him, of the Pope, having obtained letters of safe conduct for her and her retinue, of the French King; notwithstanding which, she and her servants were all arrested and taken in their journey, at the instigation, as was thought, of her husband, who was then under excommunication for not going to Rome, according to the Pope's citation, though he had pleaded that being a baron of England, he was not compellable to appear at that court; by this means he stopped her appearing against him at Rome, at the day assigned, and the matter afterwards was made up between them. At her death it descended to

Thomas Lord Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk, her grandson, who was son of her daughter Elizabeth, married as aforesaid to John, son of John Lord Mowbray, who died at Venice in 1399, leaving this Thomas his son, then 14 years old, who, in 1401, had this manor, though the advowson and part of the demeans belonged to Elizabeth his mother, in right of her dower, he never was duke, being beheaded at York, with Richard Scrope Archbishop of Canterbury, in 1405,

John, his brother, then 17 years old, being his heir, who was restored to the title of Duke of Norfolk in 1424, and dying in 1432, John his son, then 17 years old, succeeded him; but this manor was assigned in dower to Catharine his mother, daughter to Ralph Nevil Earl of Westmoreland, who afterward married to Thomas Strangewayes, Esq. after that to John Viscout Beaumont, and lastly to John Widvile, brother to Anthony Earl Rivers, all which were lords here in her right. At her death John Duke of Norfolk, her son, enjoyed it, and died seized in 1461, and John his son inherited, he died in 1474, leaving Anne, his sole daughter, then two years old, afterwards married to Richard Duke of York, second son to King Edward IV. who was murdered in the tower in 1483, and dying issueless, it fell to the share of John Howard, Knt. son of Sir Robert Howard, Knt. and Margaret his wife, who was one of the two daughters and coheirs of Thomas Mowbray, first Duke of Norfolk, from which time it hath always attended the fate of that family, and is now the estate of the present Duke of Norfolk.

This manor was held as parcel of Earl Roger's barony, and in 1285 had view of frankpledge, assize of bread and ale, and free-warren belonging to it. In 1609, the quitrents were above 21l. per annum; in 1641 the park was farmed at 390l. per annum. The Leet belongs to the manor,

The Customs of which are, that the fines are at the lord's will; the copyhold descends to the eldest son; the tenants can build and pull down, fell timber, and plant on the waste against their own lands, without license.

GOODSON'S MANOR, or Free Tenement, in North Lopham,

Was held of the hundred, by the service of 1s. a year, to which belonged many copy and freeholders; the whole at first contained a caracute of land, which was granted by Earl Roger, to Richard of Lopham, who died in 1194, in which year Ivo of Lopham, his son, gave 20s. to have a recognition of the death of his ancestor, for a carucate of land in Lopham, against Gundred the Countess; and in 1198, the said Ivo granted half of the said carucate, with Ivo, the steward of Lopham, his family, and posterity, to Earl Roger, and Gundred his Countess, and agreed to hold the other half of them by the rent of 5s. a year, and 20s. 6d. scutage, so that now this Free Tenement, as it was then called, contained half a carucate; the 5s. rent was afterwards released, and it came to be held of the hundred, and not of the capital manor, at 1s. a year rent. In 1248, Henry (of Lopham) the chirurgeon, had it; and in 1335, Henry, the son of Robert; (of Lopham; ) afterwards it was owned by John Goodson, vicar of Pakenkam, whose name it still retains. From this family it went to John Hawes, and from him to Robert Leader, then to John Leader, and from him to Robert Warnes the elder, and then to Robert Warnes the younger, who had it in 1635, by which time the copyhold was all manumised, and the freerents sold off, all but 16s. 10d. 3q. a year. In 1684, Robert Warnes, son of the last Robert, held it, by the rent of 12d. a year, in lieu of all suit of court to the hundred. It after belonged to Francis Bogas, Gent. who died in 1692, leaving it to his widow, who afterwards married Mr. Samuel Browning of Thetford; and at her death it went to Mr. Samuel Browning, his son, who sold it to Mr. Thomas Saunders of Thetford, the present [1736] owner; but there are no rents now remaining.

The Rectory Manor[edit]

Always belonged to the rector, as it now doth, [1736,] its customs being the same as the great manor; there is a rectory-house, and 46 acres and one rood of glebe in South Lopham, and 9 acres 2 roods and an half in North Lopham.

This rectory is in Norfolk archdeaconry and Rockland deanery, valued at 17l. 0s. 5d. and is still charged with first fruits, and 1l. 14s. 0b. yearly tenths. The synodals are 3s. and the procurations 7s. 7d. 0b. [1736]

South Lopham Church is dedicated to St. Nicholas; being built in the conventual form, the tower is square, being a very large Gothick building; in it are 6 good bells, the chancel, the nave, south isle, and porch are leaded; there are no arms nor inscriptions any where in it, except this on a stone in the chancel, very obsolete,

Hic iacit Dominus Willus Lirling.

And on the outside, between the south windows, are the initial letters for Jesus Maria, &c.

In Mr. Anstis's book it appears the following arms were formerly here, viz.

Segrave. Brotherton. Mowbray. Walter de Maney, or, three chevrons sab. Vere. Ufford; and erm. a bend gul. cottised or.

Coote, ar. a chevron between three coots sab. Harvey, ar. on a bend gul. three trefoils vert, for Christopher Coot, and Barbary Harvey, his wife. Of this family more will occur in Blow-Norton; this Christopher had a lease of this manor. Matthew, his eldest son, was born in 1563, in 1546, Leonard, son of Robert Coote, was buried; 1589, 15 June, Francis Coote, Gentleman-Usher to Queen Elizabeth, was buried in this chancel, in which the following inscriptions were formerly on brass plates.

Orate pro Animabus Rolandi Arsick, Armigeri, Secundi Filü Eudonis Arsick, militis qui Rolandus obüt 17° Dic Febr. 1497, et Margaretæ uroris eius, filiæ Thomæ Huntingfield, de hac billa que quidem, Mar- garata obiit 25° die Octobris 1486, Ouorum Animabus propitietur Dcus, Amens.

Orate pro Animabus Willi Nobell de Ashfield, Armigeri, et Elizabethe uroris eius, qui quidem Willus ob. 7°, die Julü, 1534, Ouor. ibz propicietur Oeus, Amen.

In 1526, Robert Saunder was buried in this church, who gave 20s. towards the repairs of the steeple.

North Lopham Church is dedicated to St. Andrew the Apostle; the tower is square having five bells in it; it was begun to be rebuilt about 1479, for then Thomas Jente, who was buried here, gave 4 marks towards its building; but was not finished till about 1526, for till that time most that died here left something towards it; there were certainly a great number of benefactors, the initial letters of the names of the principal ones being carved in the stone-work on the south side, John Kailli the principal undertaker's name being at length:

Orate pro Animabus Johannis Kailli. m. a. w. a. J. B. m. b. K. b. m. a. &c.

The nave and chancel are thatched, the south isle leaded, and the south porch tiled, in which there is a stone, fixed in the wall, for Simon Aldrich, who died the 5th day of June, 1715.

In the south window of the chancel, a bishop, in his pontificalibus, is represented as dead, lying along.

In the church is a black marble for Francis Bogas, Gent. who died the 6th day of July, Ao Dom. 1692. Arms, two fesses and a canton.

On one of the bells.

Filius Uirginis Marie dat Nobis gaudia bite.

Here were two Gilds, one dedicated to St. John, the other to St. Peter, which were endowed with lands, seized upon by the Crown in the 1st year of Edward VI. and so continued till King Phillip and Queen Mary, in the 3d and 4th year of their reign, gave them to Thomas Reeve and George Calton, who sold them the same year to Thomas Brooke, and William Woodferme, who sold them again immediately to the inhabitants, who now enjoy them, viz. a tenement and half an acre at the west end of the churchyard; three acres of land in North Lopham, the first is called St. John's Acre, because it belonged to that gild, and lies in Well, or Willbush Furlong; the second is St. Peter's Acre, so called for the same reason; this abuts upon the common towards the west; the third is called Lamp Acre, and abuts on the glebe, and was given to maintain a lamp burning in the church; all which are now held of the manor of East Greenwich, by fealty only, without any payment, and were settled to the use of the poor.

In 1412, Sir Edmund Noon, Knt. lord of Shelf hanger, granted a tenement called Elwine's, and 13 acres of land, part of his demeans, to Richard Bosse, to be held free by him and his heirs for ever, by the payment of a red rose every Midsummer Day at Shelf hanger manor, all which lands, with others joined to them, he gave to this town to repair the church for ever, settling them to that use upon William Tye, parson of Shelf hanger, John Pycot, John Clare, and John Gyles, clerks, who, in 1454, conveyed them to Henry Noon, Esq. Edmund Bokenham, Esq. and John Halle, parson of Garboldisham, from which time it hath been held by feoffees, as it now [1736] is, and the profits applied to that use, it being now let at 8l. per annum.

In 1500, Robert Bolle of North Lopham gave a rood and half at Willbush, to repair the church for ever.

In 1607, the inhabitants held a piece of land given by Thomas Jente; a tenement called the Town-house, and a croft of one acre, given by Catharine Turnor; a piece of pasture in Lyng Furlong of 2 acres, abutting on Kenninghall Common north.

The other town lands are let at 12 l. per annum, whereof 1l. 10s. a year lies in Garboldisham, and 1l. a year in South Lopham.

Here is a town-house inhabited by five poor people.

In 1696, Mrs. Mary Williamson of Garboldisham gave a meadow, called Stulp Meadow, in Garboldisham, and another meadow adjoining to it, to this parish, the church-wardens of which are annually to receive the rent, and to bind out a poor child every year to a trade; and if there be no poor child in the parish, then they are to lay it out to clothe the poor people of the said parish.

In 1730, the church-wardens leased out a cottage for 69 years to come, to Trophimus Shepperd, at the annual rent of 1l. 2s.

South Lopham hath an estate of 30l. a year at Wortham in Suffolk, which was given by one Purdy for the repairs of the church, and if there were any overplus, to charitable uses, such as the feoffees would apply it to, for the good of the town: the houses, and the greatest part of the farm, is freehold.

Tradition has it, that Purdy was a Wortham man, and a leper, and gave his estate to this town, because they were willing he should be buried among them, which Wortham was not: but this being a common story told in most places where there are gifts of this nature, I look upon it as tradition only.

Here are three small cottages for the poor, by whom they are now [1736] inhabited.

This town hath also 60 acres, called the Frith, taken off the common by the lord's consent, of whom they now hold it; it is marsh ground, and let at 8l. per annum, the income of which is gven to the poor by the feoffees every Christmas and Easter. And also a messuage, barn, and 16 acres of freehold land, lying in the parish, now rented at 15l. per annum, settled to repair and beautify the church for ever; and before the tenure of knight's service was abolished, it paid scutage, and a relief of 2s. 2d. 0b.

Not many years since the inhabitants purchased a freehold estate in Dickleburgh, rented at 8l. a year.

The Commons contain as much land as the whole towns beside, on all which North and South Lopham are joint commoners, but no other parishes intercommon with them; they are called the Great or Mill Common, North Green, North Common, and the Fen Common, and the inhabitants heretofore had all Chimbrook Meadow, for common, which they granted to the lord to make his fishery, agreeing to quit all right of commonage in it, and on all other the lord's wastes, on the east side the hundred ditch, and park banks, for which the lord agreed to lay them out an equivalent of other lands upon their Great Common, which was done accordingly, reserving the trees, furze, and bushes, growing, or which should ever hereafter grow on the lands, so laid out, which privilege the lord still enjoys, the lands being then called the Severals, and now the Allands, or Ollands.

In former times this town was most wood, though now it doth not more abound with it than its neighbours; for it appears from a fine sued in 1383, that there was then great plenty; for in that year the Countess of Norfolk settled 60 acres of wood, and the pannage and keeping one boar, and 24 swine in her park here, with liberty of gathering acorns for three days, with 25 men, on herself for life, remainder to the Countess of Pembrook for life, after to Sir John Hastyngs, Knt. Earl of Pembrook, her son, and the heirs of his body, remainder to the heirs of the Countess.

The honour of Clare extended into this town, there being divers lands here, formerly held of that honour.

Rectors of Lopham[edit]

  • 1332. Robert de Cantuaria, or Canterbury, resigned, and William Vygerous was instituted on the nones of Sept. presented by Thomas de Brotherton, son of the King, Earl of Norfolk, and Earl-Marshal of England; in 1335, on the kal. of Maroh he had a dispensation for non-residence, as domestick chaplain to Stephen de Gravesend Bishop of London. This William, the 13th of the kal. of April, 1327, was presented by the Bishop of London, to Thorley rectory, being then an accolite only: In 1329, he changed with Stephen de Scaldeford for Finchley rectory in Middlesex, to which he was instituted the 6th of the id. of May, and was then priest; in 1332, on the nones of Sept. he resigned Finchley, and took Lopham, for which he gave his archdeaconry of Essex in exchange, to Robert de Cantuaria, to which he was collated by the Bishop of London, on the 4th of the nones of Dec. Ao 1331; in 1336, he was collated to the rectory of Fulham in Middlesex, which he held with Lopham to his death, Ao 1341. This Robert de Cantuaria was chaplain to King Edward II. rector of Lopham, archdeacon of Essex, prebend of Cumb in the church of Wells, and of Mapesbury in St. Paul's church, London, 1331, and died about 1333.
  • 1342, 29 March, Tko. de Thurleston, priest. Sir John de Segrave, Knt.
  • 1342, 7 June, John de Loughton, accolite. Ditto.
  • 1346, 17 July, He changed with Will. de Dunstaple, rector of Chestreford, London diocese. Ditto.
  • 1349, 4 July, Will. de Atterton, priest. Ditto.
  • 1351, 4 March, Giles de Wyngrewortk, a shaveling. King Edward, on account of the lands late Sir John Segrave's, having recovered this turn in his own court, against John de Segrave, those lands being lately in the King's hands.
  • 1352, 27 Aug. Giles resigned, and Richard de Penreth, priest, was instituted. King Edward, on account of Sir John Segrave's lands now in his hands, at Sir John's death.
  • 1361, 27 July, Nicholas de Horton, priest. Walter Lord Manney. This Nicholas was a monk of Thetford, and founder of South Lopham chancel; he had a long suit with Walter Pek, rector of Garboldisham St. John, about two pieces of the demean lands of the rectory of Lopham, which laid in Garboldisham, the tithe of which the rector of Garboldisham St. John claimed; but there passed a decree against him, that neither the rectors of Lopham, nor their farmers, should pay any tithe to Garboldisham, though the lands laid in that parish.
  • 1380, 22 August, Sir Giles de Wenlock, priest. Margaret Mareschal Countess of Norfolk, and Lady Segrave; he was her chaplain, and steward of her household.
  • 1394, 3 Sept. Sir Jeffry Symond of Dersham, priest. The Countess of Norfolk; (sc. Margaret;) John Grym, rector of Garboldisham St. John, renewed the action against this Jeffery for tithe of his demeans, but was immediately cast.
  • 1404, 25 Febr. Jeffry resigned, and Adam Cokelot, priest, succeeded. Elizabeth Dutchess of Norfolk, in right of her dower.
  • 1423, 22 Dec. this Adam being grown old and blind, so that he could not serve the cure, resigned in favour of Edmund Coupere, priest, who was obliged by the Bishop, at his institution, to pay him a pension of 10 l. a year, during his life. Elizabeth Dutchess of Norfolk.
  • 1431, 12 May, Edmund Couper resigned, and Henry Perbroun was instituted. Edmund Wynter, Roger Hunte, and Robert Southwell, feoffees of John Mowbray Duke of Norfolk.
  • 1438, 25 Nov. Perbroun changed for Heydon with William Brixey, priest. John Duke of Norfolk.
  • 1446, 17 Sept. Tho. Wode, chaplain to John Duke of Norfolk. This Thomas atte Wode was warden of Gonvile Hall in Cambridge in 1426, which he held to 1454. He was the first benefactor towards building the hall of that college, and the warden's old room; Dr. Caius (by mistake) calls him Cotwood.
  • 1462, 8 March, Rich. Derby. John Duke of Norfolk; he was after chaplain to the Dutchess.
  • 1507, ult. Jan. John Gravely, on the death of the last rector.
  • 1546, 2 Febr. The Right Rev. John Salisbury, Suffragan Bishop of Thetford, was presented by the King. He resigned in
  • 1554; but on the 6th of May, in the same year, he took it again, and held it united to Diss, being presented by Thomas Duke of Norfolk. He resigned in
  • 1560, and John Harrison, priest, was instituted June 29.
  • 1576, 16 Nov. John Dovefield, A. M. Will. Dixe, and Will. Canterell, Esqrs. feoffees.
  • 1578, 22 Sept. Arthur Womack, A.M. on Dovefield's resignation. Ditto. He was buried here the 18th of June, 1607.
  • 1607, 20 June, Laurence Womack, A. M. John Holland, and Edward Carrell, Esqrs. feoffees to Thomas Earl of Arundell; he died in the rebellion, and one
  • Thomas Ellis got possession of this rectory, who held it by usurpation till 1663, but was then deprived by six justices, upon the act, for holding anabaptistical errours, and refusing to baptize infants.
  • 1663, April 24, Edmund Salmon, D.D. of Cambridge, Henry Howard, Knt. Will. Plaiters, Bart. &c. trustees to the Norfolk family.
  • 1681, 2 May, Samuel Slipper, A. M. chaplain to the Duke of Norfolk on Salmon's death. John Meek and John Jay, patrons for this turn.
  • 1713, 11 June, the Rev. Mr. Robert Hall, A. M. on Slipper's death, presented by Thomas Duke of Norfolk, who some time after sold the patronage to Dr. Hill, who hath obliged his heirs for ever, to present a fellow of St. John's College in Cambridge. Sir Rowland Hill is now [1736] patron, and Mr. Hall aforesaid is incumbent, who hath published a volume of Sermons, and another of Catechistical Lectures, in 8vo. and a Sermon on the Peace.

This town is remarkable among the country people for the three Wonders; (as they call them;) the first is, the Selfgrown Stile, being a tree grown in such a manner, that it forms a regular stile, and serves for such in a common footpath. The second is, the Ox-Foot Stone, which lies in a meadow so called; it is a large stone of the pebble kind; on which is the fair impression of an ox's foot, which seems to be natural; the fable of it is, that in a great dearth (nobody knows when) there came a cow constantly to that place, which suffered herself to be milked (as long as the dearth lasted) by the poor people; but when that decreased, she struck her foot against that stone, which made the impression, and immediately disappeared. The third is called Lopham Ford, at which place the Ouse and Waveney (those disagreeing brethren, as Spelman calls them) have their rise, and though there is no greater division than nine feet of ground, yet the former goes west by Thetford to Lynn, and the latter in a direct contrary course, by Diss, and so to Yarmouth, including this whole county; Leland calls it Lopham Market, (without any authority,) and says that it belonged to Richmond fee, being led into that errour, I suppose, by its being the place where the gaol of the Duke of Norfolk's liberty was kept, of which Swaffham is the head town in this county, where the coroner for the liberty generally resided, and that town belonging to Richmond fee, might possibly lead him into this mistake; and as this liberty is of large extent in the county, it will not be amiss to give you an account of its rise and privileges in this place, because it hath been generally reputed to be, as it were, annexed to this manor.

King Edward IV. by letters patent under the broad seal of England, dated at Westminster the 7th of December, in the 8th year of his reign, and in the year of our Lord 1468, granted to John Duke of Norfolk, and Elizabeth his wife, and their heirs, for ever, the return of all writs whatsoever, and of all bills, summons, precepts, and mandates of the King, and of all acting under him, within the liberty, manors, and hundreds following, viz. within the manors and demeans of Forncet, Framlingham - Parva, Ditchingham - Parva, Ditchingham, Loddon, Syseland, Halvergate, Southwalsham, Cantley, Strumpshaw, Castre, Winterton, Dickleburgh, Boyton, and Bayfield, in the county of Norfolk, and also within the whole hundred of Earsham, and the half hundred of Gildercrosse in the said county, and also in the towns, parishes, and demeans, of Kelsale, Bonnagaie, Peasenhall, Calcote, Stonham, Dennington, Brundish, Ilketshalle, and Cratefield, in Suffolk; and in the rapes of Lewis and Bramber, and all the parts and parcels thereto belonging; and in the hundred and lordship of Boseham, and the town of Stoughton, in Sussex, in the manor and lordships of Reygate and Barkyng in Surrey; and the town, manor, and lordships of Harwich and Dovercourt in Essex; and in all parcels, precincts, and jurisdictions of all the aforesaid rapes, hundreds, towns, manors, and lordships, so that no sheriff, or any other officer whatsoever, should enter the said liberty, but that every thing should be transacted by the officers of the said Duke, appointed for that purpose. Furthermore, the King granted to the Duke and his heirs, all manner of fines, profits, amerciaments, penalties, &c. of all residents in the said liberty, with all other things that should accrue to his royal crown and dignity, with full power for the Duke's officers to seize for any of them, in as full a manner as the King's officers should have done, if this grant had not been made. Further, the King granted to the said Duke and his heirs, all weyfs and strays, felons' goods, and forfeitures; and also, that the residents in this liberty shall not be sued or forced to answer in any other court, than that of the liberty, for any sum under 40s. And further, the King granted to the said Duke, full power and authority, to have his own coroners, and clerks of the markets, in his liberty, with the same power that those officers of the King have in any other place; together with a steward of the liberty, who shall have power to determine all actions under 40s. so that they arise within the liberty; all which privileges the King confirmed to him, in exchange for the castle, manor, lordship, and burgh of Chepstowe, the manor of Barton, and the manor and lordship of Tuddenham, in the Welsh Marshes, to which all the aforesaid privileges (and much greater) belonged, and had been enjoyed by the Duke and his ancestors, time out of mind, but were now by the Duke, at the King's earnest request, conveyed to Wm. Earl of Pembrook, and his heirs, and a fine levied accordingly. This liberty, with all its privileges, was enjoyed by the said Duke, and his successours, till Queen Elizabeth's time, and then were exemplified under seal, at Westminster, the 4th of July, 1558, at the request of Thomas Duke of Norfolk, who was then seized in fee, and so continued till 1568, when he settled this, among other large estates, on Tho. Cornwallis, Knt. Nich. L'Estrange, Knt. Tho. Timperly, Wm. Barker, Rob. Higford, and Edw. Peacock, and their heirs, to his own use for life, and to whatever other uses he should declare, by any will or deed that he should make; and soon after he declared by deed, that they stood seized to the use of the faithful and beloved servants of the late Duke, John Bleverhasset, W. Dixe, William Cantrell, and Laurence Bannester, in trust, that they should truly pay the debts and legacies of the said Duke, and the overplus to remain to Phillip Earl of Surrey, and his heirs, remainder to Thomas Lord Howard, and William Lord Howard, and their heirs; but upon the attainder of the Duke, and Phillip Earl of Surrey, it was seized by the Crown, where it continued till James I. by letters patent, dated at Westminster in the year 1602, being the first year of his reign, gave and granted to his faithful counsellors, Thomas Lord Howard, baron of Walden, and Henry Howard, brother of Thomas late Duke of Norfolk, and son of Henry late Earl of Surrey, and their heirs, this liberty, with the honour, lordship, and manor of Forncet, and the manors of Earl's, or Little Framlingham, Halvergate, Ditchingham, Siseland, Dickleburgh, Loddon, and Laundich hundred in Norfolk; the castle, soke, and manor of Bongeye, and manor of Cratfield, in Suffolk; (all being part of the possessions of the late attainted Duke;) together with all lawdays, amerciaments, views of frankpledge, &c. the one moiety to Thomas Lord Howard, and his heirs, the other to Henry Howard, and his heirs; and the year following, on the 3d day of April, the King, by other letters patent, granted to Thomas Earl of Suffolk, Lord Chamberlain of his Household, and to Henry Earl of Northampton, Guardian of the Cinque Ports, (those titles being conferred on them in the mean time,) and their heirs, the manors and advowsons of Ditchingham and South Walsham, late the attainted Duke's; and by other letters patent, dated at Westminster, Nov. 22, in the 6th year of his reign, he gave them the half hundred of Gyltcross in Norfolk, and Cratfield and Kelsale manors in Suffolk, late the said Duke's, with all their liberties, &c.; together with the barony, burgh, and manor of Lewes in Sussex, and the barony and manor of Bramber, with the office of itinerant bailiff, and of clerks of the markets within the said baronies in Sussex, together with Darkyng cum Capell manor in Surrey, with all the liberties of the late Duke of Norfolk, as leets, views of frankpledge, lawdays, assize of bread and beer, pleas, weyfs, streys, forfeitures of felons, fugitives, deodands, knight's fees, escheats, heriots, free-warren, return of all writs, precepts, &c. in as full and ample a manner as ever Thomas Duke of Norfolk enjoyed his liberty, before his attainder; by means of which grant, each of them was seized of a moiety, all which premises they divided by indenture, dated the 13th day of May following. The manors of Forncet, Ditchingham, Loddon, Syseland, Halvergate, South Walsham, Laundich hundred, and the half hundred of Earsham, with the manor of Bongey, were assigned to Henry Earl of Northampton, and his heirs, of which he died seized in 1613, and they descended to Thomas Earl of Arundell and Surrey, (who was restored in blood, in a parliament at Westminster, March 19, 1602,) as cousin and next heir, then aged 25 years, he being son of Phillip late Earl of Arundell and Surrey, deceased, son and heir of Thomas late Duke of Norfolk, and elder brother of the said Henry late Earl of Northampton. And after this, Henry Earl of Arundell and Surrey, by indenture dated March 1, 1617, purchased to him and his heirs, of Thomas Earl of Suffolk, all his part, right, and estate, in the hundred of Gyltcross, Kelsale and Cratfield manors in Suffolk; the rapes of Lewes and Bramber and Noman's-Land in Sussex; Darkyng and Capell manors in Surrey, the barony, manor, and burgh of Lewes, with the office of bailiff itinerant; the manors of Lewisburgh, Rymer, Ilford, Seaford, Meching, Middleton, Brithelmeston; the free chase called Clers; liberty of the sheriff's turn of Noman's-Lands, Sheffield, and Grimstead manors; the barony and manor of Bramber, with the itinerant bailiff there; the burgh of Horsham, burgh of Shorambury and Beding New Park; the burgh of Steyning, and the manor of Sompting-Abbots; the office of clerks of the markets in Lewes and Bramber baronies, Sheffield and Lyngfield manor, the fourth part of Barkyng and Capell manors, the tollbooth of Southwark, and Guilford in Surrey, and all privileges that Thomas late Duke of Norfolk had in the letters patent of Queen Elizabeth; and particularly all those liberties, commonly called the Duke of Norfolk's Liberty, by virtue of which, Thomas Earl of Arundell and Surrey aforesaid was seized of the whole in fee, and so continued till the 12th of August, 1641, and then he and the Lady Alathea Countess of Arundell, his wife, and Henry Lord Mowbray and Maltravers, their eldest son, and heir apparent, Henry Bedingfield, Knt. and John Cornwaleis of Earl-Soham, their trustees, settled it (among many other estates) on Lionel Earl of Middlesex, Henry Lord Pierpoint, Edward Lord Newburgh, William Playters, Knt. and Bart and Richard Onslow, Knt. in trust, to whatever uses the Earl, his lady, and their son, should declare by deed; and on the 16th of August, in the same year, they declared it was absolutely to the use of their trustees, and their heirs, in order that they should make sale of all, or any parcels of the said baronies, lands, tenements, hereditaments, liberties, advowsons, &c. aforesaid; and that the money from thence raised should be by them applied to pay the debts of Thomas late Earl of Arundell and Surrey, and the overplus to remain to the Lord Maltravers, or his heirs; and whatever remained unsold, after the debts paid, they were to stand seized of, to the use of the Lord Maltravers and his heirs; (and that the title might be perfect, Will. Howard of Maynward, in Cumberland, Knt. joined in the indentures;) and thus they stood seized till Henry Lord Pierpoint, by the name of Henry Earl of Kingston upon Hull, Marquis of Dorset, by deed dated the 6th of Feb. 1636, at the request of Henry Howard, son of Henry late Earl of Arundell and Surrey, released to Will. Playters, and Rich. Onslow aforesaid, and their heirs, all his right in the premises, by virtue of which they were solely seized, and being so, by indenture, dated the 30th of July, 1659, they conveyed them to Arthur Onslowe, Knt. and William Turner, citizen and draper of London, and their heirs; (Forncet, Marshal's, and Grey's manors in Banham, being particularly named;) and the said Arthur and William, by indenture dated the 4th of Nov. 1660, jointly with, and at the request of, Henry Howard, Esq. second son of Henry Earl of Arundell, deceased, and Rich. Onslow of West Clandon, Knt. Arth. Onslow, his son and heir, John Fowell of Fowellscom in Devonshire, Esq. and Rich. Marriot of Clement's Danes in Middlesex, Knt. conveyed the whole absolutely to John Taseburgh of Bodney in Norfolk, Esq. and his heirs, in trust, and to the use of Rich. Onslowe, Arth. Onslowe, John Taseburgh, and Will. Turner, and their heirs, to the intention that they should sell the whole, or any part of the premises, with the woods or timber, to raise money to pay all the debts of the aforesaid Hen. Howard, with all their own expenses in the affair, and the remaining overplus, whether in money, or estates unsold, was to be to the sole use of the said Henry Howard, and his heirs, and of whomsoever he should assign it to, upon which the said Rich. Onslowe, Arth. Onslowe, Will. Turner, and John Taseburgh being solely seized of the liberty, &c. beg that the liberties, &c. might be allowed and confirmed to them, which was done, upon their producing the charters and grants, all which were allowed by Jeffry Palmer, Bart. Attorney-General, and at the request of Henry Lord Howard, were exemplified under seal at Westminster, the 2d of April, 1669, and soon after (the debts being paid) it was again vested in the Howard family, the Duke of Norfolk being now lord, who nominates a steward and coroner, and keeps a gaol for debtors, either here, or elsewhere, as he pleases.

In 1603, there were in both Lophams 351 communicants, and now [1736] there are 76 dwelling-houses, 95 families, and 470 inhabitants in South Lopham; and 74 dwelling-houses, 92 families, and 460 inhabitants in North Lopham. They paid 5l. 12s. to the old tenths, being valued together, but now they are assessed single to the King's tax, viz. South Lopham at 785l. per annum, and North Lopham at 772l. 10s. each of them paying a leet fee of 18d.

The Rev. Mr. Robert Hall bears, arg. on a chevron ingrailed between three talbots heads erased gul. a mullet of the field, in chief a crescent for difference. Crest, on a torce arg. and gul. a talbot's head erased gul.

Mr. Wade Kett of South Lopham bears, as in p. 39, a crescent for difference.

Mr. Henry Branch of South Lopham bears, arg. a lion ramp. gul. over all a bendlet sab.

Mr. Richard Flowerdew of South Lopham bears, per chevron ingrailed arg. and sab. three water-boudgets counter-changed, a mullet for difference.


== NORTON==[edit]

Now called Blow-Norton, corruptly for Norton Bel'eau, as it is anciently spelt, which signifies the north town upon the fair water, or river, on which it is situated, and by which it is divided, on its south part, from Suffolk. It had four distinct manors in the Conqueror's time.

The first of which belonged to William Earl Warren, and was held by Fulcher under him, of his castle of Lewes, and laid in Kenninghall Soken, before the Earl had it. This was afterwards called Brome Hall manor, and was held of the Earl Warren's castle at Acre, by the service of the fourth part of a fee, which service descended with that castle and honour; it was after held of Tateshale barony.

The second was held as a distinct manor in the Confessor's days, and in the Conqueror's belonged to Alsius, who then added it to his manor of Lopham, as a berewic; from him it became part of the estate of Roger Bygod, under whom, at the survey, Alured, an Englishman, held it. It was given very early by the Bygods to the Bromes, and so became part of Brome Hall manor, being always held of the Earls and Dukes of Norfolk, by the service of a quarter of a fee.

The third part belonged to the Abbot of Bury, and was held by a socman, of his in the Confessor's days, and by Joceline, in the Conqueror's, the whole town being then a league long, and half a league broad, and paid 8d. 0b. 1q. Danegeld; there were then 5 acres of land belonging to the church; this was called Semere's manor, from the Seymors, or St. Maur's, lords thereof, and was held of the abbey by the service of a whole knight's fee.

The fourth part belonged to Ely abbey; but I do not find who gave it, though imagine it was given with Garboldisham, to which it might then belong; it is plain it was seized as that was, and recovered from Roger Bigot in the Conqueror's days, after which the Abbot held it but a little while, for it came to the Earl Warren, whether by feoffment or purchase I cannot say; one of those Earls granted it to William de la Snore, to be held of the castle at Acre, by the service of a quarter of a fee; from which time I find nothing of it till 1288, and then William de Blow-Norton held it by that service. In 1345, Adam de Norton was lord; in 1401, John Armiger had it; in 1570, one Chittock had it; but it was soon after purchased and joined to Semere manor. It is now called Brent Hall, or Burnt Hall, because the mansion-house was burnt down; it still retains a place in the style of the court, which runs thus: Brome Hall and Semere's, with Brent Hall in Blow-Norton.

Brome Hall Manor[edit]

Was so called from the family of the Bromes, who had one part of it of the grant of the Bygots, in very early days, the other part coming to them from Roger de Somery, whose ancestors had it of the Earl Warren's gift. It seems that Roger, son of William de Brom, married Petronilla, one of the heiresses of Roger de Somery; for in an inquisition taken in the time of Henry III. it is said, that he held it jointly with her, as part of the inheritance of Roger de Somery, of the Earl of Arundell; this was about 1280; in 1302, they settled the manor and advowson on themselves for life, then on William de Brom, their son and heir, remainder to Robert, their other son, Henry de Brom (brother to Roger) being trustee. In the next year Roger died, and left William, his son and heir, who died before his mother, so that Robert de Brom, his brother, at his mother Petronell's death, which was before 1443, inherited the whole, it being settled by her on him and Joan his wife, in tail, in the year 1336, by a fine then levied between them and Edmund Bacon, parson of Corton, in Suffolk, and Robert de Jernemuth, or Yarmouth; in an inquisition in 1345, it is said that he held both the parts of this manor, and paid a relief of x.s. to the Earl of Arundell, for the half part held of him, at a quarter of a fee, and x.s. to the Earl Warren, as a relief for the other half, that being held of him at a quarter of a fee. In 1363, he held it jointly with Roger Brom, his eldest son. In 1401, Robert Brome, Esq. son of the last Roger, had it, who died intestate in 1453, leaving Olive his widow, who administered, John Broome, Esq. his son, being very young; he afterwards was lord, and left it, at his death, to Henry Brome, his son and heir, who left it to James Brome, his son and heir, who died without issue about 1510, and it descended to his two sisters, viz. Mary Jermy, and Anne, first married to Rob. Stede, Esq. after to John Brampton, and then to Rob. Rookwood, Gent.; at her death the whole went to Thomas Brampton, her son and heir, who had purchased the other moiety in 1533, of Edward Jermy, son and heir of Mary Broome, by Jermy, her first husband, she and Ralph Shelton, Esq. son of Sir John Shelton, Knt. her second husband, joining, to make a complete title; and thus it was joined to

Semere Hall Manor[edit]

Which was part of the revenues of Bury abbey, and belonged to Joceline, brother to Abbot Baldwin, who infeoffed him in it in the Conqueror's time; it after came to the Bygods, of whom it was held in the eleventh century, by the family sirnamed de Cadomo, or Caam; Rich. de Caam was lord and patron of St. Andrew's in 1280, and in 1285 Olive his widow, who held it in dower, remitted all her claim and right to Sir John de Dykele, Knt. who seems to be heir general to Rich. de Caam; and in the same year Sir John granted it to Ralf de Sancto Mauro, or Seymore, and Alice his wife, and their heirs; and the said Olive, and William de Turri, her second husband, confirmed the grant, for which Ralf and Alice gave them an annuity of 7 marks, and a gown every year worth one mark, during the life of the said Olive; in 1311, Ralf being dead, Alice his widow settled the manor and advowson, after her own death, on Edmund, their son, and Joan his wife, who was lady in 1315; and in 1345, John de Seymor was lord, son, I suppose, of Edmund: he held it of John de Segrave, as of his manor of Forncet, he of the Abbot, and the Abbot of the King, at half a fee, and paid 20s. relief. In 1423, John de Seymor had it; in 1435, a fine was levied between Ralph Gunton, and Walter Walton of London, mason, and Joan his wife, by which it was settled on Ralph and his heirs; about 1510, it is said to be in the heirs of John Boteram, of whom, in all probability, it was purchased by Christopher Coote, Esq. who had it settled on him and his trustees by fine, in 1521; he died Sept. 17, 1563, seized of Seymor's manor here, Rich. Coote, his son and heir, being 34 years old, who had immediate livery; he was afterwards knighted, and lived to the age of 124 years; Sir Charles Coote, Knt. and Bart. who translated himself and family into Ireland, where he was Lieutenant in King Charles the First's time, and was killed in 1642, was the last of the family that had this manor, it being joined to Brome Hall manor by the Brampton's, who purchased it, and so had all the manors and the whole advowson; the pedigree of which family, as far as it concerns this town, here follows.

The Leet belongs to the hundred, the leet fee being 14d. The lord of the hundred is lord paramount, having weyf and strey, view of frankpledge and free-warren, assize of bread and beer, &c. for when the lords of the several manors were forced by quo warrantos to produce their charters, and plead what liberties had been immemorially used, the lords here did not claim any.

The Customs of the Manors are these: the fines are at the lord's will; the copyhold descends to the youngest son: it gives no dower; the tenants cannot fell timber, nor waste their copyholdhouses, without license. In Brome Hall manor every free tenant, upon purchase of any freehold, pays a year's freerent to the lord, as a customary relief.

I do not find the religious were much concerned here.

The monks of Thetford's portion of tithes out of St. Andrew's was taxed at 10s.

The Prior of the canons of Thetford, in 1428, was taxed 12d. for his temporals here.

The Prior of Ixworth was taxed 2s. 6d. for his temporals here, and

The Prior of Bokenbam 14s. for his temporals in this town.

Rectors[edit]

The church of St. Margaret.

  • 1300, kal. May, Henry de Brom. Sir Roger de Brom, Knt.
  • 1313, 12 kal. Oct. Nicholas de Blonorton, priest. Petronell, widow of Sir Roger de Brom, Knt. he resigned to John de Hykelynge, and he resigned in
  • 1328, to Clement de Cnapetone, priest, who was instituted 8 kal. May. Ditto.
  • 1343, 7 April, Galfr. de Dychyngham, priest. Robert de Brom. After his death it laid without any institution till 1394, when Robert de Brom, the patron, obtained a perpetual union of it to the church of St. Andrew, upon proving to the Bishop that the revenues were so small, that nobody would accept it; and it appearing that the church was much decayed, both in its roof and walls, and the parishioners very poor, and unable to repair it, and that St. Andrew's church, standing close by it, in the same churchyard, was big enough to hold all the parishioners of both, he licensed them to pull down St. Margaret's church, May 13, 1394, upon which it was levelled to the ground, in such a manner, that at this day there appear no remains of such a place. When Sir Roger de Brom was patron, Norwich Domesday saith, that it had a house and 10 acres of glebe, it then paid 12d. synodals, and 2s. 2d. procurations; from this time each manor had an alternate presentation to
  • St. Andrew's, in Blow-Norton,

Which before belonged solely to Semere manor, when Sir John Dykele was patron, the rector had 11 acres of glebe, but no house, and paid 12d. synodals, and 4s. procurations; The first rector I meet with is,

Edmund de Brundyssch, who resigned in

  • 1329, 6 kal. May, and Peter, called, Le-Munk, priest, succeeded. Edmund de Sco. Mauro, or Seymor, Knt.
  • 1331, 15 kal. Nov. John de Mellis de Brampton. Ditto.
  • 1337, Edmund son of Edm. de Burnedyssch, sub-deacon.
  • 1350, 12 April, Hen. Lewyn, priest. Will. de Midelton.
  • 1355, 27 July, Rob. Agaz (or Agar) de Brisingham, priest. Ditto.
  • 1358, 2 July, Rich. Munch, priest, changed with Agaz for Fersfield. Ditto.
  • 1365, 8 Oct. Will. Bonyng, priest, changed with Munche, for Brundale. John Ermundgere de Stratford, patron.
  • 1368, 24 March, John de Binham, a shaveling. John de Pyssale, rector of Alderton, true patron; in 1385, when the union of the livings was first attempted, he obtained a grant of a messuage to enlarge his parsonage, of John de Pyssale, his patron, (who also seems lord of Semere,) and in 1384 it was confirmed him by the King's license.
  • 1414, 25 Nov. Peter Ingland, priest, on Binham's death. Tho. Grym and Rich. Bolle, patrons of this turn, by virtue of a feoffment in a piece of land called Pottage Land in Blow-Norton, made by John Binham before his death.
  • 1415, 9 Aug. John Moddyng, priest, at Ingland's death. Margaret, late wife of Rob. de Broome, Gentleman of the Bedchamber, patroness of this turn, in right of Brome Hall manor.
  • 1430, 3 July, Sir Stephen Smith, priest. John Almot of Melles, and John Bertram, of Hepworth.

From the evidences and annals of Caius College in Cambridge I learn, that this Sir Stephen gave all his lands and tenements in Barningham, in Suffolk, for the maintenance of a fellow to be a priest, to perform divine offices for the dead, in that college, and to preach thrice every year at Barningham, viz. on St. Margaret's Day, in Advent, and in Lent, and in his sermons to make mention of him, his benefactor, and that he should be called Stephen Smith's priest; the lands given were then 4l. per annum, and in Dr. Caius's time 5l.; he is the fifth senior fellow on the foundation. The estate now consists of a convenient farm-house, and 70 acres of pasture, 24 acres 3 roods of arable, all well wooded, the money rent being 8l. 6s. 8d. the corn rent 2 quarters and a half of wheat, and 3 quarters and 3 bushels of malt [1376].

  • 1474, Smith resigned, and Rob. Woodward succeeded. James Blundell, and Olive his wife.
  • 1487, 7 March, Ric. Davy, on Woodward's resignation. James Blondell of Mellys, Esq. and Olive his wife, who was widow of Rob. Broome, Esq.
  • 1536, 6 Feb. Tho. Lyn, priest, on Davy's death. Ralph Shelburne, Esq. and Mary his wife, and Anne Bramptone, widow, for this turn.
  • 1573, 28 March, Tho. Billingford, clerk. Tho. Bramptone, Esq.
  • 1605, 24 Nov. Edw. Wright to Blonorton Utraque. Henry Bramptone, Gent.
  • 1641, Rob. Ray, rector.
  • 1660, Nathaniel Vincent, D.D. subscribed for Norton, but no institution registered.
  • 1722, The Rev. Mr. Nathaniel Rye, on Vincent's death, who is the present [1736] incumbent, and holds it united to Hepworth, being presented by Mr. R. Browne, patron.

This rectory is valued at 5l. 6s. 8d. and being sworn of the clear yearly value of 38l. 5s. is discharged of first fruits and tenths. There is a rectory-house, and 25 acres of glebe. Here was a Gild dedicated to St. Peter.

The Church is a mean fabrick, of one isle only, which is thatched, as is the chancel; the north porch is tiled, the tower is square, and hath in it three bells, on which are the following inscriptions:

1. Sancte Johannes, ora pro nobis.

2. Sanrta Caterina, ora pro nobis.

3. O Martir Barbara, pro me Deum erora.

There is no inscription in the nave, this being now lost:

Orate pro Anima Margarete Coote Generose que ob. ro die mens. Sept. Ao Dni. 1521.

At the entrance of the chancel lies a stone robbed of its brasses which had this, viz.

Of your Charitie pray for the Soules of Thomas Garneys Esqr. t Alice his wife, the which Thomas deresed the first Day of August in the Yeare of our Lord God 1544, on whose Soules Jesu have Merry.

Garneys with a mullet on the chevron, impaling a fess dancette between three crescents.

Another hath Stede impaling Brome. It is robbed of this inscription:

Of your Charitie pray for the Soul of John Stede Esqr. the which de reased the 20 Day of Dec. in the Year of our Lord God 1540, on whose Soul Jesu have Merry.

Another stone was laid over a priest, the cup and wafer, the emblems of the priesthood, still remaining.

On three brass plates upon a stone at the north-east corner of the chancel.

Brampton, quartering Brome, impaling Rookwood.

Here lieth intered Thomas Brampton Esquier who deceased the in Daye of Novemeber in the Yere of our God MCCCClrrvi. No brave attyer nor worldly Pompe, But Deathe in tyme will quelle, Yet Bramptones Soule by virtues Lorc, I hope in Heven dothe dwelle.

At the upper end of the chancel, on the south side, was a raised tomb, covered with a marble, under which Mr. Christopher Coote, who died in 1563, was interred; this is now taken down, and the stone laid on the pavement.

The house right over against the church is called the Place, which name it assumed when it was rebuilt by John Brampton, its old name being Brome Hall.

In the kitchen window (before it was repaired) I saw these arms:

William Calthorp married Cecily Brome, and was owner of an estate here, in 1536.

The arms of Stede were imperfect, and seemed to have been parted per pale; and there was an imperfect coat of Brampton.

In 1603, there were 110 communicants, and now [1736] there are 32 houses, and 160 inhabitants. It paid 50s. to the old tenth, and now is assessed at 660l. to the land tax.

Here is about 1 rood of land, which lies at Furze Common, a house being lately pulled down there, and another rebuilt more convenient, for two dwellers, on the waste, which hath about a rood of land laid to it.

The Commons are, New Cross, which contains about 10 acres, Furze Common about 30 acres, South Fen about 30 acres; and there are about 80 acres of common car and fen, on all which they common solely.

Robert Browne, Gent. bears ar. on a bend sab. three eagles displayed or. Crest, on a torce ar. and sab. a goshawk rising or.


== GATESTHORP==[edit]

Is a small village, known by travellers by the name of Gasthorp Gate, which is a publick-house that hath a gate for its sign, contrived at first, I suppose, from the name of the town; it stands on a great road which crosses the river here: it seems to take its name from some owner of it, [Gades Dorp] or Gatesthorp, signifying the village or mansion of some one of that name.

The Church is dedicated to St. Nicholas, and is a rectory, discharged of first fruits and tenths. It hath no parsonage-house, but there are 30 acres of glebe.

The advowson belonged to the Prior of the monks at Thetford, who always presented till the Dissolution, unless in cases of lapse, or when that priory was in the King's hands as an alien.

Rectors[edit]

  • 1289, Sir William, rector of Gatesthorp. Sir Adam de Levermere, then parish chaplain.
  • 1314, kal. Jan. Walter de Fakenham, priest. Lapse.
  • 1327, 3 non. Oct. John de Boys, accolite. The Prior of Thetford.
  • 1349, 16 March, John de Melles of Brampton, priest. Mary Countess of Norfolk, by grant from the King; who holds the advowson, the temporals of Thetford priory, which is an alien, being in his hands during the wars.
  • 1358, 16 March, John de Berkyng, a shaveling, instituted in the person of Sir Nic. de Wrotham, rector of Langford, his proxy. Mary Countess of Norfolk.
  • 1369, 19 Aug. Stephen de Rydon, priest. The Prior of St. Mary at Thetford.
  • 1375. 12 April, David Bonegent, priest. King Edward, during the wars: he had license to plant on the lord's waste, called the Holms, against his rectory-house.
  • 1404, 13 July, Rich. de Wyrham, priest. The Prior.
  • 1409, 5 Aug. John Skarlet, priest. on Wyrham's resignation. Ditto.
  • 1410, 20 March, Walter de Westwalton, priest, Ditto.
  • 1412, 29 Aug. John Covyn, priest, on Walter's resignation. Ditto.
  • 1413, 3 April, Roger Sekot, on Covyn's resignation. Ditto.
  • 1414, 21 May, John Blome of Ixworth, shaveling, on Sekot's resignation. Ditto.
  • 1417, 10 May, Rich. Flaxere, or Flaxby, priest. The Prior. At his death in
  • 1438, 18 June, John-Walter de Elveden, priest. Will. de Elveden, sub-prior, the priory being void.
  • 1459, 13 Dec. Tho. Hunt, chaplain. The Prior.
  • 1482, 29 April. Ric. Cokke. Ditto.
  • 1496, 21 Febr. Will. de Ostelyn. Robert Prior of Thetford.
  • 1510, 28 Jan. Will. Cramfodre, on Ostelyn's death. Ditto.
  • 1414, 27 March, John Baron. Ditto.
  • 1525, 4 May, Tho. Jamys, on Baron's death, united to Gnateshall. Ditto.
  • 1559,---Dec. Thomas Pike, priest. Thomas Duke of Norfolk.
  • 1573, 25 June, Francis Clark, on Pike's resignation. He was buried here Feb. 8, 1616, Tho. Bleverhasset, Will. Dixe, and Will. Cantrell, feoffees for the Duke.
  • 1617, 25 March, Gaudy Bolton, S.T.B. Robert Bolton, this turn; he had Garboldisham.
  • 1634, 22 Dec. Robert Wotton, A.M. Anne, relict of Sir Drue Drury, Knt. and Drue Drury, her son.
  • 1661, 25 Oct. Thomas Newcome, A.M. on Wotton's death. Sir Drue Drury, Bart. united to Gnateshall.
  • 1675, 8 June, George Rayner on Newcourt's death, united to Riddlesworth: Robert Drury, Bart.
  • 1681, 30 June, Thomas Barnes, A.M. on Rayner's death. Sir Robert Drury, Bart. He was instituted to Riddlesworth the same day, and held them by union till the 19th of December following, and then he obtained a perpetual consolidation. See Ridlesworth.

The church stands alone on a hill, it is a very mean building of one isle only, and a chancel, both of which are thatched; the tower is square, having only two bells, a third being sold in 1607, to repair the church; there is not one inscription, nor any thing else remarkable, except several very ancient coffin-stones with crosses upon them, which were laid over some of the rectors, or other religious persons that were interred here. Since the consolidation, Service is performed here but once in a fortnight.

This village was always small, being but half a league long, and half a league broad, and paid but 7d. Danegeld. It belonged to the Conqueror, who committed it to Earl Godric's care; it had then one carucate in demean, and was held by a freeman in King Edward's time, and was in Kenninghall soken.

The Abbot of Bury had a part here worth 5s. in the Confessor's time, and 10s. in the Conqueror's, when it was held of him by an Englishman.

The whole town, except the Abbot's part, remained in the Crown, till King Henry II. gave it to William de Albany Earl of Arundel, before 1198, and the year following, at his death, it went to William, his son and heir, who made a feoffment of the whole, to

Warine de Gatesthorp, and his heirs, who were to hold it of him and his heirs, by the service of two knights fees, and this is the reason that all the manors here were afterwards held of Tateshale barony. Soon after this it was divided, for the Prior of Thetford had the advowson and half a fee, and John de Berdewell, and his partners had another half fee, each of which constituted a manor. Gatesthorp's whole fee was afterwards called, West Hall, or Wrotham's; the Prior's half fee, East Hall, or Garleks; and Berdewell's half fee was called Up Hall.

West Hall, or Wrotham's Manor[edit]

Was, after Warine's death, in Sir Adam de Gatesthorp, then in Galfrid de Stanton, and soon after in Adam de Wrotham; in 1346, in James his son, and in 1350, Nic. de Wrotham was lord; in 1364, James de Wrotham, and Alice his wife, owned it; in 1366, James was dead, and the manor belonged to Roger de Felbrigge, John Seckford, Knts. and others, trustees of Alice, his widow, who after married to John Cocket, who was lord. In 1398, Tho. de Redelesworth, was lord, who left it to Jeffry de Redelesworth, his son, who by will dated 1415, ordered to be buried at Gasthorp, and gave his manor there to Thomas his son, in tail, remainder to Sir William Berdewell, and Robert his son, who was executor, and inherited about 1450, Thomas Redelesworth, son of John, dying soon after without heirs, as did his two sisters, Agnes and Margaret, upon which

Robert, son of Sir William Berdewell, Knt. did homage for it to Ralf Lord Cromwell, as belonging to Tateshale barony, of which it was held by one fee,; and thus it was joined to the other manor, and hath continued so ever since.

East Hall, or Garleck's Manor[edit]

Came, some way or other, very soon from Thetford Prior (who kept the advowson to himself, and part of the demeans, valued in 1302 at a quarter of a fee) to

John de Furneaux, Will. and Roger de Maynwaryn, Hugh de Snitterton, and Nich. de Beaufeau, who were lords in 1280, being Furneaux's trustees; after this it belonged to

Jeffry Bainard, whose son Roger was lord in 1294, and lived at Wramplingham; he settled it on Will. de la Menewaryn, rector of East-Herling, who, in 1336, conveyed it to Sir Walter de Fakenham, rector of Gasthorp, together with the reversion of the dower of Marion, late wife of Jeffry Banyard, who was still living. In 1346,

Aveline, late wife of Roger le Menewaryn, was lady. In 1349,

Alice, late wife of Hugh de Bokenham, had it; and the same year Roger Baniard became lord, who was succeeded by Robert Baniard and Maud his wife, who left a daughter named Margery; she and John, son of Sir John Furneaux, Knt. and Alice Avenaunt, daughter of Rose atte Wyk of Fakenham-Parva, niece to Rob. Baniard, released all their rights to

John Garlek, of Gatesthorp, before 1361; and he, in 1381, settled it on Nic. de Whichingham and others, who in 1388 released their rights to Walter Garlek of Sporle, his son, and Adam Monk of Lerling, who conveyed it to Tho. Jenney, Knt. Henry and Edmund de Pakenham, in trust, and so it continued till about 1398, and then it was purchased of the said Walter by

Sir Will. Berdewell of West-Herling, Knt. and joined to his manor of Up Hall, both which, by will dated in 1391, he settled on Margaret his wife, and Robert his son, in tail, naming Tho. Jenney, Tho. Hemgrave, Knts. Henry and Edmund de Pakenham, his trustees.

Up Hall, or Berdewell's Manor[edit]

Was granted to John de Berdewell, who was lord in 1285; at his death Sara his wife had it; she was daughter to Sir John de Furneaux, and lady in 1290. In 1330, Thomas, her son, was lord; in 1342, Ric. Rob. and Thomas, grandsons of John and Sarah de Berdewelle, were lords. In 1348, John de Berdewelle; and in 1375, James de Wrotham had it, during the life of Alice his wife, by grant from Tho. Berdewelle. In 1399, Sir William Berdewelle, Knt. was lord, whose trustees, John Cokayn, Tho. Derham, and Ric. Alfred, in 1403, settled it on Robert, son of Sir Will. Berdewelle, and Elizabeth his wife, after the death of the said Sir William, and Margaret his wife; and in 1433, Sir William released Up Hall and Garleck's to his son Robert, in whom all the three manors became united, and have passed as West-Herling to this time; for which reason I shall refer you thither.

In the Custom Roll of West Hall Manor, made in Sir John de Gatesthorp's time, this peculiar custom is entered: That every tenant of that manor that marries out of the homage, is obliged to pay the lord a bed, bolster, sheet, and pillow; this was constantly observed, and there are abundance of entries in the rolls of such payments; but in Richard the Second's time the bed was omitted by the lord's kindness, though the rest were paid in Queen Elizabeth's time, or a composition for them. Every woman that had a bastard paid 2s. 8d. leyrwite, but the widows did not so. The dower of this manor was a third part of all free and copyhold lands, and a moiety of all lands held in soccage.

It was fine certain, and the copyhold descended to the youngest son; the tenants could not plant, nor fell timber, nor waste their copyhold-houses without license. The greatest part (if not the whole) is purchased by the present lord, so that there are but few if any tenants at this time [1736.]

In 1419, the town of Gathesthorp held a piece of pasture called the Rodys, and then the cullet that went in the lord's flock, and laid in his fold, paid as many small rents as amounted to 4s. per annum.

In 1390, Richard de Boyland's tenants in Wilby were attached to do fealty and homage to East Hall manor, and also the tenants of Wynneferthyng for the same, and for one pound of pepper annual rent, issuing out of the tenement, and 50 acres of land, which lies between the way called Bokenham Gate, and the tenement of Sir Hugh Le Vere, and abuts on Wynneferthing town, the tithes of which belong two garbs to Thetford monks, and one garb to Shelfhanger rector. This laid in Winfarthing and Shelfhanger, on the road that leads from Shelfhanger to Winfarthing. The rector of Winfarthing paid 20s. to the monks of Thetford for his portion, and Shelfhanger rector 18d.

Kempe's Manor[edit]

Was that part which belonged to Bury abbey; in 1288, Adam Kempe had it, and paid 2s. 6d. a year to that abbey; in 1289, Gilbert Kempe owned it; in 1294, Will. Kempe, who gave part of it with his daughter Lettice in marriage to Will. de Norwich; in 1297, he was dead, and he married again to Simon de la Maynwaryn of Herling, and that part fell into East Hall manor; the other part, in 1330, at Emma Kempe's death, came to John Kempe her son; and in 1341 was Will. Kempe's by which time it was so far divided and aliened, that there remained no rents.

This Norwich family was the most ancient of any that I meet with, that lived here; I have a deed without date, by which John de Norwich, who lived at Gasthorp, manumised Richard son of William Godhewe, of Herling-Parva, and all his posterity.

The Leet belongs to the hundred, the lord of which is lord paramount, and hath weyf, strey, and all other liberties, the lords of these manors not claiming any, upon the quo warantos brought for each lord to set forth his privileges. The leet fee is 12d.

Mr. Margaret Gawdie gave 20s. per annum to the poor of this parish, which is now [1736] paid by the parish of Garboldisham.

In 1603 here were 27 communicants; and now there are 9 houses, and about 60 inhabitants. It paid 38s. to the tenths, and is now [1736] assessed at about 150l. to the land tax.


== GARBOLDESHAM==[edit]

Gerbodes, or Gerbold's Town, is so called from some Saxon who was owner of it, [ham] in their language signifying a house or village; it is bounded by the Lophams and Kenninghall on the cast, by Market-Herling north, and by West-Herling and Gatesthorp west; it contained several manors, all which were united in Thomas Duke of Norfolk in King Henry the Eighth's time, and continue so to this day; the biggest manor was called Wica, afterwards Wykes, now Wicken; the common called Wicken Lyng is the only memorial now remaining of that name.

The capital manor, in the year 1045, belonged to the abbey of Ely, Wilfric, the sixth abbot of that house, being lord of it: this Abbot had a brother called Gudmund, who proposing marriage to a nobleman's daughter, was refused, because though he was of noble extraction, yet not having 40 hides of land, he could have no place among the noblemen; the Abbot to supply this, privately makes over to him these manors belonging to his abbey, sc. Gerboldesham, Marham, Lyvermere, Nachentun, Acholt, &c.; the monks reclaim them, the Abbot retires to Acholt, and there dies with grief, and is buried at Ely: Thurstan, his successour, prosecuted the claim, and came to this agreement, that Gudmund should enjoy them for life; in the mean time the Normans invaded the land, and Hugh de Montfort, a valiant Norman who came in with the Conqueror, (to whom he was sometime standard-bearer,) seized those lands, and kept them from the church.

Montfort's Manor[edit]

Had always 2 carucates of land in demean; in the Confessor's time it was worth 3l. and in the Conqueror's 6l. per annum. The whole town, with all its manors, was a league long and a league broad, and out of every 20s. Danegeld laid upon the hundred, this town paid 34d. ob. Hugh lost his life in a duel with Walcheline de Ferrers, leaving issue, Hugh his son, who by his first wife had issue, Robert and Hugh, which Robert was William Rufus's general in 1098; but favouring the title of Robert Curthose, in opposition to King Henry I. he was called in question for infidelity, whereupon being conscious of his guilt, he got leave to go to Jerusalem, and left all his possessions to the King; they both died in pilgrimage without issue.

This Hugh granted the manor to William de Francheville, whose son William, in 1179, confirmed two parts of the tithes of the demeans of his manors of Wikes or Gerbodesham, Lang ford, Bodney, and Nacheton, to the monks of Bermondesey in Surrey, , to whom the said Hugh de Montford had given them; this portion was issuing out of St. John Baptist's church, the moiety of which advowson belonged to this manor; and in 1428, the Prior was taxed for his spirituals here, at 13s. 4d. This William was called the elder, being succeeded by William his son, who in 1240 was married to Freschentia de Banham, daughter and heiress of Ralph de Banham, she being then under age, and in custody of Warine de Muntchensi, against whom Alan de Hekingham brought an action for the moiety of the moiety of the advowson of St. John's, the said William de Francheville, her husband, having presented last in her right; he recovered against Alan, by proving that it belonged to William, son of Jeffry, father of the said Ralf de Banham, as belonging to his manor, so that by this marriage he had a moiety of a moiety, another moiety belonging to him before; and in the same year the manor was charged with an annual rent charge of five marks, payable to Laurence de Boyton, and his heirs, which, in 1250, was confirmed by Ralf de Francheville, then lord, to Lauretta de Boyton, together with the manor of Langford, to be held of Ralf, and his heirs, by the service of two pair of white gloves, and one penny yearly; Ralf was succeeded by Robert his son, who sold it to

Robert de Cantilupe, who covenanted to pay 6 marks yearly out of it, to the said Robert Francheville and his heirs, so that there were now in two annuities 11 marks issuing out of it; and immediately after it was conveyed to him, he agreed with William de Banham, that he should present to St. John's one turn, in right of his manor called Escois, and the said Robert the other turn, in right of his manor, late Francheville's, which was settled accordingly by fine; and thus this advowson continued till 1280, when it was sold by Robert son of Peter de Bokenham (who had got the sole right of presentation, by purchasing the turn from this manor) to Sir Rob. de Bosco and Isolda his wife, and their heirs, from which time both the advowsons went with their manor. In this or the next year, John de Cantelupe, son of Robert, sold it to

William de Pakenham, and Joan his wife; he was afterwards knighted, and became justice itinerant; he made great purchases in this town, all which he settled on Joan his wife for life, and then on John, his fourth son; she was a widow in 1277, and at her death John de Pakenham became lord, at whose death Peter de Pakenham occurs in 1315; he was succeeded by Albred or Aubrey de Pakenham, who in 1345 paid 20s. relief for half a fee, which he then held of the Earl-Marshal; he made a feoffment of it to William Curson, to the use of Henry Pakenham, who was lord in 1380, and died in 1431, part of the manor being then held by knight's service of John Hastyngs Earl of Pembrook. In his and his father's time many of the demean lands were granted off, and certain barley rents reserved, to be paid from them; he left Henry his son, who died in 1445, half a fee being now held of the Lord Grey of Ruthyn, and William Beauchamp; this Henry, just before his death, settled it on Thomas Tuddenham and Rob. Conyers, Knts. Rob. Berdewell, Edm. Bokenham, Will. Grey, Will. Warner of Thompston, Esqrs. and John Lalle, vicar of Shropham, to the use of Rob. Pakenham of Shropham, Esq. and his wife, and their heirs, remainder to William, brother of Robert, remainder to Phillippa Mownteneye his sister, remainder to Rob. Berdewelle, Esq. and his heirs. This Rob. Pakenham inherited, and died seized of this and Verly's manor in Snetesham, and a manor in Shropham, Snitterton, and the adjacent towns, in 1463 Margaret his wife being to hold it for life, and then it was to go to Henry Pakenham, his son and heir, 30 years old at his father's death; he died seized without male issue, and in 1495 an inquisition came to enquire what lands were in the King's hands at his death, and were so still, by reason of the marriage of Anne, one of his daughters and heiresses? I cannot say how many heiresses there were; but this

Anne married to John Dobbes, or Dowbes of Garboldesham, Esq. who purchased all the parts; for in 1526 he was sole lord of Pakenham's manor; he left one only daughter,

Anne, married to Sir William Barwick, who was knighted by King James at Whitehall, May 30, 1604; he, jointly with his wife, and John Mallowes of Bury in Suffolk, Gent. Thomas Traverse, late of East-Herling, Gent. and Edw. Barwick, Gent. brother to Sir William, in 1607, sold it to

Sir John Holland of Kenninghall, and Sir Tho. Holland his son, in trust for the Earl of Arundell. The site of the manor was dilapidated, and contained 5 acres; to it belonged large demeans, divers heriots, freerents, and rents of assize, barley rents, and a fold course called Pakenham's Tripp. It appears in 1571, that John Dobbes, lord of Pakenham's manor, was dead, that he held Tasebourne's lands of 100l. per annum, and was bond and regardant (as it is expressed) to Claxton castle in Norfolk, and that Henry Jernegan, Esq. had formerly an interest in this manor. By this purchase the Norfolk family became sole lords of all the manors in this town, though they had not the advowson, and so continued till 1627, and then the Earl of Arundell and his trustees sold the demean lands of this manor, and its fold-course for 300 sheep and their followers, in Garboldisham and Kenninghall, and all the barley rents, to Framlingham Gawdy, Esq. of West-Herling, and his heirs, (the weyfs, streys, and all other royalties, together with all the freerents and wastes being particularly excepted, to the Earl and his heirs;) and in 1629, the said Earl sold the manor of Pakenham Hall, (Up Hall, Wigen Hall, and Bokenham's being included in it) to

Sir Drue Drury of Ridlesworth, who kept his first court immediately after the conveyance, the said Earl charging it with the whole sum of 10l. a year rent charge, which now issued out of this and the other manors that were joined to it, and obliged Sir Drue to give security to Framlingham Gawdy, Esq. to indemnify him and his heirs against any claim that should be made for any part of the 10l. out of the said demeans, fold-course, or barley rents, which were conveyed to the said Framlingham. After Sir Drue's death it went to Sir Drue his son, then to Sir Robert Drury, Bart. who left it to his wife, the present Lady Drury, who is now owner of it [1736]

The Leet belongs to the hundred, the leet fee is 5s. the castle-ward was 12d. every seven weeks. In 1609, the rents of assize of all the manors were 22l. 8s. 3q. It extended into North Lopham, Gasthorp, Shropham, and Norton.

The barley rents being sold to Framlingham Gawdy, as aforesaid, he in 1629 sold off 40 combs, 3 bushels, 2 pecks and an half, to Rich. Peade of Bury St. Edmund's, Gent. Tho. Warren of Great Thurlow, and John Warren, Gent. of Garboldesham, his son and heir, which issued out of divers lands formerly held by the Cootes, Barwicks, Tillots, &c. the rest of them being recovered by decree in Chancery, (some of the tenants refusing to pay them), continued in the Gawdys, till Sir Bassingbourne Gawdy, the last of that name, or his executors, sold them to Rob. Haylet of Garboldisham, Gent. who hath lately sold every one their part; the whole sum at first was 51 quarters 6 bushels and an half issuing out of the demean lands of Wigen Halls, Bokenham's, and Pakenham's manors, which laid dispersedly among the tenants lands; for which reason the lords demised them to such as kept ploughs, for maintenance of their tilth, some at two bushels an acre, and some at three, some at more and some at less, according to the goodness of the land.

The rent charge of 10l. a year issued out of the manors of Pakenham's and Wigenhale's; in 1288, John de Wigenhale acknowledged that he ought to pay 5 marks 2s. 2d. per annum out of his manor to Nicholas Weyland, of whom he held it at the third part of two fees; and it appears, that the said Nicholas had the other annuities issuing out of Pakenham's manor, settled upon him; for in 1290, he was seized of 10l. rent issuing out of the manors of Garboldesham, which he settled upon Robert his son, from which time it hath passed continually with the manor of Oxboro, from the Weylands to the Tudenhams, and from them to the Bedingfields, Sir Henry Bedingfield of Oxboro being now [1736] possessed of it.

The next manor was called

Bois's, alias Up Hall[edit]

And was held by Aluric, a freeman, in the time of the Confessor, but was seized by the Conqueror into his own hands, and by him committed to Earl Godric's care: this is the only part that in Domesday is called Gerboldesham; it had two carucates in demean, was valued in the first survey at 30s. and in the second at 40s.

It was granted from the Crown to

Hugh Bygod Earl of Norfolk, and passed from that family along with Fersfield, to William du Bois, Knt. from which time it went exactly as Fersfield did, to which I refer you.

To this manor the advowson of Garboldesham All-Saints wholly belonged; and in 1280, St. John's advowson was joined to it, being purchased by Sir Robert de Bosco, and Isolda his wife, as is before observed, both which continued with it till 1533, when the manor came by exchange, to the Duke of Norfolk; (the advowsons being excepted;) it was always held of the Norfolk family at one fee, its relief being 40s.; and in 1246, Sir Rob. du Bois, then lord, had these privileges allowed him to this manor, viz. a weekly market every Wednesday, a yearly fair for three days, viz. on the vigil, the day, and day after, St. Luke the Evangelist, a pillory, a tumbrel or cuckingstool, with liberty of free-warren, it being obliged to do suit to the hundred court, or pay 2s. a year.

The manors of Wigen Hall and Bokenham's were both joined to this before 1386, for then the style of the court was, Up Hall, Wigen Hall, and Bokenham's in Garboldesham, and thus they continued till 1607, and then were joined to Pakenham's, the Earl of Arundell becoming lord of the whole; and so it remained till 1627, when he sold Up Hall, Wigen Hall, and Pakenham's demeans, with the sites of all those manors, their barley rents, their fold-courses for 350 ewes with their followers, with all the pastures and shackages belonging to that course in Garboldesham, (all royalties, weyfs, strays, and money rents being excepted, all which the Earl still kept whole and undivided till he sold them, in 1629, to Sir Drue Drury of Ridelsworth,) to Fram. Gawdy, Esq. in which family they continued till 1666, Sept. 14, and then Sir Will. Gawdy of West-Herling, settled all his estate on Mary his only daughter, to raise 2500l. for her fortune, and made Fram. Gawdy, Esq. her uncle, executor, who sold the Garboldesham lands to Wentworth Garneys, Esq. of Boyland Hall in Morning-Thorp, the heirs of whose family at this day enjoy it [1736.]

Wigen Halls Manor[edit]

At the survey, belonged to Bishop Osbern, and had two carucates in demean; it was valued at 20s. in the Confessor's, but was risen to 50s. at the Conqueror's time, when it was in in Kenninghall soken.

This afterwards belonged to the Bygods, by whom it was granted to the Heveninghams, of which family it was always held by the third part of a fee, of Totham-Parva manor in Essex, as parcel of the barony of Tolshunt, of the honour of Hakenet, the relief being 8s. 4d.

In King Richard the First's time, John de Gerpenville was lord; at his death John de Jarpenville his son had it; he it was that confirmed the grant made by his father John, to John, son of Robert de Garbaudisham, and his heirs, as appears under Garboldesham's free-tenement; in 1239, Maud his mother being then a widow, for an annuity of 7 marks a year, released unto the said John the third part of a messuage, 160 acres of land, and 9 marks rent, which she held in dower of his inheritance; and the same year she impleaded Adam de Wygenkale for her dower, in divers lands which he had of her husband's gift; in 1249, Roger de Charpenvill was the King's ward, by reason of his land here, whose wardship the King granted to Robert de Cantilupe, who married him. How it came to the Wygenhales I do not find, though imagine it must be from the Weylands, for John de Wygenhale held it of Sir Nic. Weyland, by the service of a rent charge of 5 marks a year, payable to him and his heirs, for which Sir Nic. Weyland distrained Henry de Clerbek, to whom John de Wygenhale had granted the third part of a third part of this fee, to be held of the said John, by the service of 5 marks, 2s. 2d. a year, and doing foreign service: but upon John's satisfying Sir Nicholas, Henry was discharged. In 1304, Agnes de Wygenhall had it, and settled it on Reginald her son. In 1345, another Agnes de Wygenhale had it, after which it soon fell into Bois's manor.

ESCOIS and BOKENHAM'S MANORS belonged to William de Warren Earl of Surrey, in the Conqueror's time, and had two carucates in demean, then worth 40s. it being given him by the Conqueror, as one carucate, the whole of which was then in Kenninghall soken; after he had it, it was annexed to the castle of Lewes; this was afterwards divided into two manors.

Escois Manor[edit]

Which was the first part, was held of the Munchensies, by the family sirnamed de Banham; the Munchensies had it of the Bygods, they of the Escoises, and they of the Earl Warren. In 1235, William de Banham held two fees here and in Banham, of Warin de Munchensi, of those fees which he had of Roger Bygod; and soon after Ralph de Banham had them, whose only daughter Freschentia, in 1240, was married to William de Francheville, lord of Pakenham's manor, to which this part was then joined, as was the moiety of the moiety of St. John's advowson, which belonged to it, as you may see under that manor, though the Banham family still continued to have a free tenement and many rents here, which was granted by this William, out of the fortune that Freschentia brought him; for which see Banham's tenement.

Bokenham's Manor[edit]

Was the second part, and was given by Roger Bygod Earl of Norfolk, with Adeliza his daughter, to

Aubrey de Vere, second Earl of Oxford, of whose family it was held at half a fee, and the eighth part of a fee; a part was after held of Tateshale's barony, and another small part of Munchensie's: Alan was first infeoffed, who left Elias, who had three sons, Alan, William, and Robert, who all died without issue, and Emma, a daughter, who married Ralph de Chadesgrave; she and her husband brought an action against Stephen de Gissing, whom Peter de Bukenham had called to warrant the manor to him, (which then consisted of a messuage, 100 acres of land, 19 acres of meadow, 8 of marsh, and 22s. rent in Garboldesham, and the moiety of the moiety of St. John's advowson,) upon which, Stephen comes and warrants it to the said Peter, by proving that Alan, grandfather of the said Emma, who now claims it, granted it to Simon de Blakeney, who gave it to Henry de Neketon, who left it to Henry de Neketon, his son, who granted it to Tho. de Peytenia, and he to Stephen de Gyssyng, who granted it to Sir Peter de Bukenham, and that all had released their rights in it, upon which Emma's suit was dismissed. In 1277, Peter de Bukenham was lord; he left Robert his son, to whom, in 1284, the said Ralf de Chaddesgrave and Emme his wife released all their right, by a fine then levied; and in 1286 he had weyf allowed to this manor, and the moiety of St. John's, the whole advowson of which he sold in 1280 to Sir Robert de Bosco, having purchased the parts that belonged to Pakenham's and Escois manors; in the same year, Peter son of Robert de Bukenham had it, who died before 1345, for then it was Robert de Bukenham's, and the year following was settled by Aubrey de Pakenham, and William son of Rich de Boyland his trustees, on himself and Catherine his wife for life, with the reversion of the third part, which Cecily, widow of Peter de Bukenham, held in dower, remainder to John, their son, remainder to Peter, their other son, who inherited. About 1378, Robert de Bokenham was lord, and Leonard de Bokenham in 1380, in whose time it was joined to Bois's manor; for in the feodaries in 1402, we find, that the lady Margaret Howard held the third part of a fee, which Leonard Bokenham held; but though this family parted from the manor, their descendants continued to have a good estate here, and some small freerents belonging to it. In 1454, Rob. Bokenham of Garboldesham died intestate, and Sir Tho. Bokenham, chaplain, administered; in 1476, Sir Ralph Bokenham of Garboldesham, Jantylman, desired in his will to be buried in St. Peter's church of Much Livermere.

Churche's Manor, or Free Tenement[edit]

Took its name from its owners, who were so called from living near the church of this town; at the survey it was part of Muntfort's or Pakenham's manor, and so continued till it was granted from it by the Francheviles to

Hugh at the Churche of Garbaudesham, who is the first that I meet with of this family; but there being no date to the deed, I cannot ascertain the time; in 1290 it belonged to Gilbert at the Cherche, from whom it went to Jeffry, and from him to John atte Cherche, senior, and from him to John his son, who was lord in 1429, as the rental, in my own custody, shews me; he was succeeded by William atte Cherche about 1432, from which time I meet with no more of it till 1540, and then Richard Lothewyk had it; but the rents were now sold off, the rental being only 5s. 9d. per annum. I meet with no more of it afterwards, so that it shews as if those rents were either sold off, or the lands purchased to the tenement, one of which was generally the end of these small manors. The parish of St. John's held 3 roods of land at Hobbyn's Mill, near St. John's rectory-house, late Margery Wright's, by the freerent of 2d. a year, and the town of Garboldesham held a messuage, called the Camping-Lond, late Will. Flower's, after, Robert Heed's, by the freerent of 6d. a year.

Gerbaudesham's Free Tenement[edit]

Had its rise in Richard the First's time, it being till then part of Wygen Hall's manor, which John de Jarpenville, lord thereof, granted to Robert de Gerbaudesham, for his homage and service, and 8s. 6d. a year rent, and 4d. 3q. a year ward money to Dover castle, and 12d. 3q. scutage, out of every 20s. that should be laid upon Jarpenvile's manor of Garboldesham, and one suit of court at Easter, and another at Michaelmas, together with all his right in a fourth part of all that land which Alwyn de Garbaudesham had of the gift of Will. de Francheville, senior, and all the land of Robert the priest of Garboldesham, which the said Robert had of the same William, viz. 31 acres of land, and liberty of a fold belonging to it; and in consideration of this grant, the said John, son of Robert de Garboldesham, was to marry Maud, daughter of Thomas, son of Will. de Ravenyngham: witnesses to the grant were, William, son of Galfrid, William his son, William de Francheville, Robert, son of Tho. de Ravenyngham, Alexander, son of Will. de Ravenyngham, Walter and Humfry, his brothers, William, son of Roger of Garboldesham, and Thomas his son, Will. Curpel, Hugh, son of David, Galfrid, son of Hervy, Thomas, son of Gilbert Persen of Garboldesham, and Alan de Hekyngham, who lived in 1240, which may shew something towards the date of the deed, though there is none in it. This family was very numerous; those that I meet with I shall here add, though I do not imagine that all of them were lords of this tenement.

Alexander de Gerbaudesham, lord; Gilbert, son of Alexander, was lord; 1270, Hugh, son of David of Gerboldesham; 1290, Rich. son of Jeffry, William, son of Gilbert of Gerboldesham; 1318, John, son of William of Gerboldesham; 1345, Henry, son of Jeffry of Gerboldesham.

From this family it passed to the Monks, another numerous family in this town, so named from Alan Le-Moyne, or the monk, who had lands here very early, as several deeds without date shew me. In 1290, William, son of John Le-Monk of Garboldesham, had a messuage and 10 acres settled on him, after the death of John, son of Rich. Le-Monk, and of Jeffry and Robert, sons of John, if they had no heirs. In 1327,

John Le-Monk had this tenement, which he then held with the 10 acres aforesaid, by the service of the hundredth part of a fee, and 2s. per annum to the ward of Dover castle, and also 45 acres and two messuages, which he held of Peter de Banham at 2s. rent. In 1328,

Richard Le-Monck, his son, had it released to him by Alice, widow of John Le-Monk, his father, John and William, his brothers, being witnesses, and at this time William de Banham released all his right to him, in all his possessions in Gerboldesham, so that now he had both Gerboldesham's and Banham's free tenements; but how they went after I do not find, though the family continued somewhat longer in the town, Richard, son of Will. Monck, and Agnes his wife, John and Robert Monck, and Alice, late wife of Richard, son of Alan Monck, lived here in 1332.

Banham's Free Tenement[edit]

Had its rise out of Escois manor, since 1240, and consisted of several lands and rents of that manor, granted by William de Francheville to the Banham family, after he had married Freschentia, the heiress of Ralph de Banham; and in this family it continued till 1328, when Will. de Banham released it to Rich. le Monck, Robert de Banham, his father, having sold or mortgaged it before to John le Monck, father of Richard, by which release it fell into Monk's tenement, as before observed. Of

Hopton's Tenement[edit]

I know but little, only find it often named in evidences, and that Adam de Hopton, lord of it in 1268, was diseized by John le Diklegh, of his common of pasture in Blow-Norton, which belonged to his free tenement in Garboldesham.

The Customs of the Manor are these: the copyhold descends to the eldest son; the fine is at the lord's will; the tenants can fell timber on the copyhold, plant, and cut down on the waste without license; it gives no dower; it hath liberty of free-warren, weyf, strey, and all other privileges, except the leet, return of writs, office of coroner, clerk of the market, and assize of bread and ale, all which were excepted, when it was sold to Sir Drue Drury, who after his purchase sold off his part of the demeans, and settled the rent charge of 10l. per annum upon that part, from which it is now paid by the owner of Up Hall in Garboldesham, who hath the demeans of the several manors, except those of Bokenham's manor, which belong to Sir Edmund Bacon of Garboldesham, Bart.

The Rectory Manor[edit]

Belonged to the rectors of St. John's, who were always lords of it. The Customs are the same as the great manor.

The Advowson of All-Saints wholly belonged to Bois's or Up Hall manor, and that of St. John's was purchased to it in 1280, by Sir Robert de Bois and Isolda his wife, as is before observed under that manor, from which time they both passed with it, till 1533, and then being parted, went as Fersfield advowson did, till 1632, and then that advowson, or rather moiety of both advowsons, that belonged to Sir Thomas Cornwaleis, Knt. came to Sir William Withipoll, Knt.; and in 1637, Lucy Withipoll, and Tho. Cleer, presented by his grant; at his death it went to Elizabeth Withipoll, his heiress, who married Leicester Devereux Viscount Hereford, he was succeeded by Leicester his son and heir, who died in 1682, and was succeeded by Edward Devereux, who died issueless in 1700, leaving Anne his sister his sole heir; she married Leicester Martin, Esq. of Christ Church in Ipswich, who sold it to the Honourable Sir Edmund Bacon of Garboldesham, Bart. the present [1736] patron.

The other advowson, or moiety of both the advowsons, belonged to the Wingfields, and passed as Fersfield, from the Wingfields to the Earl of Rochford, the Right Honourable Frederick Earl of Rochford being now [1736] patron.

The religious concerned here were, the Prior of Thetford, the Prior of Bermondeseye, and the Prior of Camps, to whom Robert Ashfield aliened lands in 1391; and in 1381, John Plais and others aliened lands and tenements here, of 40l. value, to the chantry at Ravenyngham.

There were several ancient good families inhabiting in this town, besides those already mentioned; one was sirnamed Atte Stone of Garboldesham, another De-Ponte, or Atte Brigge, another Le-Wodeward, which family hath continued to this time. The Taseburghs had a good estate here, of which John Taseburgh, Gent. was owner in 1540.

The names of the streets in 1413 were; Wykyn-street, Nethergatestreet, and Churche-gate-street; and there is a way much spoken of called the Palmer's-way; I suppose it is that which leads from Gatesthorp-gate, by which the pilgrims used to pass in pilgrimage to our Lady at Walsingham; there is also a large ditch, commonly called, Little Devil's Ditch, which runs from Gatesthorp moor to Herling moor, and, is said to have been an ancient intrenchment; but by the proper name, I take it to have been made to divide Gerboldesham from its neighbouring parishes, as it still does, it being called the Boundary.

After the Dissolution, divers small pieces of land settled to superstitious uses, as for obits, lamps, &c. were granted to the following persons:

One acre and an half in the tenure of Robert Rockett, given to find an obit and light in the church, to John Parrel, Knt. to be held of East Greenwich manor, by the twentieth part of a fee.

Other lands were given to the Duke of Norfolk, others to Edw. Fines, Knt. Lord Clinton, to be held of the honour of Hampton Court by fealty only; others to Wymark, and Clere; and others in AllSaints parish, to Grey and his heirs.

The Church of St. John Baptist is a good building, having the nave, two isles, with the chapels at their east ends, north vestry, and north porch, leaded, its chancel thatched, a tall square tower, and six bells; the church, isles, and chancel are ancient, but the tower and north porch are not so, being built about 1500, as is evident from the name of William Pece, who was then a chaplain in this church, and chief benefactor to the work; for on the front of the porch is this inscription, now partly filled up with mortar:

Orate pro Anima Willi. Pece, Capellani.

And round its bottom this,

Christe, Sancte Johannes Baptista, Zarharie, Elizabeth, Johannes.

On the tower are the names of several other benefactors.

There is only one brass plate left which is thus inscribed:

Here lyeth buried the Bodie of John Carlton, late while he lyved of Garboldesham, Mercer, who had to his Wyfe Elizabeth, t of her fower Sonnes, and nyne Daughters, which John died the third of April, in the Yere of our Lord God, 1579.

Post tenebras Spero Luccm.

In the east chancel window were these arms, And three knights kneeling, one in a surcoat of Howard, another of Scales, and another of Bardolph, which being remarkable I shall here exhibit it to your view, it being lately destroyed, with many other arms and antiquities, when the windows were repaired.

In the windows of the north isle were these arms,

In a south chancel window, Scales's arms with an escalop for a crest; Howard and Scales impaled; Howard with a label of three, arg.

In the windows of the isles, Brotherton, Howard, and Plais.

Howard impaling, per pale indented or and gul. a bordure of the second bezanté.

Felbrigge impaling Scales.

Or, a dove vert, quartering gul. an annulet or.

The Boises arms are in many windows. At the east end of the north isle is a chapel, which belonged to that family, in which there was an officiating chaplain for the dead, and probably another in the opposite chapel, in the south isle; the names of some of them that served here, and in Bois's chapel in All-Saint's church follow, as I extracted them out of evidences of lands in this town. Sir Adam Davy; 1365, Sir John Bryan; 1385, Sir Tho. Ashley; 1408, Sir John Walsyngham; 1414, Sir Rich. Bolle in All-Saints, and Sir Peter de Griston in St. John's; 1429, Sir Tho. James; 1473, William Levy; 1500, Sir William Pece; 1505, Rob. Woodward; 1540, John James and Will. Curson; 1553, Tho. Dawes; 1554, Sir Tho. Bokenham.

In the vestry, under the east window, was an old altar standing, over which, on the wall, I saw a rude painting of the Last Judgment.

Towards the west end of the churchyard, are two altar tombs thus inscribed:

In Memoriam Johannis Williamson, Gen. hic Lapis positus est, obijt secundo die Martij, 1690, Anno Ætatis suæ, 32.

vigilate et orate.

Hic jacet Maria filia Johannis Williamson, Gen. Virgo vere pia et Pura, amicis chara, omnibus benigna, desideratissima, objit 22do. die Augusti, 1697, Anno Ætatis suæ 22do. Pauperum inopiam, in Garboldisham, Lophamque septentrionali, et Waldingfield parva viventium, redditu sublevavit, moriens enim Trecentas ipsis Libras legavit in perpetuum.

Lector! abito, et tu fac similiter. Luc. cap. 10, ver. 37.

The site of the rectory-house joined to the east end of this churchyard, till the present incumbent built a new one, near a quarter of a mile north-east of the church.

All-Saints Church stands north of St. John's about half a furlong, or somewhat more, and was officiated in till the death of Mr. Vilet in 1726, from which time service was left off by degrees; and upon a petition of the patrons, incumbent, and parishioners, in 1734, license was obtained of the Bishop to suffer it to dilapidate, upon which the roof of the nave was unthatched, and that of the north isle unleaded, and both were taken down, the font and seats pulled up, the five bells were taken down, all which, with the other materials, (except the least bell, which was carried to St. John's,) were sold, and the money applied to repair and beautify St John's church. The bodies of the Bacon's buried in the chancel were taken up and carried to a vault belonging to that family in Redgrave church, and the marbles that laid over them were removed and placed in the vestry of St. John's church, where they now lie. The windows both of the nave and isle were chiefly painted glass, and very well done, but were all broken to pieces; the roof of the nave was board, painted all over with the names of Jesus and Mary, and this in the midst:

Betwer syn yis and ye Rode Loff, Ye Yongling han payd for yis cost. Yat Lord yat deyid for alle Mankynde babe merry upon bem at her Ende.

by which it appears, that it was done at the charge of the parishioners, soon after 1450, and that John de Vere Earl of Oxford, who was then patron, would not assist them, for he must be the youngling here meant; and indeed it seems as if he designed to have had this church (when he consolidated it to St. John's) fall down, it being then much in decay, as is plain from the great repairs then done to it, the parishioners not consenting to it, but on the contrary, shewed their dislike by these verses, which it will not be amiss to render into more modern language:

Between this place and the rood loft, The youngling han't paid for this cost, That lord that died for all mankind, Have mercy upon them at their end.

The roof of the chancel also at that time was repaired; and because it should not be too burthensome to the rector, many pious people contributed, as is apparent from these two verses still remaining on it:

Alle alle hevir holpe to yis good deed God send byer Sowle helpe to hyer mede.

All, all, [that] ever helped to this good deed, God send their soul help for their meed.

The cancelli or lattices between the church and chancel were erected about the same time, being neatly carved and adorned with the images of St. Mary Magdalen, St. German, St. Agnes, and others, and were made at the expense of William Bole, and Catherine his wife, as this painting intimated:

Pray for the Welfare of Wylliam Bole, and Kateryn his Wyffe.

The windows also were new glazed, all of painted glass, and adorned, some of them with the twelve Apostles, others with saints and confessors, others with the arms of the benefactors at whose cost they were put up, and others with their effigies kneeling, by which it appeared, that some were made at one person's cost only, others by three or four that joined, and in most of them were the donors names, all which were decayed except these in the north isle windows:

Orate pro Anfma Recardi de Brom, qui istam operam Geri fecit Anima Walteri de Brom, hanc fenestram

Their effigies remained.

On a south window,

ffer nos alme tuis, Celestia Regna Redemptis.

In another, Lucy's arms gul. crusuly three luces, or pikes, hauriant ar. impaling gul. a fess and label of three ar.

Chequy, or and sab. a fess ar.

At the east end of the isle was a chapel, which hath laid in ruins many years; it was founded (as I take it) by Thomas de Bosco, rector of this church, for his own interment, the initial letters of whose name still remain carved in stone on its buttress; the entrance out of the isle was by a large cross arch.

There is a good square tower at the west end, built much about that time, and as tradition hath it, in this manner, the foundation was laid by a tailor, continued by a woolcomber, and finished by the parish: now I do not pretend to aver its truth, but mention it, because, agreeable thereto, I find a stone fixed in the building, about 10 feet from the ground, on which is cut a large pair of tailor's sheers, and on another about 10 feet higher, is a wool comb.

On one of the bells this was to be read:

Sancta Maria ora pro nobis.

The church is almost whole as to its walls; the roofs still remain on the chancel and south porch, though great part of the thatch is gone; the doors are taken off; the grave-stones still lie in their places, some of which had brasses formerly on them, but they were lost long before the church was ruinated.

On two black marbles that were in the chancel, but now removed to St. John's as aforesaid,

Bacon, impaling a fess wavy between three de-lises.

Under this Marble is buried the Body of Sir Robert Bacon, Bart. who departed this Life on the 31st of June, in the Year of our Lord 1704.

Here lyeth interred the Body of Mrs. Jane Bacon, the Eldest Daughter of Sir Robert Bacon, and Dame Elizabeth his Wife, (that was buried at Wighton in this County) who died on the 14 Day of October, in the Year of our Lord 1705.

This joined to the south side of the former, and hath Bacon's arms in a lozenge.

Sir William Barwick, who died after 1607, is said to be buried here, but I am not certain of it.

In 1506, John atte Cherche of Garboldesham was buried in the churchyard of All-Hallows there, and gave 8 marks for an obit for a year, and 40s. for a pilgrim to go to St. James in Gales, in the next year of grace; and to a pilgrim to St. Thomas of Canterbury 3s. 4d. and to a pilgrim to St. Mildred 12d. and to a pilgrim going to St. Walstone's 6d.

The Honourable Sir Edmund Bacon, Premier Baronet of all England, Knight of the Shire for Norfolk, hath a seat in this parish, at which he mostly resides, of whose family I shall speak at large under Riburgh, where he is lord.

Rectors of All-Saints[edit]

  • 1805, Will. de Bosco, or Bois, resigned it for great Conerth in Suffolk.
  • 1313, kal. Dec. William Yngreth de Debenham, to All-Saints rectory. Christian de Mose, formerly wife of Sir Robert du Bois, Knt. patroness of this turn.
  • 1330, kal. Dec. Tho. du Bois, accolite. Sir Robert du Bois, Knt.
  • 1333, 11 kal. Oct. Tho. de Sudbury, priest. Ditto.
  • 1351, 8 June, John Conyng, priest, to Garboldesham-Parva. John de Ufford, Knt.
  • 1375, 29 Oct. Tho. Howard, priest. The noble William de Ufford Earl of Suffolk, Sir John de Tuddenham, Knt. John Marlere, clerk, Edmund Gurnay, and Richard de Walton, patrons. (Feoffees.)
  • 1392, 1 March, Nicolas de Beverly, a shaveling. John Marlere, clerk, by virtue of a feoffment made by Sir Robert Howard, Knt. deceased.
  • 1394, 3 Dec. Rich. Bolle of Garboldesham, priest. John de Thorp, John de Felbrigge, and Will. Cobbe.
  • 1429, Thomas Erl, priest, on Bolle's death. Sir John Howard, Knt.
  • 1433, 18 Aug. John Taylifer, priest, on Erl's resignation. Ditto. This John Taylifer died rector in 1450, and John de Vere Earl of Oxford, Lord Bulbec, Samford and Scales, Chamberlain and Admiral of England, and Mr. John Halle, rector of St. John's, petitioned for a consolidation, setting forth, "That the churches were so near, that they might be conveniently served by one rector, and that both when joined would maintain a rector, but were not sufficient to do so single: and besides the tithes were so mixed that they caused disputes on all sides, and the clergy so thin by reason of the great plague, that it was difficult to procure a clerk, upon which it was agreed, that a consolidation should pass upon the following terms, viz.

"That the church of St. John Baptist be henceforward the principal and mother church, for all sacraments, for all the parishioners, and that the rectors shall be obliged to keep up only the rectoryhouse of St. John's, but should be strictly forced to keep up both the chancels, and by himself, or a stipendiary curate, have service performed duly every week in All-Saints church." This was transacted in the collegiate church of the Virgin Mary in the Fields, at Norwich, Feb. 25, 1450, by John Wygenhale, doctor of the decrees, commissary, and vicar-general.

And in the same year, the feasts of the dedications of these two churches were altered; that of St. John's used to be kept the day before the feast of St. Lucia the Virgin, (Dec. 12,) and that of AllSaints on the feast of St. Peter's chair, (Jan. 18,) but were now to be kept both on one day, viz. on the day of the dedication of Norwich cathedral.

Rectors of St. John's[edit]

Robert, the priest of Garboldesham.

  • 1314, 11 kal. June, Robert de Bernham, priest. The Lady Christian de Mose, wife of Sir Rob. du Bois, Knt. by virtue of a fine levied in the King's court.
  • 1356, 28 Dec. Walter Pekke, priest. Sir John de Ufford, Knt.
  • 1383, 23 Aug. Sir John Marlere, priest. Sir Rob. Howard, Knt.
  • 1394, 6 Nov. Master John Gryme of Tyryngton, priest. Master John De Thorp, John De Felbrigge, and Will. Cobbe, for this turn.
  • 1415, 7 Sept. Will. Elys de Caston, priest. Margaret, late wife of Sir Robert Howard, Knt.
  • 1430, 25 Octob. Henry Brown, bachelor in the decrees. Sir John Howard, Knt.
  • 1447, 20 March, John Halle, on Brown's death. John De Vere, Earl of Oxford, lord of Garboldesham.

In 1450, he became rector of All-Saints, it being then consolidated to St. John's.

  • 1478, 12 August, Edmund Albon, doctor of physick, and of all the liberal arts, was instituted to the church of Garboldesham, St. John Baptist, together with the church of All-Saints annexed; presented by Tho. Drental, clerk, patron of this turn, on the resignation of John Halle, who was incapacitated by old age, to whom the Bishop assigned a pension of 10l. a year, out of the living, during his life.
  • 1485, 3 Octob. Rich. Chauntry to St. John and All-Saints, on Albon's resignation. John De Vere Earl of Oxford.
  • 1500, 13 Febr. Will. Cooke, doctor of laws, on Chauntry's death. Ditto.
  • 1522, John Cokke, rector here and of Bildeston, Suffolk, died this year; and in
  • 1522, May 22, Master Robert Fabian, alias Clerke, was instituted to Garboldesham-Utraque, at the presentation of Elizabeth Countess of Oxford.
  • 1533, 16 Febr. Mr. John Scotte, B.D. Mary, Oxenford, widow.
  • 1539, Tho. Thompson, domestick chaplain to John Duke of Norfolk, presented by the Duke, patron of this turn, by grant of it from Antony Wyngfield, Knt. true patron: in 1544, he had Hasketon also, which he held with this.
  • 1557, 21 May, Rob. Dixon, priest. Rob. Wingfield, Knt.
  • 1575, 7 Oct. Simon Facis, clerk. Elizabeth Naunton, widow, true pationess.
  • 1579, 15 July, Rob, Grafton, A.M. Queen Elizabeth.
  • 1589, 6 Aug. Rich. Brook, D.D. on Grafton's death, Will. Cornwaleis of London, Esq. and Lucy his wife, one of the daughters and coheirs of the noble John Lord Latimer, deceased.
  • 1609, 3 May, Gawdy Bolton, A.M. Robert Bolton, Gent. assignee of Antony Wingfield, who is patron of this turn; he had Gatesthorp also.
  • 1634, 14 Nov. Antony Gawdy, A.M. on Bolton's death. Mathias Mann, clerk, by grant of this turn.
  • 1637, 24 May, Will. Geast, the Bishop's chaplain. Lucy Withipoll, and Tho. Cleer, who had the grant of this turn, from Will. Withipoll, Knt. true patron of it.
  • George Debden came in the rebellion, and died in 1663.
  • 1663, 10 Febr. Theophilus Hook, A.M. The Earl of Hereford, patron of this turn.
  • 1689, 6 April, Charles Wells, A.M. on Hook's resignation. Peter Parham, Dr. of physick, by grant of the turn from Edward Earl of Hereford. "On Thursday, Oct. 8, 1691, at noon, Charles Wells, clerk, A.M. late of Jesus Coll. in Cambridge, afterwards principal register to Anthony Bishop of Norwich, died at Garboldesham, where he was rector, deservedly lamented by his numerous acquaintance, which his merits had acquired, in the 31st year of his age, and was buried in the chancel of the lesser church at Garboldesham, (sc. All-Saints,) in the place which he had chose in his life time."
  • 1691, 27 Nov. Tho. Vilet, Edward Viscount Hereford; he was buried in St. John's.
  • 1726, 31 May, The Rev. Henry Stebbing was institured on Vilet's death, at the presentation of Sir Edmund Bacon of Garboldesham, Bart. He is the present [1736] incumbent, being D.D. arch-deacon of Wilts, chaplain in ordinary to his Majesty, rector of Rickinghall Inferior in Suffolk, preacher to the honourable Society of Grey's-Inn, lecturer of Bow church, Cheapside, London; author of the book entitled Polemical Tracts, in folio, and of several other ingenious pieces.

This rectory is in Norfolk archdeaconry, and Rockland deanery, and is still charged with first fruits and tenths.

  • 1412, John Chaloner of this town ordered his feoffees to sell all his estate here, and with it to fulfil his will, which was, that a pilgrim travel to Rome for the good of his soul, and of Joan his first wife's soul, and to have a Gregorie's trental for their souls; Cecily his wife to have a part for life, and then to be sold for the good of his wives' and his friends' souls, and to pay 40d. to some pilgrim going to St. James (sc. at Compostella in Spain) for the same purpose.
  • 1422, Peter de Gryston, clerk, was buried in St. John's churchyard, before the north door; he ordered 200 masses to be said for his soul; he was chaplain in this church.
  • 1530, Susan Dibney of Garboldesham buried in St. John's church, by her husband; John Taseburg and Will. Bolton were her sons-in-law, and John Curson, clerk, was her son, and executor.
  • 1531, May 1, W. Keye of Garboldesham was buried in St. John's churchyard; he gave "To the hye auter iijs. iiijd. Item, to the leddinge of St. John Baptist's cherche, whane they begyne to remove the leede, xiijs. iiijd. Item, to the gyldyng of the new candil bem in the chirche of All-Seynts, vjs. iiijd. Item, to our Ladyes fryrys in Norwich, to be prayed for, half a trental, vs. Item, to the fryres at Babwell, iijs. iiijd. Item, to eche hows of frires in Thetford, to be prayed for iijs. iiijd. Item, to the nunys in the same town ijs. Item, to an abil preest to synge divine service for my sowle, and the sowles of all my good frendes, by the space of an hoole yere in St. John Baptist's cherche, viij marks, that is to say, half a year after my discesse, and thensforth every yere, a quarter, till the seid hoole yere be complete. Item, I gif half an acr of lond lying in Lopham furlong, to find yerely evermore, v. Gawdyes brennyng before our Lady, in the chancel of St. John Baptist; at every antiphon of our Lady, and at every feste of our Lady, at maesse of the same feste, evermore: howbeit, I will that whosoever shall hold my place and londes, shall have the occupacon of the said lond, and the keepyng of the said v. Gawdyes, and they onys to be renewed in every yere. Item, I will have my Obit day kept yerely after my decesse, for v. yeres, at which obit, I will my executors brewe ij combe of malte, and bake v. bushell of whete, and [buy] chese to the value of iijs. Item, I give half an acre at Medeltred-Hegge, half an acre and half an rood at Copydthorn; j. acre j. rood at Dyche's-End, half an acre in Botonys, j. acre and half at Stanyell, j. acre at Nethir-Red-Hegge, the whiche londs I have, and hold, at the bequest of Sir Will. Pece, preest, to give to a brothir of the ordir of preachers in Thetford, to sey a sermon yerely evermore, on Tuesday in Estern week, and to synge messe of requiem in the churche of St. John of Garboldesham; and to the parson and his depute, which is, and shall be for the time, to say dirige iiijd. Item, I gif iij rodes of medewe, j. rod by the lond of Will. Curson, preest, and j. rod and half by the lond of the Countess of Oxforth, est, and iiij roods, and half and acre, for the entent to have always on Monday in Eastern week, aforesaid, vj bushels of malte brewed, and iij bushels of whete baken, and ijs. in chese, to the releef and comfort of the parishioners of Garbelsham, there being at dirige on the said Monday, to pray for my sowle, and the sowles of all my good frends, and to the fryer iiijd. to remember me in his messe." He gave his capital tenement to Alice his wife for life, then to be sold, and the money to find a prest to sing a quarter in each year, till eight quarters be ended, and the rest to repair and buy ornaments for St. John's church, his wife and John Woodward being executors; Leonard Rychardson, and Will. Curson, preests, witnesses. Proved at Attelburgh, May 19, 1533. These lands still are in the hands of the parish.

Here is a town-house purchased with Mrs. Williamson's money, inhabited by three or four poor families. The town lands are let at about 22l. per annum, and lie in Lopham, Norton, and Garbotdesham.

This town paid to the old tenths 7l. 6s. 8d. and is now assessed at 978l. 9s. There are about 80 dwelling-houses, and 400 inhabitants [1736.]


RIDLESWORTH[edit]

Is a rectory, to which Gatesthorp is consolidated, and is discharged of first fruits and tenths, both being sworn of the value of

It is in Norfolk archdeaconry, and Rockland deanery, and hath a rectory-house, and 29 acres, three roods of glebe.

Norwich Domesday says, Sir John Bacon was patron, and that there was a house and 28 acres of land.

The temporals of Thetford monks here, were taxed at x.s.

Rectors[edit]

  • 1330, 16 kal. Dec. Nic. de Sparkeford, priest. Tho. Le Archer, rector of Elmsete, and Richard his brother.
  • 1337, 8 non. June, Robert de Stanebrigg, priest. Agnes, widow of Roger le Archer, and Roger her son.
  • 1344, 14 Sept. Tho. Archer of Floketon, shaveling. Roger Archer of Floketon.
  • 1350, 4 Jan. Roger Pylleburgh, on Archer's resignation. Ditto.
  • 1375, 10 Dec. Will. Gilbert, priest. Alexandrina Le Archer.
  • 1384, 21 April, Stephen Mundegome, priest, on Gilbert's resignation. John Rose, Knt.
  • 1384, 3 July, Rob. Skynnere, priest, on Mundegome's resignation. John Roose, Knt.
  • 1387, 23 Octob. Hen. Green, priest, on Skynner's resignation. Ditto.
  • 1393, 12 July, Greene changed with Will. Baxtere for Letterdeston, in Wales: he was buried here in 1419. Beatrix, relict of John Roose, Knt.
  • 1419, 9 Feb. Rob. North de Coneveston, priest. Christ. Straunge, Esq.
  • 1424, 12 March, John Gibelot de Kelshale, priest. Tho. Erpingham, Knt. Oliver Groos, Esq. Will. Ellys, clerk, John Walsham, John Clere, Rogyr Rushbrook, and Adam Nobbe, feoffees.
  • 1428, 20 Nov. Rich. Chichele, priest, on Gibelot's resignation. Christ. Straunge, Esq.
  • 1434, 15 March, Tho. Cole, priest. Ditto.
  • John Hunt, priest, on whose death in
  • 1463, 2 May, Nic. Scott succeeded; Tho. Sankevyle, or Sackvile.
  • 1494, Richolas Bryan, rector, died.
  • 1494, 2 March, Robert Haldysworth, A.M. Tho. Rokes, Esq.
  • 1495, 18 Sept. Rich. Haldysworth, accolite, on Robert's resignation. Ditto. He died rector.
  • 1510, 29 Nov. Rob. Helperby. Sir Rob. Drury, by grant from Tho. Rooks, Esq.
  • 1511, Will. Ward, rector.
  • 1515, John Foldser, rector.
  • Rich. Wright, rector, on whose death in
  • 1540, 14 Febr. Leonard Dent, chaplain, was instituted. Rob. Drury, Esq.
  • 1557, 5 July, Tho. Pyke, priest, on Dent's death. Rob. Drury, Knt.
  • 1573, 3 March, Rich. Twyn, on Pike's death. Ditto.
  • 1579, 27 Febr. Tho. Poynter, alias Winter, on Twyn's resignation.

Sir Drue Drury, Knt.

  • 1601, 18 Jan. Henry Michell, S.T.B. on Winter's resignation.
  • Ditto. In 1605, he held Redgrave with it.
  • 1608, 22 Dec. John Pain presented by the Crown, the church being then full of Henry Mihell, or Michell, upon whom a citation was served to shew by what authority he held it; Febr. 8, Pain was instituted, by lapse to the King: Mihell having voided it.
  • 1632, 24 Oct. Edm. Draper, A.M. on Pain's death. The relict of Drue Drury, Knt.
  • Jeremiah Stevens, at whose death in
  • 1661, George Reyner was instituted. Rob. Drury, Bart.
  • 1662, George Reyner, A.M. The King by lapse.
  • 1681, 30 June, Tho. Barnes A.M. on Reyner's death. Rob. Drury, Bart. it was first united to Gasthorp, to which it was consolidated the 19th of Dec. following. He is buried in the chancel.
  • 1713, 3 Nov. The Rev. Mr. James Whaley, A.M. the present [1736] rector, on Barnes's death. Bassingbourn Gawdy, Bart. for this turn; it was then united to Gnateshall, but now he holds it united to West-Herling: the Lady Drury, relict of Sir Robert, is now patroness.

This town is called in Domesday, Redelefuuorda, that is, the [ford], or village abounding with reeds; it belonged to Orgar, a freeman at the Confessor's survey, and to Humfry, son of Alberic, at the Conqueror's, who had only this in the county; it always had a carucate in demean, and was half a league long and as much broad, and paid xi.d. ob. geld.

This afterwards became the lordship of Ralf Peverell, of whose honour of Peverell it was held, at the fourth part of a fee. In 1255,

Jeffry Tregoz held this manor of the King, at a quarter of a fee, of whom

Peter de Mealings, or Melding, of Burston, held it by that service; this Peter, in 1249, had settled it by fine on

Henry de Bathonia, justice itinerant, and Philip de Flegg released his right to him. Aliva de Bathonia, relict of Henry, died in 1273, leaving it to John, her son and heir. Nic. de Yatingdon was her second husband. In 1276, this John was summoned to attend King Edward I. in his expedition against the Welsh; in 1290, he held it of Remigius de Melding, and John de Bathun was his son and heir, who married Eleanor, daughter and coheir of Jeffry de Auncell, and dying this year, left only Joan, their daughter and heiress, 28 years old, married to John de Bohun, or Boon, it being settled in trust, at their marriage, on Humfry de Bohun, who released it to John de Bohun, at John de Bathonia's death. In 1279, it was held of Simon de Furneaux, as of his manor of Midle-Herling, who held it of Rob. de Montealt, and he of Remigius de Melding; at John de Bohun's death, Joan his widow, had it for life; she died in in 1316, and left John de Boon, her son and heir. In 1330,

Tho. le-Archer, rector of Elmsete, and Richard his brother, were lords; and this year they settled it by fine on Roger le-Archer of Floketon, and Agnes his wife, and Roger their son, with remainders to Thomas and Agnes, their brother and sister; I suppose Agnes the mother was heiress to John de Bohun. In 1341,

Roger, son of Roger le-Archer, married Alexandrina, daughter of William De-la-Mote, Knt. and settled this manor on her for life.

In 1345, he is said to hold it of Tregoz, and he of the King, it being the quarter of a fee, formerly Humfry de Boon's. In 1375, Alexandrina aforesaid, then a widow, had it, who was dead before 1384, for then

John Roos, Knt. presented, and had it, as I imagine, in right of Beatrice his wife, the heiress of Roger le-Archer, who presented in 1393, being then a widow; at her death their two daughters inherited,

Anne, married to Tho. Sakevyle, and

Cecilia, to Christopher L'Estrange, Esq. on whom it was settled by fine, for their lives, remainder to Tho. Sakevyle, and Anne his wife, and their heirs, it being now held of Tho. Rokes, Esq. who held it of John Duke of Bedford, as parcel of Richmond honour.

Tho. Rookes, son of the said Thomas, became lord and patron about 1456, whether in right of Elizabeth his wife, or no, I cannot say, and so continued to 1515, and then sold it, and levied a fine to Sir William Waldegrave and Sir Philip Calthorp, Knts. From which families it came to the

Drurys, who took their name from a village in Normandy, whence their ancestor came with William the Conqueror, and had no other name than that of Drury; his son, John Drury, Esq. settled at Thurston in the county of Suffolk, at which place John, his son, Henry, his grandson, and John, his great-grandson, lived many years: Henry Drury of Thurston, Esq. son of the last John, had two wives; by Hawise Greene of Barkway, his first wife, he had three sons, the two youngest of which, viz. Nigell was sheriff of London, and Sir Roger was parson of Bradfield in Suffolk; John Drury, of Thurston, Esq. the eldest son and heir, married Amable, daughter of Tho. Newton, by whom he had Sir Roger Drury, parson of Beketon, and Nicholas Drury of Thurston, Esq. his eldest son and heir, who married Joan, daughter and heir of Sir Simon Saxham, of Thurston aforesaid, by whom he had three sons; Sir Roger Drury, of Rougham in Suffolk, Knt. was his eldest son; he and his descendants bore the paternal coat, as it had hitherto been always born, without a cross tau, but with a label of three points, as the cognizance of the eldest branch; John Drury, the third son, bore the same arms, with his proper difference; Nicholas Drury of Saxham, the second son, went to the Holy Land, at which time he added the cross tau to his arms, which he ever after bore, as did all his descendants; he married Joan Heath of Mildenhall, by whom he had two sons, Henry Drury of Ickworth, Esq. his eldest son, and Roger Drury of Hausted in Suffolk, his second son, who had three wives; by Amy, his first wife, he had no issue; Anne, his third wife, was daughter and coheir of William Hanningfield of Suffolk; and by Felice, daughter of William Denston of Besthorp in Norfolk, he had three sons and one daughter, viz. John, his eldest son, Will. Drury of Besthorp, his second son, from whom descended the Drurys of Besthorp, (as may be seen at large under Besthorp,) Catharine, married to Sir Henry L'Estrange of Hunstanton, and Sir Robert Drury of Halsted, or Hausted Knt. Privy-counsellor to King Henry VII.; his third son, who married Anne, eldest daughter of Sir William Calthorp, Knt. from whom the Drurys of Ridlesworth are descended, as the following pedigree will demonstrate.

The Customs are these: the eldest son is heir; the fine is at the lord's will. This manor is become very small, the whole town being purchased in, so that there are not above 4 or 5 acres held by copy of court roll of it.

The Leet belongs to the hundred, the leet fee being 2s. and all liberties belong to the leet, the lords of this manor never claiming any, it not being once named in the returns to the quo warrantos. The manor pays a rent of 7s. per annum to the Duke of Norfolk, as to his hundred of Gyltcross: there was a rent of 1d. a year paid to the lord of Midle-Herling manor, of which it is held, by the said payment and suit of court, for which Tho. Sakvyle, lord of Ridlesworth, in 1472, was distrained, as was Sir Drue Drury, Knt. in 1589, and again in 1598, when he had two horses seized for this and other rents, for lands that he held in Ridlesworth.

Here are three houses, and about 30 inhabitants. It paid 3l. 6s. 8d. to the tenths, and is now assessed at 170l. to the land tax [1736.]

The family sirnamed De Redelesworth, is very ancient, and had a good estate here, and in Gatesthorp, where they were sometime lords; they bore for their coat armour, vert, a bull passant or. Crest, a boar's head cooped sab. an oaken branch in its mouth proper, the acorns or.

In the Hall there are several family pictures, some of which are much injured, and a curious old painting on board, containing ten persons, each having his arms, or a cipher over his head, and an inscription at his feet.

1. Johnannes de Lacy, Constable of Chester, and first founder of St. Bennet's abbey, at Stanlowe [in Cheshire.]

2. Roger de Lacy, Constable of Chester, the second founder of that abbey; his arms are, quarterly, or and gul. a bend sab. in chief a label of five az.

3. John de Lacy Earl of Lincoln, the third founder; arms, az. three garbs or.

4. Edmund de Lacy Earl of Lincoln, the fourth founder, az. a lion rampant or.

5. Henry de Lacy Earl of Lincoln, the fifth founder, who translated or removed the religious of this abbey to Whaley in Lancashire; or, a lion rampant gul.

6. St. Thomas Earl of Lancaster, son-in-law and heir of Henry de Lacy; D'Angleterre, lambel de Fraunce.

7. Henry Grismond Earl of Lancaster, brother and heir of St. Thomas; same arms.

8. Henry the first Duke of Lancaster, son and heir of Henry Earl of Lancaster; same arms.

9. John of Gaunt second Duke of Lancaster, brother-in-law and heir of Henry Duke of Lancaster; gul. a castle or, (he being King of Castile,) quartering or, a lion ramp. az.

10. Henry IV. third Duke of Lancaster, and King of England; arms of England.

James Earl of Desmond, anno 1600. Mr. Henrye Birde, preacher, anno 1583, Ætat. 66. Spero sed non Spiro.

Mr. Tho. Aldersey, gul. on a bend ingrailed arg. three leopards faces between two cinquefoils or, a crescent for difference, anno 1588, Æt. 66.

Sir Rob. Drurye, Knighte. Rob. Drurye, Esq.; Drue Drurye, Ao 1556, Æt. 24, Droit et devaunt.

Sir William Drurye, Lord Cheefe Justice of Irelande, by whom hangs an old plan of Edinburgh castle, and two armies before it, round which is this: "Sir William Drurye, Knt. General of the Englishe wanne Edenburghe-Castle, 1573." On the picture is this, "Sir William Drurye, Knt. Marshall of Barwicke, Lord Generall of this Jorny, and after Lord President of Munster, and lastly died Lord Justice of Irland, Ao 1579." The crest and arms of Drury without the tau, with fourteen coats, all which are imperfect.

The arms of the following persons are also most of them imperfect, but their names remain, all which were with the Lord General at the siege;

Mr. Henry Killigray, ambassadour; Killegrew's arms; Sir Geo. Carie, Knt. Sir Tho. Cecill, eldest sonne to the Lord Burly; Sir Francis Trusbill, Knt.; Sir Henry Lee, Knt.; Mr. Michael Carie; Mr. Henry Carie; Mr. Will. Knowles, after Knight; Mr. Dieyr; Mr. Cotton; Mr. Tho. Sutton; Mr. Kelwaye; Sir William Selbye; Mr. Tilney; Sir William Killegray.

Anne Drury, 1597, Æt. 12. Frances Drury, 1597, Æt. 11.

Sir Walter Mildmay, Knt. Æt. 52, 153-- Virtute non Vi. Sir Francis Russell, Sir Robert Bell, Lord Chief Baron, Æt. 41. Lady St. John, 1599. Lady Catharine Countess of Huntington. A picture of one of the Jermyn family on which, crest, a talbot passant collared or, on a torce ar. and sab.

Jermyn, sab. a crescent between two mullets in pale ar.

Rushbrook, sab. a fess between three roses or.

Heveningham, with a crescent sab. for difference.

Jervill, pally of six, az. and or.

Gissing, as in p. 174.

Redsham, ar. semi fleurs-de-lis gul.

Reppes, erm. three chevrons sab.

Burgoine, az. a talbot passant, ar.

Botesham, gul. three birdbolts in fess reverted ar. Motto, Nec ab Oriente nec ab Occidente.

Frances Countess of Hartford, 1596. Edward Earl of Harteforde, 1580.

Peregrine Lord Willughby of Ersebye. John Lord St. John of Bletsoe.

Mr. George Alyngton, En Dieu est Tout. Crest, on a talbot passant erm. a crescent gul.

Allington, sab. a bend ingrailed between six billets ar. impaling Le Neve.

A man writing these words: De Governoure veut Gracia.

Ao 1601, Æt. 24, and these imperfect verses:

Sardanapalus ait, pereunt mortalia cuncta, Ut crepitu — — podice disiliens Quæ pereunt — fugiuntque similima Fumo: Aurea quam — Nil nisi fumus erunt, At mens culta viro, post Funera clarior Extat — vana volat.

An Archbishop of Canterbury with this motto, Vincit qui patitur, Æt. 68.

Catherine Lady Drury. Sir Drue Drury, Knt. Æt. 68, 1599. Droyt et Devaunt.

Sir Drue Drury, that built the house, his wife on one side, a lady, daughter of Lovell, on the other side; his arms on the house are,

Drury, with the tau, quartering Finch, ar. a chevron between three griffins passant sab. and Waldegrave, with a mullet sab. impaling Derham, quartering Gul. a chevron vair sab. and arg. between three crowns of the second.

The Church is dedicated to St. Peter; it hath a square tower and one bell; the nave and south porch are thatched, the chancel tiled. In 1474, Thomas Nelde of this town held three acres freehold of Midle-Herling manor, to the use of this parish, to repair the church for ever.

In the chancel, against the south wall, is an altar tomb of black and white marble, on which is this inscription:

Memoriæ Sacræ ROBERTI DRURY, BARONETTI, Filij DRUGONIS DRURY, BAROJNETTI, antiquâ Prosapiâ oriundi, multis Retro Sæculis præclarâ Ingenij Dotibus ornati Politiore Literaturâ imbuti, Tres Duxit uxores, Tertia fuit DIANA, Filia GEORGIJ VILET, de Pinkney-Hall in Comimitatu Norfolciæ Armigeri, Quæ Pietate verâ, et Amore conjugali, hoc Monumentum posuit, obijt Vegessimo Septimo Die Aprilis, Anno Domini 1712, Ætatis suæ 78°.

Crest, a grayhound currant; Drury impaling Vilet,

On two flat marbles at the altar,

Drury's arms and crest, as before impaling Harsnet.

Here lyeth the Body of Dame ELINOR DRURY, 2d Daughter of Sam: Harsnet of Great Fransham in Norfolk, Esq; the Relict of Will: Marsham of Stratton-Strawley, Gent. the second Wife of Sir Robert Drury of Ridlesworth in the County of Norff. Bart, who was unfortunately kill'd in the fatal Hurricane, Nov. the 27th in the Year of our Lord, 1703.

Fisher's arms in a lozenge, viz. gul. on a chief erm. a dolphin embowed or.

In Memory of the pious and virtuous Mrs. MARY FISHER, whose Soul took her Flight to Heaven in the furious Hurricane, on Nov. the 27th 1703: This Monument of Respect is dedicated, by her true and faithfull Lover ANTHONY DRURY, of Mendham in Norfolk, Gent:

Lower down in the chancel lies a marble, for

THOMAS BARNES, late Minister of this Parish, who died Oct. 29, 1713, aged 74. "He was a Person of a just, loyal, charitable, friendly, and quiet Disposition, for which, by his Life Time, he was universally beloved, and at his Death equally lamented."

In the east chancel window,

Crest, on a torce or and gul. a demi talbot arg. Gul. two lions passant arg. quartering

Gul. a cross moline arg. the lions surmounted with a bend or, charged with three annulets sab.

There is a hatchment with the arms of

Drury quartering

Harsnet, az. two bars dancette erm. between six croslets or, and Marsham, arg. crusuly fitche sab. a lion passant gul. between two bendlets az. each charged with three croslets or.

Against the north chancel wall is a fine monument for Sir Drue Drury, whose effigies is in armour in a kneeling posture, under a canopy supported by two angels; a book lies on a desk before him; the monument being adorned with the following arms.

Drury's crest, a grayhound currant arg. collared or, and Drury and his quarterings, viz.

1. Arg. a chief indented, and six croslets fitche, 3, 2, 1, az.

2. Sab. six cinquefoils arg. 3, 2, 1, pierced of the field.

3. Chequy arg. and gul. on a fess az. three round buckles or.

4. Arg. a chevron gul. between three caps of maintenance az.

A coat of pretence of Finch, with a crescent or.

Drury impales Calthorp and Waldegrave with a mullet.

Wingfield.

Deane, sab. a fess erm. between three white roses.

Botler, gul. a fess chequy arg. and sab. between six croslets sab. These three last impaling Drury.

Condignæ Famæ & Memoriæ sacrum, nobilis et illustris Viri DRUGONIS DRURY, Militis, Filij tertij, Roberti Drury de Egerly in Comitatu Buckingham, Filij secundi Roberti Drury de Hasted in Comitatu Suffolke, Militum, Reginæ ELIZABETHÆ a primo Regni Anno, solius Silentiarij, Deinde JACOBO Regi nostro, & Anno 1596, Præsidis Turris Londinensis, (Annos nonaginta Novem, summa cum Laude, et Integritate complevit) bis Conjugio connexi, primo Dominæ Elizœ: Woodhouse Filiæ Phillippi Culthorp, Militis, secundo, Katharinœ Finch Filiæ & Hæredi Gulielmi Finch de Linsted in Com: Cant: Ar: per secundam uxorem relictæ, DRUGO DRURY, unicus Filius ejus, Uxorem duxit Annam Ætate primam, et unam ex Cohæredibus Edwardi Waldgrave de Lawford in Comitatu Essex, Armig: Elizabetha prima ejus Filia, nupta fuit venerabili Thomœ Wingefield Militi, de Leveringham in Comitatu Suffolke, Anna Filia secunda, Johanni Deane de Deane Aula Comitat: Essex prædicto, et Francesca Filia tertia, Roberto Botler de Woodhall in Comitat: Hertford: Militibus, ipse DRUGO DRURY Miles præclarus, singulari Integritate, Pietate, Virtute, (et nulli in Terris inferior) Charitate, præcipue præcellens, apud Riddlesworth in Comitatu Norfolke, 29 Aprilis 1617, Mortem [obijt.]

On an altar tomb against the north wall,

Reponuntur hic Reliquiæ, DRUGONIS DRURII, primi hujus Familiæ Baronetti, Filij et Hæredis DRUGONIS DRURII Equitis Aurati, qui post 24cr Connubij sui cum Anna Waldegrave prædilecta sua Uxore evolutos soles, Triplici (ex octo Natis) tenera et in Minoritate, multæ tamen plena Spei superstite sobole, Drugone, Gulielmo, & Catherina, in 44to Perigrinationis suæ Anno, ex hac Miseriarum Eremo, 1632, in Cœlestem migravit Patriam, multiplici quin & Candida, Mundo Amicisque valde lugentibus, relicta fama, magnæ suæ erga Deum veramque Religionem Pietatis, assiduæ et laboriosæ pro Republica Curæ, ac integerrimæ versus Amicos, interiores præsertim ac vicinos, Fidelitatis.

There is a hatchment over the north church door, with this coat:

Atwood, gul. a lion ramp. arg. in an orle of acorns or.

EX FUNERE VITA.

Hic jacet RICARDUS ATTWOOD, A. M. Vir doctus, beneficus, pius, in Rebus ludicris egregie lepidus fuit et Elegans in Serijs perspicax valde et acutus. Totum fere Tempus optimarum Literarum Studijs, Horas vere succisivas, sæpiuscule Pisciculis captandis absumpsit, Ita in Negotio laudandus erat maxime, in Otio minime culpandus, Aulœ Pembrochianœ socius fuit senior, Academiæ Cantabrigiensis Bedellus Armiger, Utriusque Grande Decus et Ornamentum; Febre correptus vehementi, non sine ingenti omnium, quibus familiariter usus est, luctu, sedaté placideque extremum Halitum in hoc Pago efflavit, Maij 3, 1734, Ætatis 56.

Juxta humatur Frater ejus GULIELMUS ATTWOOD, Mercator Indiæ Occidentalis, Qui Terra Marique, Multa passus, in Tuto jam a Malis requiescit, obijt Oct: 17, 1730, Ætatis 57.

Et prope Jacent quoque, RICARDUS, GULIELMI, Filius, qui obijt Apr: 1, 1723, et MARIA Filia, quæ ob: Sept: 19, 1727.


RUSHWORTH[edit]

Or the place abounding with rushes, (for so I take the name to signify,) was, in King Edward's days, one league and a half long, and one mile broad, and paid 11d. 0b. geld; at the survey the abbey of Ely had a carucate of land then worth 20s. but was sunk to 8s. value at the second, when it was held by John, nephew of Waleram; and after, of the Earl of Glocester, at a quarter of a fee, by the heirs of Bartholomew de Beamont, who in some records (by mistake) is called Breamysson; but in Henry the Third's time, this part was in Nicholas de Gonvyle, whose son and heir John de Gonvile in King Edward the First's reign, paid x.s. relief for it to the Earl of Gloucester, from which time it continued in that family, joined to the head manor, till the foundation of the college, on which it was settled; and when the head manor came to the college, was joined to it again, and so hath continued ever since. This part was some time called Boldam's manor, and seems to lie on Suffolk side, except a part of it, which was in Shadwell.

At the first survey one Uluric had 60 acres here, which he held of the abbey, all which he forfeited to the Conqueror by not paying 8l. that he had forfeited to that King, who gave it to John, nephew of Waleram aforesaid, from whom it came to Roger Bigot, who gave it to the monks of Thetford, together with Gunner of Ridlesworth and his land, when he founded that monastery. Of

The Capital Manor[edit]

Bundo was the first lord that I meet with, and then Ulketel; afterwards it came to the Earls Warren, from them to the Bardolphs, who held it by the service of half a fee of the castle at Acre; from the Bardolphs it came to the Lerlings, and was held by them, by the same service, as belonging to the Bardolphs honour of Wormegay.

Maud de Lerling, the heir general of the family, (but whose daughter she was I do not find,) married William de Gonvile, and carried the estate to that family.

In 1470, this lady procured license for the master and fellows to receive 40 marks per annum, in mortmain, upon which she and her trustees, Sir John Hevenyngham and Sir William Calthorp, Knts. William Berdewell, jun. Esq. and Hen. Spilman, settled her manors of Rushworth and Lerling, then valued at 20l. a year, in part of the said sum of 40 marks, and thenceforward they continued in the college till its dissolution, and then passed with it to the Earl of Surrey, as you will see in the account of the college.

There was another manor or capital messuage, consisting of 200 acres of land, 8 acres of meadow, 26s. rent, a fold-course and separate fishery, in this town, and in Brettenham, Bridgeham, and Thetford, held at half a fee of the honour of Clare, by William de Brettenham, and John de Brokedish, in 1297, and by Rob. Baygnard and others, in 1333, and by William de Brettenham, Simon Fitz, and Rich. Baygnard, in 1398. In 1411, the 8th of May, King Henry IV. licensed Hugh Stoppusly to grant the whole in mortmain, to the Prior of the monks at Thetford, on condition that the King should be paid 50s. every vacancy.

In 1459, it was held of Robert Baygnard, who held it of Anne, wife of Edmund Earl of March, as of Clare honour; it went with that house, at its dissolution, to the Norfolks, and at the Duke's attainder, fell to the Crown. In 1591, Queen Elizabeth granted to William Tipper, and Rob. Dawe, and their heirs, all the manor, fishery, lands, faldages, &c. in Rushworth, Thetford, and Gatesthorp, in Norfolk and Suffolk, which late belonged to the monks at Thetford, to be held by the rent of 2s. per annum, of her manor of East Greenwich, in socage, and not in capite; and soon after it was joined to Rushworth manor, with which it now remains.

As to the separate fishery belonging to it, that laid in Schadewell, (which is a hamlet to Rushworth,) and extended from Schadewell Mill, to Berdewell's Mill, in Herling-Thorp, on the south side of the river, and had liberty of a boat, and a pool, or wear; towards the latter end of the twelfth century, Philip de Schadewell, who lived by the river, owned it; in 1362, Adam de Schadewell conveyed it to William de Rothyng, parson of West-Herling, Hen. de Rothyng, and Cecily his wife, and their heirs, by the name of East-Fen Fishery; they were to hold it in as free a manner as John de Schadewell his father held it; and at the same time Agnes, widow of Philip de Schadewell, released her right in it; in 1399, James de Brettenham had it, and sold it to Tho. Gardiner, clerk, and in 1411, it was conveyed to Thetford priory, as aforesaid.

In 1252, the Abbot of Waltham in Essex had lands here, and in Scarning and Geyst, in all which he had free-warren allowed him, for which he paid a rent of 12d. a year to Gonvile's manor.

Rushworth was a rectory, and so continued till Sir Edmund Gonevyle, or Gonvile, who was both patron and rector, founded a college for a custos, or master, and five chaplains, who were brethren, or fellows, and were to elect their master, and present him at Lerling, to the founder's heirs, who, if they were there, were to present him to the Bishop, and not otherwise, after which he was to be installed, by mandate to the archdeacon. Upon this foundation the church was appropriated to the college, and no vicar endowed, because the ure of the parish was wholly laid upon the master; and each of them paid 8 marks first firuits at their installation; at the Dissolution it was granted to be held in the same manner, as the master held it, so that it hath been served ever since by a stipendiary curate, nominated by the impropriator, who, in 1603, is returned in the Answers of the Parsons, to receive 15l. a year of the proprietary for his stipend, Tho. Wolf, clerk, being then curate, there being then 66 communicants in the parish, and now [1736] there are 7 or 8 houses, and about 60 inhabitants.

The church of St. John the Evangelist had a chapel, dedicated to our Lady, on its north side, which is now down.

Rectors and Masters of the College[edit]

  • 1301, 10 kal. Feb. John de Bukenham was presented.
  • 1303, prid. kal. July, Edmund de Lerling, accolite. Matild or Maud de Lerling.
  • 1320, prid. id. Mar. Will. de Calthorp, accolite. Sir Nicholas de Gunevyle, Knt.
  • 1326, 5 id. Octob Sir Edmund de Gunevyle, priest, on Calthorp's resignation, who exchanged this for Thelvetham. Nicholas Gonvile, Knt. patron. This Sir Edmund, while he was rector, perfected his foundation, which he is said to have designed as a seminary for Gonvite Hall in Cambridge; he was the last rector, and had quitted this church before Jan. 20, 1342, for then he was instituted into Tyrington, John Powl, chaplain, being his proxy, at the presentation of Simon Bishop of Ely, where he died rector in 1350, having nominated
  • John Godwyk, first Master of this College, who resigned in 1349, 18 Nov. and Nicholas de Wrotham, priest, fellow of the college of St. John the Evangelist, was elected by the fellows, and presented by Sir Edmund de Gonvile, priest, their patron and founder, and installed accordingly. He resigned, and in
  • 1351, 17 Nov. Hugh Herbert, chaplain and fellow, was elected master, and presented by Sir John de Gonvile, parson of EastHerling, and Edmund his brother, who were patrons. He was succeeded by
  • Tho. de Watton, who resigned, and in 1364, 2 May, Tho. Heyward (or Howard) of Rickinghall, late fellow, was elected with the consent of Edmund Gonvile, their patron. He resigned, and in
  • 1371, 21 Jan. Sir Tho. Le-Mey was elected by the Fellows, who had no presentation, the Gonviles being not resident at Lerling: the fellows' election was returned to the Bishop, and the mandate made out upon it; at every admission the master was sworn by the Bishop to observe the statutes, to alienate nothing, to make no new feoffments, not to mortgage nor pawn any thing belonging to the college, whether moveable or immoveable, without the consent of every member.
  • 1374, 19 July, Rob. de Asshele, priest, fellow there, elected on Le-Mey's resignation.
  • 1376, 10 Octob. Rob. de Wrotham, fellow, elected master.
  • 1381, Rob. Carter of Asshele, chaplain and fellow, elected master.
  • 1385, 25 June, Alexander Thelyk, priest, late fellow, obtained license from Pope Gregory XII. dated June 3, 1409, that one benefice more with cure of souls, might be appropriated to the mastership, and that he might hold it with the mastership; but if any master holds a benefice with his mastership, before one be appropriated to it, he shall not receive his stipend of 50s. per annum, over and above the benefit of the church of Rushworth, as he usually did before this license. The petition to obtain this sets forth; that the college was founded by Sir Edmund Gunvyle, late rector, the rectory being turned into a collegiate church, for a custos, or master, and five brethren chaplains, to pray for him, his ancestors, successours, and benefactors, which master was to have the cure of souls, and the benefit of the church there, and that he designed to endow it much better, but died in the meantime. The Bishop consented to this license, and in 1414, this Alexander was presented to the rectory of Lerling by the fellows, and held it with his mastership to his death; yet notwithstanding the Pope's bull, and the King's license upon it, they could never get their rectory of Lerling appropriated to them, as they designed.
  • 1421, Edmund Cooper elected.
  • 1436, 16 July, Tho. Sigo, fellow, elected on Cooper's resignation, by Tho. Halyday and Rob. Fen, fellows.
  • 1443, 13 July, Rob. Crask, chaplain.
  • 1443, 27 Sept. Crask resigned, John Wurlych, priest, elected.
  • 1444, 29 April, he resigned, and Edmund Coupere, bachelor of the decrees of St. John's College, Cambridge, was elected, (the same man, I take it, that resigned in 1436.)
  • 1446, 9 June, Ralph Beauford, on Coupere's resignation.
  • 1450, at Beauford's death, Lawrence Gerard, priest, elected.

These last five, were elected by Tho. Halyday, J. Kaye, and John Barker, chaplains and fellows.

  • 1472, 27 Feb. Gerard resigned, and Hen. Costesey was chosen. Will. Halday and John Maynard, fellows. This Costesey, Cosse, or Cossa, was also rector of Banham and Wilby, of all which he died possessed in
  • 1483, in which year, Aug. 18, John Bulman, priest, was elected, by Halyday, Maynard, and John Kellyng, fellows.
  • 1488, Bulman resigned, and they elected John Bandys, A. M.
  • 1508, John Brenneys (or Bandys) died, and
  • John Purpett, fellow, was chosen master.
  • 1526, 22 Aug. the Bishop collated Edward Anson, priest, to a fellowship, it having been void above six months.
  • 1529, 17 July, George Windham, A. M. archdeacon of Norwich, was elected master, at Purpett's resignation, who was the last master, it being dissolved in his time; he continued archdeacon till 1543.

The site of this college, with all its revenues thereto belonging, sc. the impropriation, college manor in Rushworth, Lerling manor and advowson, and a manor in Elden in Suffolk, were granted to the Earl of Surrey, to be held in capite by Knight's service. In 1545, Henry Earl of Surrey, by the King's license, aliened a manor in Elveden, and two manors in Rushworth, one in Suffolk, and the other in Norfolk, together with the site of the college, and the impropriate rectory, with the other revenues of that college, in Fakenham, Thetford, Weston, and Schadewell, to Thomas Duke of Norfolk, by whose attainder they fell again to the Crown, where they continued till King Edward VI. in 1550, granted Rushworth manors and rectory to Sir John Cheke, Knt. and his heirs, who, in 1552, let them for 20 years to George Alyngton of Stoke by Clare in Suffolk, Gent. who had married his sister. In 1557, Sir Rich. Fulmerston, had the manor late the college's: in 1570, the Earl of Surrey had the manor late Fulmerston's; in 1600, the rectory and site of the college, &c. was granted to Lord Howard of Walden, who had license, in 1601, to sell it to Rob. Buxton, on whom the whole was settled by fine, and at this time it continues in his family, Rob. Buxton, Esq. being now owner of both the manors and impropriation (of whose family I shall treat under Tibbenham.)

There are a rank of ten or eleven tumuli, or mounts of earth, in the field between Rushford, Euston, Barnham, and Thetford, where (I verily believe) was fought that dreadful battle between King Edmund and the Danes, in the year 871.

This indeed seems very true, for in the Abbreviation of the Life of King Edmund, in Register Curteys, fol. 211, we find this account: In the 15th year of King Edmund's reign, the Danes came again to East England, to revenge themselves further of the King at which time they burnt the monasteries of Croiland, Thorney, Peterburgh, Ramsey, Seham, and Ely, with most of the religious in them, and from thence passed through the country from west to north, seizing and spoiling all they could, Ubba staying to guard their spoils, and what they had taken, at or near Ely: Ingwar with his army entered East England, and went to a city of King Edmund's, called Theodford, where he encamped, and entered soon after, and burnt it, killing old and young, and ravishing both virgins and matrons; King Edmund, who was then at Eglesden, received a message from Ingwar, that if he would renounce Christianity, and worship his idols, then they would divide the treasure with him, together with his kingdom; as soon as King Edmund received this message, he marched with his army against the enemies, and engaged not far off from Theodford, where they fought sharply from morning until evening, a great number being slain on both sides, for which King Edmund was much grieved, as well for the pagans deaths, as for those martyrs of his army, who died there in defence of their Faith; on the morrow the Danes departed, and the King, with what remained of his army, returned to Eglesdune, resolving never more to fight against the pagans, but if it was necessary, to yield up himself a sacrifice for the people, and for the Faith of Christ. Ingwar, much vexed for the loss of his men, went again to Theodford, where Ubba came to him with 10,000 men, and joining forces, went to Eglesdune, and there martyred the King, in the year of our lord 871, of his age 29, and of his reign 15.

At this time, without doubt, was that large mount and ramparts, called Thetford Hill, raised by the Danes, in which they encamped; for its being round is a plain demonstration it is a Danish work, raised to that height, in all appearance, to command the opposite hill, on which King Edmund's army then lay, on the extremity of which, some of these tumuli are placed. The most remarkable one is called Tut Hill, under these the bodies of the slain were buried, it being usual, in those days, to heap the slain upon the earth, and raise hills over the heaps, that being more likely to continue their memory, than interring them in a pit or grave level with the earth's surface; and usually where any commander or great men were laid, they raised the hill over them to a larger size than ordinary, which might be the reason of this hill's being bigger than the rest.

The College revenues at its dissolution were valued at 85l. 15s. It had a manor, and the impropriate rectory, and 102 acres of land in Rushworth, a manor in Elveden, and Lerling advowson, and other tenements of their founder's gift, who built them a college, on the south side of the churchyard, with a dormitory, refectory, chapel, and other convenient offices, part of which are still standing, and others are in ruins. About 1392, the master obtained license in mortmain, for Peter Frost, Robert Aishele, Tho. Smetheson, and Rob. Fullere, to settle a messuage and a carucate of land, 60 acres of pasture, 4s. rent, and the rent of a pound of cinnamon, on his college; and at the same time Roger Cornwayle, Adam Foxle, and Tho. Bray, were licensed to settle two messuages, a carucate of land, 60 acres of pasture, and 4s. rent in Elveden, aforesaid, and the said Peter and Will. de Shelton, and Tho. Balle, settled a toft in Rushworth on the college, and Peter and Tho. Fullere, 3 tofts and 24 acres of land there; Rob. Wortham, John Benhale, and Tho. Fullere, by the same license, settled a toft and 60 acres in Brethenham; and in 1470, the lady Anne Wingfield, by the consent of Sir Rob. Wingfield, her second husband, settled in mortmain, her manors of Rushworth and Lerling, called Gonvile's manors. This was the chief of its endowment, though it had other lands and tenements in Thetford, Fakenham in Suffolk, West-Herling, and Weston. It was governed by statutes, confirmed by Tho. Piercy Bishop of Norwich in his visitation, the heads of which, as they shew the state of the college, it will not be amiss to insert.

The college had a master or custos, and five brethren or fellows, who were to obey their master in all things lawful, the master to have the cure of the parish, and all of them were to pray for the souls of Sir Edmund Gonvile their founder, and of all his ancestors, successours, and benefactors, every day, and to say such daily masses and collects as are therein ordered, and to keep the founder's anniversary, in a particular manner, all which would be to no purpose to enlarge upon; as the revenues increase, the number to increase, and every new fellow to have 10 marks per annum at least, and neither the master nor fellows to be removed, unless for such crimes as would remove a rector; they are all to sleep in one room, and to eat in common together, unless in sickness; the master to receive a stipend of 50s. a year, and each fellow 30s. (over and above their other stipend.) The master to be elected by the fellows; if he be one of the college, the majority is sufficient; but if he be not, then there must be two parts of the fellows, and if the votes be equal, and two chosen, the Bishop is to choose which he pleases; every master thus elected, before he be confirmed by the Bishop, must go to the manor of Lerling, and present himself to the founder's heirs, if they be there, and if not, he may go to the Bishop, who is to confirm him; and if they do not choose in three months after a vacancy, it lapses to the Bishop, who must collate one of that college. In every vacancy the fellows are to choose one of themselves, to look after the college affairs, who is to account to the next master; the fellows to choose the fellows, and each fellowship void above six months lapses to the Bishop; every fellow that leaves the college shall leave half his goods to it, and at their admission, shall swear obedience to their master, and to promote their college; the fellows were obliged to constant residence, and could not lie one night out of the college, without their master's leave; the master was at full liberty as to his residence, but could not have any of his own family admitted to any office in the college, without the consent of the majority of the fellows; the college to have a common seal, which, with the evidences and treasure, shall always be kept in a chest, with three locks, the master to have one key, and such two fellows as all the fellows shall choose, to have the other two; the master and fellows to make up their accounts every Michaelmas, and lock up one part of the account in the chest, and the master to keep the counterpart. The Bishop reserves power for him and his successours to visit, correct, and reform, what he thinks necessary, together with all episcopal power, jurisdiction, and other rights whatever, belonging to his church of Norwich. Dated at Schuldham, July 13th, 1360.

It appears from an old rental in my collection, that Tho. Sigo, master of the college, held of the capital manor of Rushworth, called Gonvile Hall, his manor called Lerling Hall in Rushworth, by the rent of 6s. 8d. a year; Purry's tenement and 30 acres, with its foldcourse, at 3s. 4d. rent, the capital tenement formerly John de Brethenham's in Brethenham, at 3s. 4d. with 2s. 8d. 0b. rent for his lands on Suffolk side, and abundance of other rents on the Norfolk side.

  • 1492, William Halyday, senior, chaplain and fellow, desired to be buried here by his parents; he gave 6s. 8d. towards a new bell, 6s. 4d. to the light of the holy sepulchre, to the gild of St. John Baptist kept in this church 3s. 4d. His uncle, Thomas Halyday, formerly fellow, sold seven acres of land to him, which he gave to the college, after the death of Robert Schadewell his brother, and Alice his wife, the profits to keep the south porch in repair for ever, (which looks as if he was buried in it,) and to pray for him and his benefactors; he gave other 9 acres in Rushworth, to Robert and Alice for life, and Thomas their son, if he live to be of age; if he dies under age, it was to go the master to find bread and wine for the Sacrament. He gave a good stone house in Rushworth, to the college in free alms, to be used as a gild-hall, or at any time, when there was not room for the guests in the college; but the master was to find out of it a lamp burning in the choir, before the Sacrament at the high altar, for ever, to which he gave a silver chrismatory of 4 marks value, John Cavendysh, rector of Quidenham, and Will. Parysh, fellow, executors. Proved Jan. 23, 1492.

This Collegiate Church was built in form of a cross; the quire, north and south cross isles are quite demolished, though there are two grave-stones in the north cross isle, still to be seen in the yard, but no inscriptions on them; the nave is now used by the parish, and a small part of it at the east end, separated from the rest, serves for a chancel: there is a very good square tower, having only one bell, though there have been five or six, the frames still remaining; it is a good building, and seems to be of the same date with the foundation of the college. On a stone in the south porch wall the name of Jesus is inscribed; the whole is covered with reed.

There are two hatchments in the church. Buxton quarters Herne, and or, two bucks couchant gul. a coat of pretence, per pale arg. and sab. a chevron between three talbots counterchanged, a chief gul.; motto, servare modum.

Buxton impaling the former coat of pretence, quartered with, per chevron vert and or, three lions passant, counter-changed.

On a black marble on the south side of the altar, Hic requiescit quod mortale fuit Roberti Buxton, viri integerrimi, ex Antiquâ Prosapiâ de Channons in agro Norfolciensi oriundi, obijt 15° Die Julij, Ao Ætatis 32° Salutis 1691°.

On a stone by it, Eliz. Buxton, died July 4, Anno Dom. 1730, Æt. 66.

On a stone in the ruins of the quire, John Buxton, Esq. died Oct. 27, Anno Dom. 1731, Ætat. 47.

This town was in Kenninghall soken. And now having gone the length of the hundred, with the county river, which divides it from Suffolk, we must turn back, and follow that stream, which runs from Quidenham Mere to Thetford, and there joins the county river, or the Ouse, dividing this hundred all the way from that of Shropham; and the first place that we meet with nearest to Thetford, is


== SNAREHILL-HOUSE==[edit]

Which is deemed extraparochial, and (with the lodge now called Thetford Lodge, ) is all that remain of two villages, Great and Little Snareshill; Great Snureshill belonged to Thurstin of Thetford, a freeman in the Confessor's time, when he had two carucates in demean. Little Snareshill belonged to Ailvin, or Elgar, of Thetford, who had one carucate, and to Alestan an Englishman, in the Conqueror's time, when it had 300 sheep belonging to it, five hives of bees, and was of 20s. value.

The extent of both, was a league long, and half a league broad, and paid 11d. ob. geld.

Thurstin of Thetford had four freemen, that had 35 acres, which he held under Roger Bigot, who held the whole towns of the Conqueror's gift, (except Bury abbey's part,) all which the said Roger settled on his priory at Thetford, at its foundation, and Herbert Bishop of Norwich, and William Bigot, his son, confirmed it; by this means the church and all its revenues came wholly to that house, who got it appropriated to them very early, for it was in ruins in King Edward the Third's time, being then valued at 30s. there are scarce any remains of its foundation, though its site is well known.

It continued in that house to its dissolution, and then went with it to the Duke of Norfolk, by whose family it was after sold, or forfeited, and hath since passed through several hands, as the Cleres, Sir Edward Clere being lord in 1571, &c. till it came to the Buxtons, and Robert Buxton, Esq. of St. Margaret's in South Elmham, dying seized, Elizabeth his wife had it, who is now dead, and Elizabeth, their daughter, now [1736] a minor, is owner of it.

The part which Fulcher held of Bury abbey was held in Henry the Third's time, by the fifteenth part of a fee, of Wordwell manor, which was held of the abbey, by Will. Fyshe, and John Byntliton, and in 1345, Will. Fyshe, and Peter Beneynton had it, and paid 2s. 4d. relief, they being heirs of Will. Fyshe and Peter Beneynton.

In 1410, Tho. Welde, clerk, gave to Thetford monks all his lands and tenements which he had of Mary his mother, lying in this place.

  • 1411, Edmund Heyford of Bernham gave them two tofts and 60 acres of ground, and liberty of a free fold in Snareshill, to increase their revenues, and maintain them the better; the Bury part was included in this.

There was a family sirnamed of this town, of which Benedict, son of Hugh de Snareshill, lived in 1256.

The Leet always belonged to the hundred, but there being no suiters to it in the place, it hath been omitted many years. The whole was in Kenninghall soken, which may be the reason of the tradition, of its belonging to Kenninghall; at this time, it is valued with Rushworth to the King's tax, and paid 26s. 8d. to the tenths.

The next town that we meet with upon this river (except the hamlet of Shadwell, of which we have spoken under Rushworth) is

In Snareshella iii. liberi homines commend. et soca falde, tota alia soca in Keninchala et habent xx. acr. semp. dim. car. val. xxd. hoc tenet Turstinus. (sc. sub. Rogero Bigot.)


WESTHERLING

Which is so called to distinguish it from the other Herlings; here were several manors, of all which in their order. At the survey the manor was a berewic belonging to Kennighall manor, with which it was held by the Confessor and Conqueror, and was granted as a member of it to the Albanys, who, in King Henry the First's time, infeoffed it in the Angervilles, a family sirnamed from a place in Normandy, where they were lords; it was to be held at half a fee of the manor of Kenninghall, as of the castle of Bokenham. In King Henry the Second's time,

Sir Benedict de Angerville was lord, who died without male issue, leaving his three daughters his heirs, the first married to

William de Snitterton, otherwise called William Bokenham of Snitterton, as his family always continued to be called, viz. sometimes de Snitterton, and sometimes de Bokenham de Snitterton; the second to

Nicholas de Bello-Foco, Bello-Fago, or Beaufo; the third to

Sir Andrew de Sharnbourn, she died without issue in King John's time, and her part reverted to her sisters and their heirs;

So that now it divided into two manors, each held at a quarter of a fee of the said Earl's, the one called Bokenham's, and the other Beaufo's.

Bokensham's Manor[edit]

Being thus come to Sir William de Bokenham de Snitterton, at his death he left it to Hugh, and he to Ralph Bokenham, alias Snitterton, his son, and he to Hugh Bokenham of Snitterton, his son, who was lord in 1286; he left Hugh his son and heir, who died in 1290, Margaret his mother then living, had a third part of the manor, and the mansion-house, in dower: Hugh son of the last Hugh succeeded, and in 1332, settled this and others on Sir Edmund de Baconisthorp, Knt. Sir John Bokenham, parson of Snitterton, his brother, and Sir Nicholas, son of Sir Gregory de Castello, during the life of Alice his wife, for the maintenance of his children; he died in 1339, and was buried at Snitterton.

In 1345, the lady of Snitterton, (sc. this Alice,) held her manor in West-Herling, at a quarter of a fee, of the Earl of Arundell, and he of the King, which Hugh of Snetterton, held, the relief of which was x.s.

  • 1365, Hugh de Bokenham, (her son,) was lord, and Nicholas Youngman and Alan Simonds, his farmers of the manor, kept their first court this year.

In 1369, Hugh died, and Julian de Bokenham kept her first court.

In 1379, John Bokenham, senior, and John de Bokenham, junior, were lords in which year they conveyed the manor to Hugh Bokenham. their brother, which they had of the grant of John de Thelvetham, Julian de Bokenham, (his daughter,) Roger Dawnay, parson of Snitterton All-Saints, and Andrew Green of Stanford.

In 1401, Hugh Bokenham of Livermere, son and heir of Hugh de Bokenham of Snitterton, released to Robert Berdewelle, Esq. all his right in Bokenham's manor in West-Herling, which was sold to Sir William Berdewell, Knt. by Hugh Bokenham his father, and thus this manor was joined to Berdewell's, though the Bokenhams still had diverse lands here; for in 1479, Edmund Bokenham, Squyr, by will proved the 29th of March, ordered 2s. 8d. to be distributed among his poor servants, of Snitterton, Shropham, Hargham, and Harlyng.

The fishery belonged solely to the lord, exclusive of all the tenants.

====Beaufo's Manor====

Came to Nicholas de Bellofago, or Beaufo, in right of his wife, as aforesaid, Nicholas his son was lord in 1219, Hugh his son in 1256, and Nicholas his son till 1326, when he settled the manor and advowson on himself for life, remainder to Thomas Berdewell, and Amy his wife, daughter of the said Nicholas, and their heirs; from which time it was joined to Berdewells manor, as was the advowson, the whole of which, at first, belonged to Angervile's manor, and with that divided one moiety to Bokenham's, and the other to Beaufo's, till Ralph son of Hugh de Bokenham sold his moiety, with an acre and half of land, to Hugh son of Nicholas de Beaufo, and then this manor had the whole advowson.

Furneaux's Manor, after called Berdewell's[edit]

Passed with Middle-Herling, of which it was a part in the Conqueror's time, and so continued till Sir John Furneaux, Knt. gave it in marriage with Sara his daughter, to John de Berdewelle, to be held of the Earl of Brittain, as of Richmond honour, at half a fee, and this was the first possession that the Berdewells ever had in any of the Herlings; Sara was lady of it in 1280, soon after which it was called,

Berdwell's, or East-Thorp Manor[edit]

By reason of its lying east of the church (as Hackford Hall manor was sometimes called West-Thorp, or Herling-Thorp, which name it still retains, on account of its lying west of the church) and to distinguish it from Furneaux or Middle-Herling manor, to which it joined.

And from this time all these manors went in the Berdewell family, as the pedigree will demonstrate.

The fines are certain at 4s. an acre, whether land, meadow, or pasture, and no regard to houses or home-stalls, they being included in the content; it gives no dower; the lands descend according to the common law; for those lands that are heriotable, the heriot is the best beast; but if they have no beast, there is no heriot due: they cannot waste their copyhold, nor fell timber, (unless to repair their copyhold,) without license. Childewyt is due to the lord, which is 2s. 8d. of every woman, bond tenant, that hath a bastard. Chevage also is paid to the lord, it being a fine for every bond tenant, for liberty to live out of the lordship, and women pay it as well as men, viz. 1d. a year each head. Bosage is also paid here, which is 1d. a head yearly for all cows and great cattle that feed on the commons; every 10 sheep of the cullet, that laid in the lord's fold, paid 1d. a year. West-Fen common at Thorp-End belonged solely to the manor; all the tenants were obliged to grind at the lord's mill, and the fishery of all the manors belonged solely to the lord.

Faldage is a custom of this manor, that every five sheep that go with the lord's, whether they be of the cullet or no, if the owners will not let them lie in the lord's fold, but will fold them on their own grounds, they must pay 1d. a year, each five; the bond tenants could not sell any male young cattle of their own breeding without the lord's license.

Hackford Hall Manor, afterward Seckford, or Westhorp, and now

Herling-Thorp[edit]

This manor was in two parts, in the Confessor's and Conqueror's time, the first was in Bury abbey, from its first foundation: the second in one Anti's hands, in the Confessor's days, and Robert de Verli's in the Conqueror's, from whom it came to the Earl Warren, and went with the possessions of the younger branch of that family, to the Bardolphs, by them infeoffed in Sir Adam de Methwolde, of whom Sir William de Hakeford had it.

The Abbey's part, in the Conqueror's time, was in Ricuard, by feoffment of Abbot Baldwin, who held it of the abbey, at one fee; and from that time it passed as Hasting's manor in Gissing, till Hugh, son of William de Hastyngs, Steward to King Henry I. infeoffed Sir William de Hakeford, Knt. who held it also at one fee, paying 18d. every twenty weeks, to the Abbot, to the ward of Norwich castle, which tenure continued till after 1630; for then Framlingham Gawdy, Esq. paid it to the Crown, in right of the dissolved monastery of Bury; it paid then 2s. a year for suit to the hundred court, and 9d. every twenty weeks, to the lord of the hundred, for castleward, for Bardolph's part.

The Customs are the same now, [1736,] as the other manors, but were different formerly; for in 1364, the copyhold descended to the youngest son, and it gave a moiety dower. It was then fine certain, at 4s. an acre. The bosage, faldage, and chevage, were the same as in the other manors, but the childwyte was not certain, but at the lord's will. They could sell all manner of beasts that they bred; and this custom prevailed here, that every copyholder that married paid the lord a bolster, sheet, and pillow, or fined for them, except the tenants called molmen, which were not subject to this custom.

In 1346, there was a free tenement and 42 acres of land in Illington, held of this manor by Peter de Esthalle, and also an annual rent of 1d. a year, paid to St. John of Jerusalem's hospital at Karbrook, for the souls of the lord's ancestors; and the brethren of St. John's college at Rushworth had annually a fat lamb delivered them. The parish of Middle-Herling held one acre and an half of this manor, and paid 6d. freerent. The ewes of the flock were milked daily, by people hired by the lord for that purpose. It extended into all the Herlings, Quidenham, Rushworth, Shadewell, and Illington.

Sir William de Hakeford, or Akeford, Knt. bare for his coat armour, chequy or and vert; he held both the parts of the manor as aforesaid, and left the whole to Sir Thomas de Hakeford, his son, whose widow Mariona was lady in 1273; at her death it came to Sir Nicholas de Hakeford, and Margery his wife, to whom Peter de Hakeford his brother released his right; they held it but little while, for in 1278, Sir William de Hakeford, a man that did much service in the Scotch wars, settled the manor, jointly with Margery his wife, together with that part of it in Bridgham, and the manor and advowson of Couteshale, on Ralph de Hackford, parson of Couteshale, in trust for his two daughters, his heiresses; after this he purchased many lands in Herling, of Adam de Raveningham, and settled them, for their use, on William Gostelyn, his trustee, who farmed the manor, and kept courts in his own name, as farmer of it.

Sir John de Seckford of Suffolk, Knt. became lord in 1331, in right of Joan his wife, the eldest daughter of Sir William de Hakeford; Henry de Elmham, and Elizabeth his wife, who was Sir William's other daughter, having released all their right in it, to Sir John and his lady, who released to them all their right in that part of the demeans that laid in Bridgham, and in the whole manor of Hacford Hall in Fringe: he bare for his arms, ermine, an escalop in fess gules, which hath been since changed, this family having born for some ages, ermine on a fess gul. three escalops or; and for their crest, a talbot passant ermine. He is sometimes called de Schirford, Segeford, Segford, and Secford. In the year 1359, Sir John, son of this Sir John, lived at Great Bealings in Suffolk, and upon his marriage, settled it on William de Rothyng, rector here, and James de Rothing, to the use of Alice his wife, who kept court in 1372, after his death. In 1401, Sir George de Secford, Knt. was lord, and settled it on Margaret his wife, who was daughter and heir of Sir Thomas Jenney of Suffolk, Knt. After his death, she settled it on Sir Simon Felbrige, Knt. and other trustees, upon her second marriage with Augustine Stratton. At her death it went to George Secford, Esq. who settled it upon Ralf Full of Love, rector of this town, in trust for Alice his wife, who, in 1450, at his death, became lady; she was daughter of Tho. Rokes (of Ridlesworth, as I take it,) and married again to Sir Henry Wingfield, Knt. who joined with her in 1476, and released the manor to Tho. Seckford, Esq. lord of Seckford in Suffolk, who immediately settled it on Robert Warner, Will. Brampton, Edmund Parry, and others, in trust for Margaret, daughter of John Purrey, of Aylesham in Norfolk, his first wife, who died before him, and he married a second wife, named Elizabeth, soon after which he died, in 1507, leaving Thomas Sekford of Great Bealings in Suffolk, Esq. his heir, who married Margaret, daughter of Sir John Wingfield of Letheringham, Knt. He and his father surviving feoffees sold it to

George Nunne of Tostock in Suffolk, clothier, and William Futter, his trustee, and the heirs of George. In 1564, the said George, and John his son and heir, sold it to

Bassingbourne Gawdy of Mendham in Suffolk, Esq. and Anne his wife, and their heirs, and for want of heirs, to Edward Bardwell and his heirs for ever; and this year they held their first court; and from this time it was joined to the other manors, and so continues.

The manor-house hath been down many ages, for in 1398 the lord lived at Seckford, and had a pond, or pool, in the late site of the manor, called Seckford Hall-Yard Close, in West-Herling.

In 1504, after a suit between the lord and Robert Bernyngham, Prior of the monks of St. Mary at Thetford, the lord agreed for the future to pay 2s. a year to that monastery, out of lands called Gildensleves, which were joined to the manor by purchase, and did always heretofore pay 2s. 6d. a year, and upon this agreement he paid 2s. to Sir William Ixworth, then monk of that house, to put him in possession.

The family of the Berdewelles took their name from the town of Berdwelle in Suffolk, where they lived in the Conqueror's time, when Baldwin Abbot of Bury infeoffed Ralf de Berdewelle of that manor; they always bare for their arms, arg. a goat saliant gul. armed or. and for their rebus or device, a bear with a well on his back, and these two letters, de. which cannot but make Bear-de-well, or Berdwelle; and for a crest, on a wreath or and sab. a goat's head erased gul. attired or, mantled sab. doubled arg.

In 1196, William, son of Ralf de Berdewelle, held Berdewelle at two fees, as he acknowledged in a fine then levied between him and Abbot Sampson, John de Berdewelle, his son, had four sons, all which had issue; John de Berdewell, the eldest, was lord of Gasthorp in 1274. He had two wives, and issue by both, the eldest son by the first wife was Thomas, who was dead before 1338, and left Richard, Robert, and Thomas, who were lords of Gasthorp; Thomas had the whole by release from his brothers; he married Amy, daughter of Sir Nicholas de Beaufo, with whom he had Beaufoe's manor in this town, Alice, her sister, and John Rivet of Freton, her husband, releasing their right in it, in 1330. In 1348, John Berdewelle, their son, was lord, who had William Berdewelle, his son, by Isabell, daughter of Thomas Barro, Knt. and had free-warren allowed him in Berdwelle and Thorp in Suffolk; William, his son, married Elizabeth, daughter of Tho. Hethe, lord of Hengrave, Denham by Barrow, and SaxhamParva in Suffolk; he died seized of Berdewelle, Gatesthorp, Beaufoe's, &c. leaving Margaret, his only daughter, who married John Harleston, by whom she had Margaret, married to Tho. Darcy of Danby in Essex, and Alice, to Sir Richard Fitz-Lewes, Knt. But the manors aforesaid, for want of male issue, reverted to Sir William Berdewell, the great warriour, who was the male heir of the family by the second wife, viz. Sara, daughter of Sir John Furneaux of Midle-Herling, with whom he had Furneaux manor in West-Herling; they left Sir William Berdewell, Knt. their son and heir, whose son,

Sir William Berdewell, Knt. the great warriour, was born 1367, for in the 9th of Henry IV. (anno 1407,) he was 40 years old, being then one of the knights summoned as witnesses for Sir Edward Hastyngs of Elsing, in the cause between him and Sir Reginald Grey Lord Ruthyn, concerning the arms of Hastyngs, in which he swore, that he was a soldier with Sir Hugh Hastyngs, the defendant, in the voyage made by Sir John Arundell on the sea, and saw Sir Hugh bear the arms of or, a maunch gul. with a label of three points arg.; in the voyage of Sir Malves del Ile, in the voyage of King Richard II. into Scotland; in Bretaigne, in the deceased Duke of Lancaster's voyage into Spain; and that he always understood that the label was born by the next heir according to the usage of England, as the Prince of Wales bears it, and was the conusance of the next heir. In 1382, he was retained by Sir John Clifton of Bokenham castle, to serve him with 7 men at arms, and 6 archers on horseback, in the voyage of Croyserye, and of the King, for one year, for 100 marks for himself, with bouche de court, and for his 7 men at arms and 6 archers, 392 marks, to be paid half down, and the rest quarterly, as the Bishop of Norwich should pay Sir John Clifton. In 1387, he covenanted with the Lord Camoys to serve under him in the expedition at sea under the command of the Lord Arundell, then Admiral of England, for four months, with 2 esquires sufficiently armed, and 3 archers, and each of his men of arms to have one servant to carry their bayonets, Sir William to find them wages, who was to have 18 marks for his own service, and 20 marks for his archers, and bouche de court for all his retinue, all of them to be ready at Southampton the 4th of May following; and if any great chieftain was taken in the war by Sir William, or his retinue, the Lord Camois was to have him, giving sufficiently to him and his men that should take him. In the year 1400, Michael De-lu-poole Earl of Suffolk granted him an annuity of 20l. during his life, out of his castle, manor, and honour of Eye in Suffolk, in recompense for the good and agreeable service that Sir William had done him in times past, and shall do him in time to come, both in war and peace; and upon this Sir William obliged himself to serve the Earl with one esquire, two servants, and five horses, all which were to have bouche de court at the Earl's expense; and if he travels in England at the Earl's command, he was to be allowed reasonable expenses; and in time of war, he was to find as many men at arms, and archers on horseback, as he could, all which the Earl was to pay, as the King paid him; and he was to have two parts of their ransome, and the Earl the other third part, but no prisoner was to be delivered up, without the Earl's license. In this year he did homage to Thomas Earl of Arundell and Surrey, for his lands in Herling, held of CastleAcre manor. He married Margaret, daughter and heiress of Theobald (or John) de Pakenham, Esq. and Agnes his wife, daughter of Tho. Saxham, who in her will ordered to be buried at Berdewell by her husband. He settled Berdwell's manor on Ralph and Robert de Bernyngham for their lives, remainder to Robert Berdewell, his son, remainder to William, son of Robert, and his heirs. On the 1st of Octob. 1434, he made his will, which is dated at Bury, where he died soon after; for on the 29th of the same month it was proved before brother John Cranewys, sacrist of that monastery, (he being, by virtue of that office, in the place of archdeacon of the exempt jurisdiction of that house,) in which he ordered to be buried in Berdewell chancel, to the reparation of which church he gave 40s. and 20s. to repair the roads, and 20l. to his daughter Isabell, and to Robert, his son and heir, his basilard, and all his gilt armour, his best girdle, with his loose gown, furred with beaver. He died possessed of the manors of Berdewell's, Bokenham's, and Beaufo's in West-Herling; Garlek Hall in Gatesthorp; Belagh, Norton, Wyken, Berdewelle; Wyke's in Berdewell, and Thorp in Suffolk, and was buried at Berdewell, where he chiefly resided; in a north window of which church a curious effigies of him still remains very perfect, of which this is an exact resemblance:

He had issue, John, his eldest son, who married Elizabeth, daughter and coheir of Sir John (or Thomas) Clopton, by whom he had William and Rose, both which, as well as their father, died before their grandfather.

Upon which his second son, Robert Berdewell of Belagh, Esq. ( who built the old hall at Herling, and first settled there) became his heir, who, in 1439, did homage to the Earl of Arundell for WestHerling, and in 1446, to Ralf Lord Cromwell and Tateshale for Gatesthorp: he had two wives, the first was Elizabeth, his second was Margery, daughter of Sir Thomas Jenny, who outlived him some years, she being alive and his widow in 1462. He is buried with his first wife, on the north side of the altar in this chancel; his stone is now much broken and defaced, it hath Berdewell's coat impaling three nags heads cooped, the three other coats being lost, as is part of the circumscription, which I transcribed before it was defaced, viz.

Drate pro Anima Roberti Berdemelle, Armigeri, qui obiit rrio Die Januarii Ao Dni: mo CCCColho et pro Anima Elizabet. uroris. eius quorum Animabus propicieture Deus.

William Berdewell, senior, of West-Herling, Esq. his son and heir, had two wives, by whom he had thirty sons and daughters; Eleanor, his first wife, was daughter and heiress of John Crabbe, with whom he had the manors of Midle-Herling and Kimberle; Elizabeth, his second wife, was a Mortimer. In 1441, the Duke of Norfolk, by deed dated at his castle of Framlingham, granted to his beloved servant, William Berdewell, senior, Esq. an annuity of 10 marks, for the good services that he had done him: I have seen his will of his his own handwriting, from which I took the following extract:

Jesu mercye. Mary helpe.

"In Dei Nomine Amen. I Welyam Berdewell the Holder, Sana mente & bona Memoriæ, qwan I pas hawt of this misery werd, I beqwethe my sowle to the Trenite, Fadir, Sone, and Holye Goyst, Three Personis, and One God, my Bodye to be beryed in the Chansel of Westharlyng, on the south side, before Seynt Jon, betweene bothe my wyvys. And I besette to the Hey Awtyr, x.s. & to the Churche odyr x.s. also to the Lytys on the Candlestekys afore the Hey Awtyr odyr x.s. & to the feywe Joys afore our Lady, odyr x.s. And also I besette a Veystmente to the Hey Awter, and to the place of the Frerys at Thetforth x.s. and to the Chapell of our Ladi in Thetforthe odyr x.s. also x.s. to Medylharlyng, & a Nobyl to the Freris of Babwell. Odyr x.s. to the Kwyte Freris of Norwiche; and also for to be preyd for in the Townys abowte me, and nowght to labour, I besette to Hest Harlynge Chirche a Nobyl, and forte Denar: and to Gatysthorp a Nobyl, viij. Sheep to Trenety Geld, [at West-Herling] to the Channowyns [at Thetford] x.s. and to the Nunys ther, odyr x.s. to prey to God for me, and to the Hey Awter of Seint Marye Chirche of Thetforthe x.s. and x.s. to our Ladi [at West-Herling] and a Nobyl to the Chirche. [He gave a good Legacy to his] Son Peter to prey for [him] and for [his] Weyfwys, with Fadyr & Modir, and al odyr Frendys, qwiche past the Werd, &c."

According to his desire, he was buried on the south side of the altar: his effigies, bareheaded, with a grayhound at his feet, and his sword and spurs on, still remains, and two escutcheons, one of Berdewelle quartering Mortimer, and the other of Berdewelle and Pakenham, and this inscription,

Drate pro Animabus IDillielmi Berdemlmell, Armigeri, Alienoreet Elizabethe urorum eius, et Eriginata filiorum et filiarum suarum. quorum Animabus propicictur Drus, Amen.

William Berdewell, junior, Esq. his son and heir, succeeded, who was of age in 1455, at his grandfather's death, who gave him Tostock Hall manor, and to Edmund his brother, his manor in Norton by Wulpit, which was formerly Agnes de Norton's; he married Elizabeth, daughter and coheir of Edmund de Wychyngham of Fishley, in 1459, and after her death, to Elizabeth, widow of John Cheke, in 1490, who died in 1505, and by will ordered her body to be buried in Debenham church, by John Cheke, her first husband, by whom she left issue, John, Robert, William, and Edmund, but none by her second husband, who was buried in the midst of the nave of this church, by Elizabeth his first wife: his effigies remains on his stone, which is bareheaded, and in armour, his wife's being in a bonnet. The arms of Berdewelle and Wichingham are first single and then impaled.

On a scroll from his mouth are these words,

Jesu fili Dei, miscrcrc mci.

And on another from her's, this,

Sancta Dei Genetrir, Ora pro me.

And this inscription under them,

Drate pro Animabus IDilli: Berdewell, Armigeri, et Elizabethe uroris eius, Gnius Filiarum Edmundi IDycbnngbam, ct pro quibus tencntur, quorum Animabus propicietur Dcus.

He was succeeded by by his son, William Berdewelle of Herling, Esq. who married Margaret, daughter of John Framlingham of Crow's Hall in Debenham; they both died in one week, A° 1508, seized of Drayton Hall manor in Scarning, and Dillington, Kelling, Salthouse, Gasthorp, West and Midle-Herling manors and advowsons, and were buried together in the nave of this church, his effigies bareheaded, with that of his wife by him, with their escutcheons, still remain, and this inscription,

Orate Pro Animabus Milli: Berdewell, Armigeri, istius Errlesie Patroni, et Margarete uroris eius, qui obierunt in una Ebdomada, mense Januarll, 1508.

He left issue, five sons and four daughters; Robert, his eldest son and heir, Edward Berdewell of Mendham, who was living in 1559, whose son, James Berdewell, lived at Sandcroft, afterwards at Long Stratton; in 1589, as heir male of the family, he released Limborn manor to Bas. Gawdy, Esq.; John, the third son, married Mary, daughter of John Cook, William was the fourth son, and Edmund the fifth: Eleanor, his eldest daughter, died young, Eleanor, the second daughter, married Tho. Pigeon of East Beckham, and Alice, or Elizabeth, married a Howard.

Robert Berdewell of West-Herling, Esq. died in the King's service beyond sea; his will was proved in 1512, in which he ordered to be buried at his father's head, in West-Herling church, if he died in England; he ordered a priest to sing for him seven years in the chapel of our Lady on the south side of Herling church; he left Anne, daughter of Tho. Bacon of Hesset, his widow, who, in 1513, married Will. Rookwood, and after his death, to Rob. Keene of Thrandeston, whose widow she was in 1558, when she held Gasthorp and Tostock manors. They had only one daughter, viz.

Elizabeth Berdewell, who was but one year old at her father's death, and her wardship fell to Sir Edward Howard, Knt. of whom Scarning, &c. was held, in right of Lady Morley, Sir Edward's wife, who, in 1512, sold it, immediately after her father's death, to Will. Wooton, his executor, and he sold it, with her marriage, to Sir Robert Southwell, Knt. who married her to

John Wooton of North Tuddenham in Norfolk, who confirmed the exchange lately made of Salthouse and Kellyng manors, which were lately the Wychynghams and Berdewelles, for Drayton Hall in Scarning; he was son of John Wooton of Tuddenham, and Elizabeth his wife, sister of Sir Thomas, and daughter of Sir Robert L' Estrange; he kept his first court here in 1528, and in 1536 his wife died; after which he married a daughter of Nevill Lord Abergavenny, widow of Lord D'Acres.

By Elizabeth, his first wife, he left one only daughter, Anne, whose wardship John Millicent, Esq. sold in 1545, to Sir Anthony Rouse, it belonging to him as lord of Bergham manor, of which the manor of Midle-Herling is held, as parcel of the honour of Richmond; she had three husbands, first Sir Thomas Woodhouse of Waxham, (William Woodhouse having purchased her guardianship of Sir Anthony Rouse in 1547,) by whom she had no issue, nor by Henry Reppes of Mendham, Esq. her second husband, who kept his first court in 1551, and was dead before 1556, for in that year Bassingbourne Gawdy, second son of Thomas Gawdy, serjeant at law, her third husband, kept his first court, and held Midle-Herling of Robert Berney, as of his manor of Bergham, by the service of half a fee, and 5s. per annum; he was afterwards knighted. In 1564, he purchased Secford manor; and thus all the manors in West-Herling, Midle-Herling, and Gatesthorp, came to the Gawdie's. She was buried at Herling, July the 9th 1594.

Gawdie's arms are, vert, a tortoise passant ar.; crest, on a wreath ar. and gul. a chapeau turned up erm. on which two daggers in pale ar. hilted or, mantled gul. doubled ar.

Sir Bassingbourne Gawdie, Knt. died seized, Jan. 25, 1569, of all the manors, together with Limbourne in Homeresfield, Roudham, Drayton Hall, &c. leaving two sons, Bassingbourn and Sir Phillip, who married Brigit Strongman, by whom he had Francis, his son and heir, who died without issue, and five daughters, the last of which was born in 1614.

Bassingbourne Gawdie, Esq. his son and heir, was 29 years old at his father's death, when Thomas Gawdie of Gawdie Hall, his uncle, was trustee for Secford's manor. This Bassingbourn held West-Herling of the Earl of Arundell, Midle-Herling of the Queen, as of her honour of Richmond, at half a fee, Secford's of the dissolved abbey of Bury, at 3s. yearly rent, Drayton Hall, of the Lady Morley, and Gasthorp, of Phillip Knevit, Esq. He was thrice sheriff of Norfolk, viz. in 1573, when he was an esquire only, in 1593, when he was a knight, and in 1601. He had two wives; the first was Anne, daughter of Sir Charles Framlingham of Debenham, by Dorothy his wife, daughter of Sir Clement Heigham, Knt.; she was an heiress, and brought the whole estate of the Framlinghams, viz. the manors of Crowshall, Scotneys, Harborow, and Debenham, with the advowsons, Mandevile's manor in Sternefield, Abbot's Hall, and Ashfield manor and advowson. Sir Charles her father outlived her, and died July 23, 1594, leaving Framlingham Gawdie, Esq. his grandson, his sole heir. His second wife was Dorothy, daughter of Sir Nicholas Bacon of Redgrave, who held Gasthorp manor for life; and after his decease, she married to Felton, and died at Fakenham, Feb. 1, 1653, and was buried here by her first husband, who died the 23d of May, 1606, leaving issue by both his wives: by the last he had two sons and two daughters, Bassingbourn and Bacon Gawdie, who was buried here in 1650, and Dorothy and Frances, both buried here, the first in 1659, the last in 1626, leaving no issue; by the first he had two sons, Framlingham, and Charles, who was born in 1591, and was afterwards knighted, and had Crowshall, Scotneys, &c. given to him and his heirs.

Framlingham Gawdie, Esq. was born Augt. 8, 1589, Sir Robt, Knowles, Knt. was his guardian, and as such kept court in 1606. In 1627, he was sheriff of Norfolk, and afterwards one of the DeputyLieutenants of that county, by commission from Henry Earl of Northampton, then Lord-Lieutenant: he married Lettice, daughter and coheir or Sir Robt. Knowles, Knt. who was buried here Dec. 3, 1630, by Sir Robt. her father, who was buried Jan. 20, 1618. He was buried, Feb. 25, 1654, by his father-in-law, leaving six sons and two daughters, viz, William Framlingham, born in 1613, Bassingbourn in 1614, Tho. in 1617, who died single, Charles in 1618, and Robt. in 1620, Lettice died Feb. 8, 1622, and Anne, June 29, 1622.

William Gawdy, Esq. the eldest son, was created baronet, July 13, 1663; he married Elizabeth Duffield, who was buried June 10, 1653, by whom he had four sons and one daughter, Bassingbourn, the eldest, died unmarried at London, of the small-pox, and was buried in the Temple, in 1660, Anne his sister was buried with him, and William his brother, they dying of the same disease, Framlingham Gawdy who lived at Bury, and

Sir John Gawdy, Bart. who was his second son and heir, he was born Oct. 4, 1639, being deaf and dumb, notwithstanding which, he was an admirable painter, and a most ingenious man; he married Anne, daughter of Sir Robt. de Grey of Martin, Knt. and Elizabeth his wife, by whom, at his death in 1699, he left one son and one daughter.

Sir Basingbourn Gawdy, Bart. his son and heir, died unmarried, on Thursday, Oct. 10, 1723, of a bruise in his privities, which he received by his horse's stumbling as he was hunting; he was wrapt in searcloth, and buried in a leaden coffin, in our Lady's chapel in this church, which is lately taken down, (a faculty being obtained for that purpose,) and his grave raised with bricks over it, is now to be seen in the churchyard, on the south side, where the chapel stood. He left his three nieces his heirs, they being daughters of his sister Anne, by Oliver Le Neve of Great Wichingham, Esq. their son Oliver dying without issue in 1686, viz. Issabella, then single, Anne, married to John Rogers of Stanford, licentiate in physick, and Henrietta, to Edward Le Neve, Gent. only son of Edward Le Neve, citizen and merchant-tailor of London: who all joined, and conveyed the whole estate to

Joshua Draper, Esq. who sold it to

Richard Gipps, Esq. now lord and patron, who hath purchased all this and Midle-Herling, and built a neat seat, which was begun by Mr. Draper, who pulled down the old hall, called Berdewell Hall, the site of which joined to the south-east corner of the churchyard, and began this new building, in the place where the old one stood.

The Leets of the two towns belong to the Duke of Norfolk's hundred of Giltcross, to which hundred court each town paid 6d. leet fee, and 7d. apiece for blanche-farm, 6s. for three suit fines, and 7d. apiece for castle-ward.

In 1603, there were 132 communicants in this parish, and now [1736] there are about 6 or 7 houses, and 60 inhabitants; it paid 58s. to the tenths, and is now assessed with Midle-Herling at 427l.

Berdewell Hall was a fine old embattled stone building, moted round; it was demolished in 1725; there was a family chapel in it anciently, and the following arms were in the parlour and other windows, when it was pulled down, viz.

Berdewelle impaling Walcote, Mortimer of Attleburgh.

Furneaux, sab. a pale lozengee ar.

Wichingham, erm. on a chief sab. three croslets patee ar.

Framlingham, ar. a fess gul. between three Cornish crows proper.

Wotton, ar. a saltire ingrailed sab. on which an annulet az.

Jenney; Pakenham.

Glanvile, ar. a chief indented az.

Southwell, ar. three cinquefoils gul. on each five annulets or.

L'Estrange, with a battoon or.

Ar. three nags heads cooped sab. bridled or.

Ar. on a fess ingrailed between three inescutcheons gul. as many mullets or, pierced ar.

Pally wavy. Az. on a cross ar. five escalops gul.

Gawdy impaling Bassingbourn, gironne of twelve or and az.

Bodrigan, az. three bendlets gul.

Purp. a lion rampant, crowned or.

Ar. a saltire sab. between twelve red cherries, stalked proper.

Knowles, az. crusuly, a cross moline voided or, quartered with, sab. a chevron ar. between three human heads cooped at the neck, twined with as many snakes proper.

Knightly, quarterly or and erm. in the first and fourth quarters, three pallets gul.

Conisby, gul. three coneys currant ar. quarterly first per bend, indented ar. and sab. second az. a de-lis or, third as second, fourth as first.

Bassingbourne Gawdy, 1593, impales Framlingham and his quarterings, viz.

Lee, sab. a chevron er. between three crescents ar.

Borne, sab. a chevron gul. between three unicorns heads erased az.

Tiptoft, ar. a saltire ingrailed gul.

Charlton, or, a lion rampant gul.

Holland.

Inglethorp, gul. a cross ingrailed ar.

Bradston, ar. on a canton az. a rose or.

De-la-Pole, with an annulet.

Framlingham's crest is, a raven volant proper.

Framlingham impales Nevile and his quarterings, viz.

Nevile, gul. a saltire ar. a label of three gobone ar. and az.

Montacute, ar. a fess fusile gul.

Monthermer, or, an eagle displayed vert.

Holland Earl of Kent, England in a bordure ar.

Wake, or, two bars gul. in chief three torteaux.

Estottevill, barry of ten ar. and gul. a lion rampant sab.

Burgh, ar. a fess lozenge sab.

Jeffery, or. a chevron sab. between three goldfinches proper.

Scotham, az. three pheons ar.

Nevile's crest is a wolf passant ar. collared or, on his shoulder an annulet for difference.

On a very old musket barrel that hung in the hall was this,

furvis je svis, mais sans fev, je ne puis.

which was thus translated,

Full I am, 'tis true, of ire, But can do nothing without fire.

In 1382, a piece of land in Thorp-street was held by the rent of 2d. a year, to be paid to West-Herling church, and Rob. Gildensleve held 1 acre by the rent of 1d. a year, to find a light in that church. John Ingman held a cottage, formerly Elizabeth Smith's, for which he was to find yearly a wax candle of a quarter of a pound weight, to burn there, and William Turnour was to find another vearly, of 1d. value. In 1550, Sir Tho. Woodhouse of Waxham, Knt. confirmed to Robert Barret 2 acres of meadow, which he had among other lands, of the grant of King Edward VI. in the second year of his reign, it being given for an anniversary to be kept here.

The Church is dedicated to all the Saints, having its nave and chancel tiled, a square tower, with a tall freestone spire on it; there were but three bells, till Joshua Draper, Esq. when he resided here, had them new runned, and added two new ones. On the third bell was this,

Uirgo Coronata duc nos ad Regna beata.

The following inscriptions (besides those already spoken of) may be seen here. On a brass plated stone in the chancel, the effigies of a priest, and under him this,

Orate pro Anima Johannis Michull, quondam Rectoris, istius Errlesie, cuius Anime Propicietur Deus.

On another stone,

Orate Pro Anima Radulfi Full of Lobe, quondam Rectoris istius Errlesie, qui obiit rbio die Septembris Ao Dni. Mo CCCCo lrrir.

This man gave 10l. to build a new font in Hingham church, and to the lights of Corpus Christi, St. Andrew his patron, and St. Mary's light in her chapel in Hingham church, 2lb. of wax, and 40d. to the high altar. To West-Herling a missal of 8 or 9 marks, and two vestments of 5l. value, Will. Berdewell, junior, and Hen. Spylman, Gent. executors, the Lady Anne Wyngfield supervisor. [This out of his testament.] By his will he gives a legacy to the Tabernacle of St. Mary at Hocham, to pray for Alice his mother; he orders an annual mass to be celebrated in Hingham church, for the souls of Tho. Owdolf, of John Ashwell, organ-maker, John Fagede, and Hen. Owdolf, all of Norwich, deceased; 20s. to St. Thomas of Acris's hospital in London; 20s. to St. Thomas the Martyr at Rome. He gave a close called Noziyerd to the rectors of Hingham for 24 years, 20d. out of it to keep his anniversary, and then to be sold to the use of the church; 40s. to William Berdewelle, his patron; 40s. to each executor for their labour; and 4 nobles of old gold to the Lady Anne Wyngfield, to be supervisor Proved the last of Sept. 1479.

These arms were lately in the windows, though now several of them are lost, the monuments here having suffered much, when the old hall was pulled down, by the workmen's working in the church.

Herling, Tuddenham, Berdewell, Pakenham, Furneaux, and Denney.

And there were several effigies of the Berdewells in red habits, (that being the colour of the field of their arms.) In the belfry window were Berdewell's and Seckford's arms.

The commandments hang against the north wall, under them is this,

Bod bless our King, and send him long to reigne, In Deace and Bcalth, the Bospel to maintaine.

On the south side of the curch was a chapel dedicated to St. Mary the Virgin, called Berdewell's chapel, not, as I imagine, because that family was buried in it, (for I meet with none,) but because it belonged to Beaufo's manor, which came early to the Berdewells. This in all probability was founded by Nicholas de Beaufo; but whoever was its founder, he was interred, or rather immured, in its south wall, for it falling to decay very lately, a faculty was obtained to take it down, and in so doing, the body of the founder appeared to be laid in a stone coffin, enclosed in the south wall, which (by the present patron's order) was preserved as it was found, and being covered with bricks, now lies undisturbed, in the nature of an altar tomb. I am told there was a small silver thing like a candlestick in the coffin, but rather think it to have been a crucifix.

In this chapel there was but one stone inscribed, and that being taken up, is now placed as an altar tomb, in the churchyard.

Here lieth the Body of Anne Le-Neve, Daughter of Oliver Le-Neve of Witchingham Esq; and Anne, sole Daughter of Sir John Gawdy of West Herling in this County Bart, who died 29 Nov. 1689.

Most of the Gawdys were buried in this chapel. The founder's tomb appeared on the outside of the south wall; it had an arch turned over it, and the gravestone or lid of the coffin was about two feet from the ground.

In the window over the tomb was Gawdy quartering Bassingbourne, impaling Wotton, Bardwell, Walcote, Pakenham, Furneaux, and Witchingham.

On a black marble in the chancel,
Cressener, ar. on a bend sab. three croslets fitchee or, impaling a lion rampant.

In Memory of HENRY CRESSENER, once Rector of this Parish, and of ELIZABETH his beloved Wife, of a peacefull and vertuous Disposition, is this Monument placed, HENRY, and JOHN his Father, and NICHOLAS his Grandfather, were successively Rectors of this Parish for the Space of 130 Years, none of them ever contending in Law-Suits under unjust Extortions of their just Demands.

HENRY, as a true Son of the Church, was of a modest Demeanour, a facetious Conversation, a peaceable Disposition, an unlimited Benevolence, a Support to the Needy, a Healer of Breaches, a Comforter of the Afflicted, a help to the Distressed.

HENRY and ELIZABETH, lived in conjugal Love 48 Years, and on the 8th of November 1719, She finished this Life, in the 87th year of her age, and he on the 19th of October, 1730, in the 79th Year of his Age, Both under this Stone Interred.

They, for a Time, enjoyed the Blessing of two hopefull Sons, JOHN, his eldest, was for his Great Learning, Sobriety, & Goodness, chosen Fellow of Queen's Coll: in Cambridge, HENRY, the youngest, of Clare-hall, whose early death debarr'd his succeeding Preferments.

ELIZABETH CRESSENER, being the only surviving Issue, was the mournful Directrix of this Memorial, of her indulgent Parents.

There were two Gilds in this church, one dedicated to the Trinity, and the other to St. John Baptist.

The Town Land is about 5l. a year, which was given by Mrs. Margaret Gawdy, to clothe poor widows, if there be any; if not, any poor people; it lies in Kenninghall and Banham, and the rent is received by the rector and church-wardens, who apply it accordingly.

This rectory is thus valued with that of Midle-Herling, which is consolidated to it.

It is in Rockland deanery, and Norfolk archdeaconry, hath a rectory-house, and outhouses, and above 80 acres of glebe, together with a cullet of 100 sheep going in the lord's fold, free of all charge. The Prior of Bokenham's temporals were taxed at 1s. 1d. and the Prior of Thetford's at 2s. 6d.

Rectors[edit]

  • 1331, Tho. de Saxham, rector, on whose resignation in 1337, 13 kal. Aug. Walter de Salopia, priest, succeeded, who changed Troston for this. Tho. de Berdewelle, patron.
  • 1349, 8 July, Will. Wrothyng de Brettenham, shaveling. Ditto.
  • 1366, 27 July, Rob. de Swafham Bolbek, priest. John de Herlyng, (feoffee,) he was after rector of St. Mary's in Long-Stratton.
  • 1381, 27 Aug. Tho. Neve, priest. Ditto.
  • 1391, Rob. Grantesden, priest. John de Tuddenham, for this turn.
  • 1410, 19 Octob. Sir Rob. Asty of Weston, priest. Robert, son of Will. de Berdwell, Knt.
  • 1433, 3 July, Master John de Gyllyng, priest, on Asty's resignation. Ditto.
  • 1440, 6 July, John Mychell, priest. Robert Berdewell, Esq. in right of his manor called Berdwell's. In 1457, he had MidleHerling consolidated to this. He is buried here.
  • Ralf Full of Love, rector, who died in 1479, is buried here; he was succeeded by
  • Peter Bardwell, on whose death in
  • 1505, 8 Octob. Rob. Candeler succeeded; on his death in
  • 1525, 17 Dec. Henry Thexton, was instituted. John Wotton, and Elizabeth his wife.
  • 1538, 26 April, Sir John Thompson, chaplain. John Wotton, Esq.
  • 1543, 10 April, Sir Tho. Thompson, chaplain to Thomas Duke of Norfolk.

At this time John Richard, rector of Fornecet, and Rob. Wright, rector of Hopton, were commissioners in order to take down MidleHerling church.

  • 1557, 26 June, Edmund Kyne, S. T. B. on Thompson's death. Anne Wodehouse, alias Reppes.
  • John Kyng, rector; on his death in
  • 1559, 30 July, Edward Jacksonne, priest, was instituted. Bassingbourne Gawdy, Gent. and Anne his wife.
  • 1568, 8 Feb. Will Franklinge, on Jackson's resignation. Ditto.
  • 1573, 8 Octob. Will. Nashe, on Franklinge's death. Ditto.
  • 1587, 30 March, Will. Harvye, chaplain, on Nashe's death. Bas. Gawdy, senior, Esq.
  • 1591, 15 Sept. Will. Harvie. Bas. Gawdye, Esq.
  • 1596, 21 April, Nich. Cressener, A. M. on Harvie's resignation. Sir Bas. Gawdy, Knt.
  • John Cressener died rector.
  • 1670, 31 May, Henry Cressener, A. M. John Gawdy, Esq.
  • 1720, 24 June, the Rev. Mr. John Whaley, the present [1736] rector, was instituted on Cressener's death. Bas. Gawdy, Bart.; he holds it with Ridlesworth and Gasthorp.


=== LITTLE-HERLING, now called MIDDLE-HERLING===[edit]

Because it lies in the midst, between West and East-Herling, was held by Ulchetell a Dane, in the Confessor's days, and by Anschitell his descendant, (or son, as the name intimates,) in the Conqueror's; the whole contained 4 carucates of land, whereof two were in demean; it was in Kenninghall soken, and worth at first 6l. then raised to 7l. but fell again to 5l. The part in West-Herling which belonged to the Furneaux family, and after became Berdewell's manor, was valued into the 4 carucates at half a fee, all which were held in capite, by Alan Earl of Richmond, (of whom Ulketell held it,) as part of his honour, at a whole fee; this and West-Herling, which was measured and taxed with it, was a league and a half long, and a league broad, and paid 27d. geld, out of every 20s. raised in the hundred.

This manor was infeoffed in the Furneaux family, by the Earl of Richmond, along with Bergham, of both which Sir Jeffery de Furneaux, Knt. was lord about 1180, and had his chief seat at Bergham in Cambridgeshire; he had Robert, Jeffery, and Ralf; Sir Robert de Furnell, the eldest, was a knight in 1219, and lord of Bergham, of whom Jeffery his brother held Herling, as of the manor of Bergham, it being given him by Sir Jeffery his father, and he was the first of the family that setted here. His eldest brother, Sir Robert, married Alice, by whom he had Sir Michael de Furneaux, Knt. whose wife Alice was buried in the church of the canons of the Holy Sepulchre at Thetford. Their son, Sir Simon de Furneaux, in 1281, had a market and fair granted to his manor of Berkham, or Bergham, where he resided, and free-warren in Bergham, Linton, in Cambridgeshire, and Swanyngton in Norfolk; and some time before this, he was licensed to grant a messuage and lands in Bergham, to the prior and brethren of the Holy Cross at Bergham. He was lord of Pelham Furneaux, and married Alice, one of the sisters and coheiresses of Miles, son of Philip de Hastyngs; her sister Elizabeth married Giles Revel; and Margery, Roger le Botilere. Sir Simon left only one daughter, married to John de Lee, in King Edward the First's time, in whom the eldest branch of this family extinguished: wherefore we must now return to

Sir Jeffry de Furnaus, Knt. lord of Herling, whose wife Amy was buried in the church of the canons at Thetford, to which house, he gave the ninth sheaf of all his demeans in Bircham and Herling, with a messuage and 12 acres of land adjoining, with commonage in the marsh, and shackage in the field, with Amy his wife, who devoted herself, both living and dead, to that house; and his son and grandson confirmed these grants. Their temporals here were taxed at 2s. but their spirituals were never taxed, for they always received a composition of 23s. 4d. a year, instead of the sheafs in kind. He left two sons, Richard the youngest, and

Sir Simon de Furneaux, Knt. who was lord in 1234; he had three sons by Cecily his wife, Gaudeline, Michael, and Robert, his eldest son, who died before him in 1278, leaving

Sir John de Furneaux, his son and heir, who became lord in 1286, at his grandfather's death; he granted his manors of Aynderby, and Wythestepell in Yorkshire, with their advowsons, to Jeffry le Scroop, and Juetta his wife, and Henry their son, and his heirs, to be held by the payment of a red rose every Midsummer Day, for 20 years after the grant, and then by the payment of 40l. a year, to the said John and his heirs. He married Mary, daughter of Nic. de Twynsted, she being then a widow; he was buried by his father and grandfather, in the church of the canons of Thetford, leaving one son and two daughters; Anne, who became a professed nun at Thetford, in 1843; Elizabeth, married to John de Berdewell, with whom he gave the manor in West-Herling, afterwards called Berdewell's, to be held of Richmond honour at half a fee, which till this time was part of this manor.

Sir John Furneaux, junior, Knt. his son and heir, was a ward of Sir Will, Le-Vaux, who sold his wardship to William Le-Bustelere, and Thomas, his son, who kept court here as guardians: in 1320, Sir John, and Isabel, his first wife, kept court; and in 1348, he settled the manor and advowson on Sir John de Gonvile, rector of East-Herling, and Peter de Newton, rector of Brom, in trust for Elizabeth, his second wife, who died before him, and he married Amy, his third wife, who outlived him, and married Rob. Denney in 1384, in which year they held their first court for the third part of the manor and advowson, which she held in dower, and in 1430, they let it for 8 marks. By his first wife he had a son and one daughter, viz.

John de Furneaux, whom John Duke of Lancaster and Earl of Richmond, the King's son, seized, together with Elizabeth his sister, as his wards, by reason of his manor of Bergham in Cambridgeshire, of which Midle-Herling was held, as of Richmond honour, and soon after he granted their wardships and marriage to Hugh de Cliderhowe, who, in 1361, granted them to John de Herlyng, by deed dated at Bergham; this John died a minor this year, and Sir John de Herlyng kept his first court by grant of the Earl of Richmond.

Elizabeth Furneaux, sole heiress, married first to Thomas Crabbe, whose widow she was in 1401, in which year she settled this manor and advowson, with the reversion of Kymberlee manor, after the death of Margaret, late wife of Tho. Fastolf, Knt. on Sir Thomas Erpyngham, Knt. Tho. Halis of Crongethorp, John Poit, rector of East Herling, and William Garlond, chaplain there, to her use for life, and her heirs in tail; after which she married William Sandham of Kimberlee, who sold Kimberlee without her consent, though she give him Herling for life. Her will is dated in 1415. By her first husband she had two sons, John and William, who, in 1424, sued William Berdewell, Esq. for the manor, but Sir Tho. Erpingham proving that he and other feoffees had seizin of it, to the use of Eliz. Crabbe, his mother, for life, and then to John Crabbe, her son, and his heirs, it was confirmed to William Berdewell and his heirs.

John Crabbe, the eldest son, died long before his mother, leaving only one daughter,
Eleanor, who married William Berdewell, Esq. of West-Herling, in whose right he had the manor and advowson, all the feoffees releasing their rights in 1433, when they settled it on him and his wife and William their son and his heirs; from which time it hath continued joined to West-Herling, as it now remains.

The Church was dedicated to St. Andrew the Apostle, being always appendant to the manor; it was a rectory valued at 5 marks at the Norwich taxation. It is in Rockland deanery, and Norfolk archdeaconry, and still pays 1s. synodals, and 2s. 4d. archdeacon's procurations; it paid 35s. 4d. tenths, and is valued now [1736] with WestHerling to the land tax, there being 4 houses and about 30 inhabitants. The churchyard is now glebe; the church remained in use till 1543, and then it was entirely taken down, so that the foundations only are now visible, it stood by the lane's side, in the close going to West-Herling church. Here was a Gild dedicated to St. Andrew, to which, in 1504, Tho. Lulpek was a benefactor.

Rectors[edit]

  • 1308, 12 kal. Oct. Simon de Foxton, priest, to Little-Herling. Rob. de Furneus, Knt.
  • 1324, 11 kal. Sept. Bartholomew de Banham, priest, on Foxton's resignation. John de Farneaus, Knt.
  • 1337, 18 June, he changed this for Winfarthing, with John le Nelde, priest. Ditto.
  • 1358, 28 Dec. Richard Galyon, priest. Ditto.
  • 1377, 30 Nov. Will. atte Tounsende, priest. John de Herling.
  • 1414, 2 June, Rob. Fytchet, priest, at Townsend's death. Will. Sandam of Kimberlee, in right of Eliz. Furneaux his wife, as belonging to Furneaux manor.
  • 1435, 18 Dec. Rob. Polle of Medyl-Herling, priest, on Fytchet's death. William, son of Rob. Berdewelle, patron.
  • 1457, 29 Jan. John Mychell, priest; he was the last rector, it being consolidated in his time to West-Herling.

In 1321, Sir John de Furneaux Knt. in open court, enjoined all the tenants of the manor, under the penalty of 12d. for every default, to dig a St. Andrew's cross on each piece of their land, when they sowed it, to avoid all disputes between the rectors of West and MiddleHerling.

There were three lamps and a wax taper kept burning in this church, at the expense of the lord of the manor.

In 1344, the lord held a tenement and 9 acres freehold, of the Prior of the canons of the Holy Sepulchre, at Thetford, by the rent of 12d. a year, all which Amy Waterhenne held of the lord, by paying the prior his rent, and 1d. a year to the lord.

Robert Gildeuselve died in 1444, and gave a messuage called Purdye's at Middle-Herling Green, and 9 acres of land, 4 acres and an half lying at Dedmore, and 4 acres and an half at Blowlond, to the inhabitants of Middle-Herling for ever, who, in 1556, brought their deeds into court, and proved that on April the 13th, 1547, Henry Cooper, then feoffee, made a new feoffment of Gildensleves, to the use of the inhabitants, it being freehold, held of Berdewelle's manor in West-Herling, by suit of court, and the rent of 6d. a year and one capon.


MARKET-HERLING, or EAST-HERLING[edit]

Is so called because it lies most east of all three; it belonged to Ketel the Dane, a freeman in the Confessor's time, when it was one manor, having two carucates in demean; in the Conqueror's time Ingulf held it under Will. de Schoies, there being then a church and 4 acres of land belonging to it; the whole was 2 miles long, and 2 miles broad, and paid 17d. 1q. geld.

The whole came to the Earl Warren, and a part of it went with a younger branch of that family to the Bardolphs, and Hugh de Bardolph held it at half a fee; this after became Fawconer's manor.

A quarter of a fee went to Robert Malet.

Another half fee went to Roger de Schovill,

And the other fee and 3 quarters was held of the Earl Warren, the whole making 3 fees, two fees and an half of which constituted the capital manor called

Felbrigge's Manor[edit]

Which contained a carucate in demean, and was held by a family sirnamed De Norfolk, the last of which was Gilbert de Norfolk, who died seized, leaving his five daughters coheiresses.

The first married Eudo, son of Adam de Multon; the second, William de Verdon; the third, Roger Bygod of Felbrigge, the fourth, William de Maynwaryn; the fifth, Rob. de Aiguillon; and each of them had a fifth part of the manor and advowson, which after this division became so many separate manors. Martina de Norfolk was Gilbert's sister, and William was her son, and both had lands here, but were not concerned in the manor.

Multon's Manor[edit]

Was soon united to Bygod's or Felbrigge's, for Eudo released it to Sir Simon Le Bygod of Felbrigge, and Maud his wife, and their heirs, and so it fell into Felbrigge's immediately.

Verdon's Manor[edit]

William de Verdon, who married Maud, daughter of Gilbert de Norfolk, died before his wife, and she had her dower allowed her, it having been settled by them, before his death, on Will. de Lakenham, and Isabell his wife, after whom Alexander de Vaux of Keswick, and Margaret his sister, had each a third part, which, before 1268, they released to John de Vaux, their brother, and Margaret his wife, for they in that year released it (the advowson being excepted) to Tho. de Jernemuta or Yarmouth, who had it jointly with Aveline his wife, about 1234, which Aveline remarried to John de Wachesham, and they, in 1303 settled it by fine on Simon Le Bygot, and his heirs, and so united it to Felbrigge's manor; but the fifth part of the advowson, which was excepted, passed from the Vauxes to the Hales, and so fell into Maynewaryn's manor.

Maynwaryn's Manor[edit]

William de Maynwaryn died in 1247; Emma or Amy, his wife, daughter of Gilbert de Norfolk, recovered her dower against Roger her son, who was joint lord with William his brother, in 1256; Simon, son of Roger, was lord in 1286, against whom Lucia, late widow of William his uncle, then married to Stephen de Gissing, recovered her dower; this Simon was married to Lettice his wife in 1297, whose daughter, Agatha Meynewaryn, was lady in 1315, from which time I meet with nothing of it till 1368, and then Sir Roger de Hales had it, whose successour, Stephen de Hales, presented in right of his two fifth parts of the advowson. In 1401, Lady Joan de Hales had it, and very soon after it belonged to Sir John Gonvile, with whose daughter and heiress it passed to Sir Robert Herling, and so fell into the capital manor.

Aguillon's Manor[edit]

Went from Robert to Walter de Aiguillon, and from him to Robert de Agelyn, who settled it on Symon Le Bygot of Felbrigge, and Maud his wife, and their heirs, for 10 marks per annum, to be paid to the said Robert at Flitcham, during his life, and thus it fell into

Felbrigg's, or The Capital Manor[edit]

Roger Le Bygot de Felebrigge, who was as often called Roger de Felbrigge, in right of Gilbert de Norfolk's daughter, whom he had married, had a fifth part of the manor and advowson; after him succeeded Richard de Felbrigge, who gave Alfred Kokerbolle, his villein, and all his services, to the canons at Thetford: William de Felbrigge was his son and heir, whose wife Mary, after his death, married to Merlai, and held this manor in dower, which went to Simon Le Bygot of Felbrigge, and Maud his wife, who held it of the Earl Warren; in King Henry the Third's time he purchased Aguillon's and Multon's parts. In 1280, Sir Roger le Bygod of Felbrigge had a charter of free-warren for his manors of Herling, Felbrigge, Runton, Melton, and Palling, when he and his parceners held Herling manors, late Gilbert de Norfolk's at 2 fees and an half, of the Earl-Marshal. In 1303, Simon Le Bygod of Felbrigge, and Alice his wife, purchased Verdon's manor; this Simon had the whole by grant from William Le Bygod, his brother, who was rector here, and in 1347, he and his wife conveyed the advowson, with 1 acre of land only, to him again, and in 1350, they settled all, but the acre and advowson, on Nicholas Bourne, of Long-Stratton, who left it to his two daughters and heirs, Elizabeth, married to Sir Tho. Jenney, Knt. who, in 1361, released all their right to Margaret their sister, and John de Herling her husband, and their heirs, who purchased the advowson of William Bygot, and so joined it to the manor again.

Fawconer's manor[edit]

Came with the younger branch of the Earl Warren's family to the Bardolfs, and from them to Phillip de Virlye, from him to John de Boyland, and from him to Ralph of Kenninghall, sirnamed Le Falconer, and then to his son Ralf of Keninghall, to whose son, Simon of Keninghall, William de Hastyngs of Quidenham granted a messuage and many lands there, free, at 12d, a year rent. In Henry the Third's time, John Le Falconer held half a fee of Maud de Boyland, and she of Phillip de Virlye, he of Hugh Bardolf, he of the Earl Warren, and the Earl of the King, at half a fee, the relief being 20s. as the Feudary informs us; this John was alive in 1283.

In 1286, Any de Rusheword claimed weyf here, and William de Cringlethorp, also; Amy might be Falconer's widow, married again to Cringlethorp.

In 1288, John Le Fawconer, and Joan his wife, had lands here, settled on them by Edmund de Munpinzon, and others.

In 1302, they lived at Keninghall, were lords in 1315, and had added other lands in Herling and Keninghall, valued at the eighth part of a fee, which they held of Robert de Tateshall, as or Bokenham castle.

In 1345, Simon Le Falconer had it, and paid his relief; he was succeeded by

John Fawconer, whose wife Julian died before him in 1374, and he held her manors for life, by the courtesy of England, they having then no living issue; she was daughter and coheir of Tho. de Ormesby; her sisters were to inherit her manors at her husband's death: sc. Gunnora, married to Perers, and had John Perers, who had one daughter only, Elizabeth, married to Sir Tho. de Narford, Knt.; Elen, her other sister, married, and had two daughters, Agnes, married to Snecke, and Alice to Derling.

It was soon after in the Gonviles, but how it came to them I know not; the Falconers lived first at Keninghall, and afterwards in the manor-house, which laid between Keninghall and Herling, and is now called Hill-Herling, or Gelding Hall.

From the Gonviles it went with their heiress to the Herlings, and the whole being joined, it was called

Herling's Manor[edit]

The Herlings were a family of great antiquity in this parish, from which they received their names; I find them mentioned in divers evidences without date, as Walter de Eastherling, and Ralph his son, John de Herling, and Odo his son, who gave a rood of land to the canons at Thetford; but as none of them were concerned in the lordship before John de Herling, about 1350, I shall begin with him in the following pedigree.

In 1360, John de Herling had free-warren allowed him in this manor, and those of Quidenham, Gnateshall, Newton, and Corton in Lothingland; in 1367, he settled this manor and advowson, Quidenham manor and advowson, the manor of Gnatshall, manors in both Bokenhams, Croxton and Rothynghall manor in Brettenham, on Thomas Heyward, master of Rushworth college, and other feoffees; he was a good soldier, and most expert manager of maritime affairs, upon which account, in 1342, he had the custody of the sea-water at Bristol, during the King's pleasure. He was buried in the church of St. Peter and Paul at East-Herling, (in Herling's chapel,) according to his will, in which he ordered his best horse to be led before his corpse to the grave, as his principal or mortuary for the priest. He died seized of the aforesaid manors, with those of Long-Stratton, and many others, leaving them all to his eldest son and heir,

Sir John de Herling, Knt. who, in 1389, settled on his mother, then wife of Sir John Tuddenham, Bornes, Snape, and Sturmine Hall manors in Long-Stratton, the advowson of St. Mary's chapel in Waketon, and St. Mary's church in Stratton, and Rothynghall in Brettenham. He married Cecily, daughter and coheir of Tho. Mortimer of Attleburgh, Knt. who survived him, and after married John Ratcliff, Esq. son of Sir John Ratcliff, Knt.; she brought a great estate to the Herlings; his brother Robert had an estate in Newton, and Corton, and Thomas, in Lounde in Lothingland. In 1374, he settled on George de Felbrigge, Knt. and other trustees, this, and Quidenham manors and advowsons, 51s. rent in Brettenham and Bokenham, the manors of Gnateshall and Corton, and others in Suffolk, all which were possessed by Cecily his widow, and after by John Ratcliff, her second husband, who, in 1440, held Newenham manor in Cambridge town, of the King in burgage, remainder to Sir Robert Herling, Knt. remainder to Anne his daughter and heir, married to Sir Will. Chamberlain.

Sir Robert Herling, Knt. was a great warriour in France in the time of that victorious prince King Henry V. whom he attended in 1412, at the siege of Meaux, which they took by assault; and during the rest of his life he was continually exercising arms in that kingdom, where he died like a brave soldier, in his calling, being killed by the French at Paris, as he endeavoured valiantly to defend that city, in the year 1435; from whence he was brought and buried in St. Mary's chapel, in St. Peter and Paul's church at East-Herling, under an altar tomb in the south wall, in which he founded a perpetual chantry, for his own and his ancestors' souls, Jane his wife being buried with him. She brought him Lirling manor and advowson, Rushworth manor, called Gonvile's, Fawconer's, and Maynwaryn's, all which, with 100 acres in Moringthorp, were held at 3 fees, of John Mowbray Duke of Norfolk, as of his manor of Forncet, and were settled on Oliver Groos, John Kirtling, clerk, and John Intwood, his trustees. At his death,

Anne, his daughter and sole heiress, inherited, she lived to a great age, and married three husbands. First,

Sir William Chamberlain of Gedding in Suffolk, Knight of the Garter, a man of great renown, an able governor, and expert soldier, for during his being governor of Craill upon Oise in France, which in 1436 was besieged by the French, immediately after they had taken Paris, he behaved himself so bravely, that with 500 Englishmen only, he issued out of the town, discomfited his enemies, slew 200 of them, and took a great number prisoners. He and his wife, in 1457, settled nine marks annual rent, issuing out of Falconer's manor, on the chantry priests that officiated in Sir Rob. Herling's chapel; according to his will, he is buried in a fine arched monument, with his wife, on the north side of this chancel, leaving much to Elizabeth Trussell, his sister, by his will dated Mar. 3, 1461, and proved in this church 21 April, 1462. Her second husband was

Sir Robert Wingfield, Knt. second son to Sir John Wingfield of Letheringham in Suffolk, and Elizabeth Fitz-Lewes his wife; he was Comptroller of the Household to King Edward IV. a man of great interest at court; in 1474, the King granted him a charter for a weekly market every Tuesday, at his manor of East-Herling, and two fairs every year, to last three days each, viz. one on the vigil, day, and morrow, of St. George the Martyr, and another on the vigil, day, and morrow of St. Edward; and the same year, he and Anne his wife, settled the manors of East-Herling, Fawconer's, Quidenham, Welham's, and Reyse's in Long-Stratton; Long-Stratton manor, Bernham-Broom, Bekeriston, Stanford, the advowsons of Herling and Quidenham, of Rushworth and Attleburgh colleges, and of Herling's chantry in Norfolk, of Gnateshall, Corton, Newton, Lownde, and Blundeston, with Lownde advowson in Suffolk; the manors of Newnham Mortimer's, Foxton and Gonvile's in Cambridgeshire, with other large estates, on themselves and their trustees, Edward Bishop of Carlisle, Sir John Wingfield, Sir John Heveningham, Sir Henry Grey, Knts. Edmund Bokenham, Henry Spelman, William Berdwell, junior, Thomas Chamberlain, and others, of all which, together with Gonvile's manor in Wimondham, Little Bittering, and Rothyng-hall in Brettenham, he died seized in 1480, after which she married to

John Lord Scroop of Bolton, her third husband, in 1492, who died in 1494, and was buried in the Black Friars' church at Thetford, according to his will, which ordered that he should be there buried, if he died at Herling, as he did, July 12, in this year,

Anne his wife surviving him; she was a lady remarkable for her gifts to many religious foundations; she gave Lirling manor and advowson, and Gonvile's in Rushworth, to that college, and obtained them a license of mortmain to purchase 40 marks a year; she settled the stipend of her father's chantry priest in this church, and founded the seventh fellowship in Gonvile Hall, in the year 1502, being then Lady Scroop; this she endowed with the manor of Newenham called Mortimer's, in Cambridge, with the watermill there, all which she gave for the maintenance of her fellow, who must be a priest, and of Norwich diocese: his stipend at the foundation was 8l. a year. She had a great value for this college, being daughter and heiress of Sir Robert Herling, by Jane, daughter and heiress of John Gonvile, Esq. descended in a direct line from Sir Nicholas Gonvile, Knt. brother to the founder; she was born in 1426, and was alive in 1502; but having no issue, her estate went to

Margaret, her aunt, who married Sir Robert Tudenham, Knt. by whom she had five children; Joan, a nun at Carrow; Margaret, a nun at Shouldham; Thomas, who died an infant, and

Robert, who inherited, but died young and issueless, leaving

Margaret, his sister, his sole heiress, who married Sir Henry Bedingfield of Oxburgh, who was made Knight of the Bath at the coronation of Richard III. He sold Herling manors and advowson to

Sir Thomas Lovell, Knight of the Garter, and kept Quidenham, from which time it continued in the Lovells till

Thomas Wright purchased it, and left it to

Mr. John Wright, his eldest son, who is now lord and patron.

The style of the court is Herling cum Membris, all the manors being now joined. The fines are at the lord's will; the eldest son is heir. The leet belongs to the hundred; the leet fee is 3s.; blanche-farm 10d.; castle-ward 14d.

The family of the Lovells being very numerous, and having been possessed of Berton Bendish for many generations, before they settled here, I shall treat of them at large under that town, and therefore shall confine myself to that branch only that had this manor.

Lovell bears four coats quarterly,

1. Lovell, ar. a chevron az. between three squirrels seiant gul.

2. Bendish, sab. a cross between four lioncels rampant or.

3. Muswell, az. two chevrons ar. on each three cinquefoils gul.

4. Brandon, barry of eight, ar. and gul. a lion rampant or, crowned per pale gul. and ar.

Crest, a bundle of peacock's feathers proper, tied gul. Motto: vincit, qui patitur.

Sir Thomas Lovell, Knight of the Garter, was an active man, in King Henry the Seventh's time; in 1485, when he was an esquire only, he was made Chancellor of the Exchequer for life, and the same year had an annuity of 40 marks, as Esquire to the King's body; in 1473, Henry Heydon, Esq. granted him an annuity of 20s. out of his manor of Snoryng-Parva, called Dorketty's, for his good counsel, that he had already, and should hereafter give him. He was first made Bannerct, and in 1487, was knighted, at the battle of Stoke, and afterwards installed Knight of the Garter; in 1502, he was Treasurer of the Household, and President of the Council; he was one of the executors to Henry the Seventh's will, Constable of the Tower, Surveyor of the Court of Wards, Steward and Marshal of the House to King Henry VIII; he built the Gate-house at Lincoln's Inn, and placed on it the King's arms, the Earl of Lincoln's, and his own, by which I imagine he had been of that society; he built EastHerling Hall, on the tower of which his arms still remain, and a brass bust of his own likeness, surrounded with the garter. He refounded Halliwell nunnery, near which he had a stately house, and dying at Enfield, May 25, 1524, was buried at Halliwell, in a fair chapel which he had built, on the south side of the choir of that church, under a tomb of white marble. This priory was dedicated to St. John the Baptist, being situate in Shoreditch parish by Norton Fald-gate, London, and being much decayed, was rebuilt, and an addition made to its endowment, by him, which occasioned the following verses to be inscribed on a wall of that house:

All de Dunns of Dalimell, Drap de bath Dap and night For the Soul of Sir Ehomas Lobell, Wham barry the Sebenth made knight.

By his will, dated Oct. 14, 1522, proved Sept. 26, 1528, he gave his manor-place at Enfield, called Elsings, (where he died,) to Tho. Mannors, now Lord Rosse; and to his cousin, Francis Lovell, all his manors and estates in East Herling, Bridgham, Gnateshall, Brunsell, Chosell, Bichamwell, Ashfield's in Bichamwell, Irenhall, Wyrenhall, Wrotton, Denver, Tirrington, Sporle and Pagrave, in Norfolk and Suffolk; and Tyde St. Giles in Lincolnshire; Burghwell, Badlingham, Harston, and Upware in Cambridgeshire; his manors in Wolley in Kent; his lands in Iseldon, Holwey, Edelineton, and Totenham in Middlesex; his tenements in Sandwich, Querington and Marsham in Kent; his manors of Dukelington, Cockthorp, and Fringeford in Oxfordshire; lands in Redlings, Berford, and Dounton in Wiltshire, to hold to the said Francis for life, remainder to Sir Thomas Lovell, son of Sir Francis, &c.; after Francis's death, the manors of Lome and Sibell's in Willingham, and Well's in West-Wyckham in Cambridgeshire, to go to the said Thomas, son of Sir Francis, for life, and to his heirs in tail: Edward, the brother of Francis, to have the moiety of Bassingbourne castle in Cambridgeshire for life, remainder to Francis and his heirs. His lady is buried in Enfield chancel, on the north side, under an altar tomb, with an inscription in brass, and Lovell and Muswell's arms quartered impaling Roos. He left Sir Francis Lovell his heir, who died Jan. 21, 1550; Thomas, his son, being of age, inherited this manor and advowson, Rowdham manor, and the impropriate rectory, with the donation of the vicarage, and all the possessions that Sir Thomas, Knight of the Garter, gave to his father.

Gregory Lovell, Esq. was of that disposition, that he did all he could to ruin the estate, being too malicious against his half brother; and in order thereto, he let the manor-house almost down; and when he perceived his death grew near, married his servant, on purpose to keep his brother out of it for her life; he having liberty to jointure by the entail. He gave a personal estate of above 6000l. to see his will performed, to Sir John Buckworth, and Mr. Borret of Griston, his executors, from whom John Lovell, Esq. met with more kindness and generosity than from his brother, they being so just as to deliver up all the evidences, and whatever belonged to the estate, to him, without any disturbance, notwithstanding which, he was forced to sell it, having prevailed upon his son, the present [1736] Mr. Lovell of Bokenham, (as I am informed,) to join with him in the sale.

Rectors[edit]

Paganus, or Pain, rector of East-Herling.

William de Aldeberg, rector.

  • 1283, Master Elias de Aliuue Cherche, rector.
  • 1289, Will. de la Menewaryn, rector.
  • 1332, prid. id. Oct. William, son of Roger Bygot of Felbrigg, subdeacon. Simon Byoot of Felbrigge, this turn. In 1347, this William, called then William de Felbrigge, was both rector and patron by his brother's gift.
  • 1349, 17 July, Sir John Gonvile, priest. John de Herling.
  • 1357, 23 Sept. Hugh Pain, on Gonvile's resignation. Ditto.
  • 1373, 16 Octob. Sir John Herling, Knt. recovered the advowson upon the King's writ, against Sir Roger de Hales, Knt.
  • 1374, 15 Nov. Richard Hunte, shaveling, with whom Hulton changed for the prebend of Heinbury in Salso Marisco, (or Saltmarsh,) in Worcester diocese. Ditto.
  • 1374, 27 Nov. at Eccles. Reginald de Hulton, shaveling. John de Herling.
  • 1393, 10 Sept. John Peyte, (or Poit,) priest. Stephen de Hales, Knt. this turn.
  • 1414, Robert de Estgate, rector.
  • 1430, 7 Febr. Edmund Coupere, priest. (Master of Rushworth college) Sir William Berdewelle, Knt. John Fitz-Rauf, Esq. Oliver Groos, Esq. John Kirteling, clerk, Robert Palgrave, and John Intewood, Sir Rob. Herling's feoffees, in the manor and advowson. John Duke of Norfolk claimed a right, but did not proceed in it.
  • 1448, 18 Oct. Laurence Gerard, priest, on Couper's death. Sir John Fastolf, Knt. Sir Robert's feoffee.
  • 1474, John Aylward, on Gerrard's death, he resigned Litcham for this. Rob. Wingfield, and Anne his wife.
  • 1503, 15 Nov. Will. Borrosse, on Elwarde's death. Sir Tho. Lovell.
  • 1530, 23 July, Ralph Sparke, A.M. on Borrowe's death. Sir Francis Lovell, Knt.
  • 1558, 26 March, Tho. Moore, priest, on Spark's death. Sir Tho. Lovell, Knt.
  • 1568, 1 April, James Love, clerk. Tho. Moore deprived. Tho. Pigeon, Gent. by grant from Sir Tho. Lovell.
  • 1579, 16 Sept. Tho. Chapman, on Love's death. Tho. Lovell, Esq.
  • 1595, 10 July, Henry Rewse, S.T.B. on Chapman's death. Tho. Lovell, Esq. he was a preacher licensed by the University of Cambridge, and held Great Fakenham in Blackbourne deanery, Suffolk, with this.
  • 1631, 10 Oct. Will. Rewse, A. M. on Henry Rewse's death. Tho. Stoughton, clerk, for this turn.
  • 1665, 3 May, Will. Denny, on Will. Rewse's death. Glover Denny of Raningham, Gent. this turn, by grant of Andrew Knivet, Knt. and Bart. and Alice his wife, and Gregory Lovell, Esq. of Herling, true patrons.
  • 1678, 31 Decem. Theophilus Williams, A. M. on Denny's resignation. Gregory Lovell, Esq.
  • 1716, 9 June, Mathew Goodrich, clerk, on Williams's death. Tho. Wright, Esq. who died Tuesday evening, Dec. 30, 1735, and is buried here.
  • 1719, 24 July, Tho. Macro, on Goodrich's cession. Ditto.
  • 1720, 19 Dec. The Rev. Robert Wright, A.B. the present [1736] rector, on Macro's resignation. Ditto. He is D.D. rector of Gnateshall in Suffolk, and of the sinecure rectory of Hackney, and prebendary in the church of Litchfield.

This rectory is in Rockland deanery and Norfolk archdeaconry; it hath a rectory-house and several acres of glebe.

The Church is dedicated to St. Peter and Paul, and is a fine uniform building, having its nave, two isles, and south porch leaded, a square tower, with a spire thereon, and freestone ballisters instead of battlements; it was built by Sir William Chamberlain, as appears from the many blank shields, encompassed with the garter, cut on the stones, finished about 1449, but the bells were not put up till 1465. The greatest part of church, if not the whole, was rebuilt by that knight, the windows (as the arms and effigies in them discover) were finished by Sir Robert Wingfield, who married his widow, whose effigies, with that of his wife, still remain in this manner.

At the east end of the south isle is a chapel dedicated to the Virgin Mary, called Herling's chapel, it being the burial place of that family; Sir Robert Herling, Knt. (who rebuilt it) lies under an altar tomb in an arch in the south wall; he founded a chantry of one priest in this chapel, who was specially bound daily to pray for his and his wife Jane's souls, for the souls of Sir William Chamberlain, Knt. and Anne his wife, daughter and heiress of the said Robert, for John Herlyng and Cecily his wife, Robert's father and mother, and for John Herling his grandfather (all buried here:) in 1458, it was endowed by Sir Will. Chamberlain, and Anne his wife, with 9 marks annual rent, issuing out of Fawconer's manor, then worth 20 marks a year, according to Sir Robert's will, he ordered that if he died without heirs, then his manors of East Herling, Quidenham, with their advowsons, Bokenham Wood, and Gnateshall manor, should be settled for three chantry priests in this chapel; but if he left a daughter, then she was only obliged to settle a provision for one priest. It was not rated to any taxes whatever, but had institution in the same manner as the rectory.

  • 1458, 20 Nov. John Cavendysh, chaplain, the first chantry priest, was instituted at their presentation.
  • 1474, 30 March, Robert Candyman priest. Sir Rob. Wingfield, and Anne his wife.

The preamble to the King's license, which he granted to amortise the said rent, is very particular, for it says, that his Majesty granted this license to his faithful counsellor, Sir Wm. Chamberlain, Knt. without any fine or fee, in consideration of the great and eminent service he had done him in his kingdom of France, and dutchy of Normandy, in the war there, and in other places; and particularly for the great damage he and his family received, by paying his fine of redemption to the King's enemies of France, (who took him prisoner in 1446,) and also for the great value he had for Sir Robert Herling, the founder, who died in his service as he warred in France.

This Sir Robert Herling ordered in his will, if he died in England, to be buried here, and so he was, though he died in the French wars at Paris; his effigies, with that of his wife, beautifully carved in marble, lie on the top of the altar tomb; on his breast are his own arms and those of Mortimer, his mother; he looks with a grim visage, his feet rest on a lion, the usual emblem of those that died in war; his lady hath a water-bouget on her breast, the whole tomb being adorned with unicorns and pelicans, the one the crest of Herling, the other of Gonvile; his arms are on the top, supported by two unicorns.

They are often on the screens of the chantry, and sometimes with crescents.

On the table that they lie on is a fillet of brass, which still remains very perfect, on which is this:

Saro Marmoreo tumulatur in hoc Doliandro, harlyng Robertus Miles, bir nobilis armis, Taus sua Francigenis, florebat cognita multis, Tandem Parisibus bi sucubuit mutilatus, T. quater et Mille, rrrb, cadit ille, Borgonii Festo, Septembre die quoque nono .

On the same side of this chapel is a stately tomb of different-coloured marble, encompassed with an iron grate; the statues of a man in armour, with a peacock's tail proper at his feet, and of a woman with two naked arms, holding a head erased, bearded and haired sab. lie on an altar tomb, under a canopy or bed of state, with this inscription:

Here lyeth buryed Sir Thomas Lovell, Knt. Son and Heir of Sir Thomas Lovell, Knt. and Dame Alice his Wife, Daughter of Sir John Huddilston, Knt. he died the 12th Day of Dec: 1604, in the Year of his Age 64, and she dyed the 1st Daye of September 1600, in the Yeare of her Age 64; they had Issue 5 Sons and 3 Daughters, whereof 2 Sonns and one Daughter dyed in their Infancy, 3 Sonns, viz. Sir Francis Lovell, Knt. Charles Lovell, and William Lovell, Esqrs. over-lived them, and 2 Daughters were married in their Life-time, viz. Katheryn, first to Sir Tho: Knevet of Bukenham-Castle, Knt. 2dly, to Edward Spring, and 3dly, to Edward Downes, Esqrs. and Elinor to Edward Waldegrave, Son and Heire apparant of Charles Waldegrave of Stanning-Hall, Esq.

On the top,

Olim qui Cubuit, jacet hic cum Conjuge Conjux Hic Illa dubium est, hoc sit an illa Prior, Sive Illa, sive hoc, (si demas hunc modo et illam) Haud Prior (indubium est) alt'ra vel alter erat, Atria dum titulis proavitis splendida Uterque, Et Longâ serie stemmata nexa tulit, Largus opum, nec decoctor, plebi Hospitus, almus Pauperi, uterque homini carus, uterque Deo, Ille animi Prudens, et Magnus, Doctus, et Artem Quamve Sacer Codex, Quamve profanus habet, Jura Tori rité hæc coluit, pia, provida Virgo, Virgo pudica, Pudens, Virgo probata, proba, Cum jam Prole beati Essent, prolemque beassent, Qua Locupletando, qua poliendo suam, Octavo hoc Lustro dirimit mors, dividit Urna, Jungit at hos Tumulus, Jungit et hosce polus.

At the head is Hudleston's arms, and at the feet Lovell's. At the top Lovell's arms and quarterings, mantle and crest. On the side three escutcheons,

1. Lovell and his quarterings, as before.

2. Lovell and his quarterings, impaling Hudleston and his quarterings, viz.

1. Hudleston, gul. frette ar. with a crescent.

2. Knelvet with a mullet sab

3. Nevill, with a label of three, gobone, ar. and az.

4. Montague.

5. Monthermer, or, an eagle displayed vert.

6. Holland Earl of Kent. England in a bordure ar.

7. Tiptoft, ar. a cross ingrailed gul.

8 Inglethorp, gul. a cross ingrailed ar.

9. Bradeston, ar. on a canton gul. a rose or.

10. Charleton, or, a lion rampant gul. Lord Powis.

11. Delapole with an annulet.

12. Az. on a fess indented three bezants.

3. Hudleston and his quarterings as before.

The following arms were formerly (and many of them now are) in the south windows of the nave.

In a south window were the portraitures of a man in armour kneeling, in long gray hair, having on his surcoat the arms of Chamberlain, with a label; and opposite to him a woman kneeling; between them were these arms:

1. Chamberlain, gul. a chevron between three escallops or, with a label of three points, the escallops are sometimes ar.

2. Legatt, (as Mr. Leverland,) ar. a saltire ingrailed az. quartered. Chamberlain impales Legat.

A quartered coat all lost, but sab. an inescutcheon in an orle of martlets or.

Herling and Mortimer of Attleburgh quartered.

Tudenham, lozenge ar. and gul. quartering Herling. Gonvile single.

Herling impaling Hemgrave, ar. a chief indented gul.

Bedingfield and Herling quartered.

Mortimer quartering Giffard, gul. three lions passant gardant, ar. and

Charleton Lord Powes.

Wingfield quartering Bovile.

Scroop quartering Tiptoft.

Chamberlain quartering Fitz-Raffe, or, three chevrons gul. on each five de-lises ar.

Fitz-Raffe quartering - - - - - Gul. two bendlets ar.

Coniers az. a maunch or, quartering Fitz-Raffe.

In a high east window of the nave,

Tiptoft, and - - - - - Az. a bend or.

On the north windows of the nave,

Windham, az. a chevron between three lions heads erased or, impaling Howard.

Legat impaling Warren. Erpingham.

Bolleyn ar. a chevron gul. between three bulls heads cooped sab. quartering Butler, or, a chief indented az.

Heydon, quarterly ar. and gul. a cross ingrailed counterchanged, impaling Boleyn.

Calthorp impaling Stapleton.

Hevenyngham impaling Darcy.

Wingfield quartering Doreward and Bovile.

Wingfield impaling Fitz-Lewis, Brandon, Glanvile, and Honipot.

Jenny impales Wingfield, and so does Echingham and Bovile.

Framlingham. Delapole quarters Wingfield, who quarters ar. seven torteaux, 2, 2, 2, 1.

A man having Mortimer quartering Herling,

A woman, Gonvile, ar. on a chevron between two couple-closes outwardly ingrailed sab. three escalops or. Sir Robert Herling and Jane Gonvile his wife.

In the south isle windows,

Scroop, az. a bend or.

Tiptoft, quartered: their effigies.

Effigies of a Fitz-Williams and his wife, who was a Herling.

In the windows of Herling's chapel.

Sir Robert Herling, and Jane his wife, Sir Will. Chamberlain, and Anne his wife, with their arms on their surcoats, in the east window, over the altar, and this,

Orate pro Animabus, Wilitis: Ehamberlayn, Wilitis, et Anne uroris eius et Roberti Rarlyng, Militis, et Jobanne uroris

The screens between the church and chancel are finely carved and painted, being put up by Sir Robert Harlyng, whose arms and crest are often carved thereon.

The chancel is leaded, having two chapels joined to the north side; that most east, is dedicated to the blessed name of Jesus, the other to St. Anne; they are both leaded.

On the south side of the chancel wall, towards the east end, is a stone mural monument, on which Lovell, and Muswell joined per fess impale Paris, gul. three unicorns heads cooped proper, in a bordure ingrailed. Lovell's crest.

Here lieth buried Syr Thomas Lovel Knyght, and Dame Elizabeth his Wyfe whiche lived together in Godly Mariage 29 Yeares, and hadde Yssue, 9 Sonnes and 6 Daughters, the sayd Sir Thomas decessed in the Year of our Lord God 1567, the 23 of March, and Dame Elizabeth decessed in the Yeare of our Lord God, 1591, the last of Marche.

Pray God to joy their Soules together in Heaven.

Opposite, on the north side, another monument of the same kind, but no inscription:

Lovell and Muswell impaling Ashfield of Middlesex, az. a chevron or between three eagles displayed with two heads, ar. Lovell's crest.

The arms shew it was erected for Sir Francis Lovell, and Anne Ashfield his wife; he died Jan. 25, 1550. This is against Jesus chapel, which is now [1736] a school-house.

More west, in the north wall, is a most stately arched monument, disrobed of its brasses, under which lie buried Sir William Chamberlain, Knight of the Garter, and Anne his wife, daughter and heiress of Sir Robert Harlyng; this divides the chancel from St. Anne's chapel, which was founded by his lady, and dedicated to her namesake: the tomb fronts both into the chancel and into the chapel, the chancel side being adorned with his arms, &c. and the chapel's side with her's; in the arch is carved Chamberlain's arms quartering Tiptoft, which is again cut on the side of' the monument next the chancel, with mantle, crest, and supporters. Crest, a cameleopard's head cooped. The supporters two beasts of the same kind.

On the chapel's side, Herling and Mortimer quartered, with an escutcheon of pretence of Gonvile and Herling. Crest and supporters.

Anne Lady Scroop of Bolton, by will dated 1498, Aug. 28, bequeathed her body to be buried in the chapel of St. Anne, adjoining to the chancel of St. Peter and Paul, at East-Herling, in the tomb of her late husband, Sir William Chamberlayn; she gave to the Austin friars at Thetford, where her great-grandame, Margaret Tuddenham, daughter of Sir Thomas Jenny, was buried, together with dame Isabel Hargrave, her daughter, a vestment, and other gifts, to Robert Wingfield her nephew, Lord Scroop, her son, &c.

From a manuscript of Henry St. George, Garter King at Arms, I find a part of the inscription that was on this monument, and this remark made by Mr. Le Neve:

That here were their two effigies, and that the garter was on his left leg; and though Mr. Ashmole says, that Fitz-William's tomb was the oldest, that had it so placed, yet this is older.

Marling Licite Dominus marite, Anna fuit Dicta, Ebristi mulier benedicta, Mundi diserti fuite Rarling nata Roberti, Militis digna, Mortimer de Stirpe benigna. E. quater er Mille Seraginta et tres cadit ille, Derpetuo festo, Deus illius memor esto.

Many of the memorials which were in this church are now lost; one account of them was taken by the Rev. Mr. Leverland, rector of Framlingham castle, in Suffolk, (a copy of whose MSS. I have by me,) and others by different persons, as Mr. Borret of Griston, Henry St. George, &c.

In this church is buried Elizabeth Trussell, sister to Sir William Chamberlain, who died the last of April, 1472; but the four shields and inscription were lost before these accounts were taken.

Charles Wright, Esq. lately glazed the east chancel window with ancient glass that he found in his house, which formerly came out of this window, and contains the principal passages of the New Testament, from our Saviour's incarnation to his crucifixion.

The effigies of Sir Robert Wyngfield and his wife are now placed in this window.

In 1479, Robert Smith was buried in the church, in which there were then four gilds kept, viz. of the Holy Trinity, St. Peter, AllSaints, and St. John Baptist. The lights of St. Mary and St. Sithe were sustained by the benefactions of different people, as I find by the wills in the Bishop's Office.

In 1511, the Gildhall Croft belonged to the inhabitants.

In 1528, The Gildhall in the Hey-Town street, belonged to the gilds, and was given by John Dowe of Diss, son and heir of John Dowe, late of East-Herling, anno 1487.

In 1528, the son and heir of Thomas Gonne of this parish gave to St. John's gild 2 acres of land at Kithesend in Herling.

In 1536, the church-wardens and inhabitants sold to Francis Lovell, Knt. and his heirs, 21 acres and 1 rood ploughed ground of their town land, lying in East-Herling; and he,

In 1538, granted 32 acres and an half to the inhabitants, to be town land for ever.

In 1548, Roger Moore, executor of William Deye, at the request of Adam Deye, gave half an acre, at the end of John Deye's croft, to the inhabitants.

In King James the First's time, John Hawkins and other feoffees made a new feoffment of the town land to Thomas Porter and others, there being then 60 acres, besides a pightle called Wastell's.

These lands were given to repair and adorn the church.

The temporals of the Prior of Bokenham in this town were taxed at 2s. 4d.

In 1510, Rob. Banham, purchased of Will. Banham, a messuage and 6 acres of free land in East-Herlinge, held of East-Herling manor by 8d. a year, to find a wax candle burning before the image of the Virgin Mary in that church. In 1470, at a court then held, it is said, that John Robards died seized of it, and that John, his son and heir, was a scholar in orders; that formerly it was copyhold, but was now held free of the church, the lord's ancestors having perpetually pardoned the fine and rents, in honour of the Blessed Virgin. This year it was conveyed to John Aylward, rector, and other feoffees of the parish.

These arms were formerly in Harling Hall windows:

Lovell impaling Bendish, Muswell, Rosse or Roos, Woodhouse, Dethick, Huddlestone, Pakenham, Ashfield, Brandon, and Harling.

Thomburgh, erm. frettee, a chevron gul.

Colton, sab. a chevron between three griffins heads erased ar.

Vaux, chequy ar. and gul. on a chevron az. three roses or.

Chamberlain and Legate; Mortimer and Gonvile.

The badges of the red and white rose, of the pomegranate, of a lizard gul. his tongue or. Henry the Eighth's arms impaling Castile, Leon, and Granada.

Mr. John Wright bears, sab. on a chief or, three spears heads az. a chevron between three de-lises ar.

Stephen de Gissing and Lucy Manewaryn his wife, for 26s. in hand paid, by deed dated on St. Dunstan's day, in 1283, released to Simon Manewaryn and his heirs, all manner of actions that they might bring against him, for not building her houses in Herling, that she was to have had built for her, in lieu of part of her dower; and they bound themselves, their heirs, and executors, in 60s. penalty, that no such action should be brought, and subjected themselves to the Bishop of Norwich, or his Official, in this case, who should excommunicate them if the penalty was not paid; further obliging themselves to pay 100s. towards the relief of the Holy-Land, if ever any such action was brought; and to confirm it, they promised it before Sir Will. de Crungethorp, Knt. Master Elias Aliuue Cherche, rector of East-Herling, Sir Geffry de Gerbaudesham, chaplain, and others. I could not omit taking notice of this deed, the penalties being remarkable.

The market is on Tuesdays and not on Thursdays, as the Atlas, and the late Description of the Diocese of Norwich (which is chiefly a transcript from thence) tell you, though it is right, as to its being chiefly for linen yarn, and cloth, the manufacture of this part of the county.

This town, in 1603, had 223 communicants, and now [1736] there are about 400 inhabitants. It paid 6l. 6s. 8d. tenths, and is now assessed at 638l. 11s. 8d. to the land tax.


QUIDENHAM[edit]

Is the next town eastward of Herling; the church of this village is dedicated to St. Andrew the Apostle, and is a rectory discharged of first fruits and tenths.

Glebe.

60 acres.

It is in Rockland deanery, and Norfolk archdeaconry, hath a rectory-house, and 60 acres 1 rood and 16 perches of glebe. It was valued in the Norwich taxation at 10 marks, and the temporals of the Prior of Bokenham were taxed at 6s. 8d.

Rectors[edit]

Will. de Swannington, rector, sold to Thomas, son of Will. de Hakeford, Knt. Walter, William, and Alice, children of Ralf Dod, (who were his villeins,) with their families.

  • 1274, Sir Will. de Eleford, rector.
  • 1285, Tho. de Hastynges, rector.
  • 1305, 3 kal. March, Will. de Eleford. Miles, son of Phillip de Hastyngs.
  • 1334, non. Jan. John Jordan, of Grafham, clerk. Maud, late wife of Miles de Hastynges.
  • 1375, 16 Sept. Sir James de Heyham, priest. Sir John de Herling, Knt.
  • 1400, 9 Nov. John Maundeville, shaveling. Margaret Tuddenham, late wife of John de Herling.
  • 1400, 19 March, John, son of John Balie of Blithe, shaveling, on Maundevile's resignation. Ditto.
  • 1401, 20 Octob. Tho. Maundeville, priest. Ditto.
  • 1410, 8 Feb. Edmund Hemgrave, shaveling. Ditto.
  • 1411, 5 June, John Joy of Lutcham, priest, on Hemgrave's resignation. Ditto.
  • 1434, 14 March, Laurence Gerrard, priest, on Joy's death. John Fitz-Rauff, Oliver Groos, Esqrs. John Kirtling, clerk, and John Intewode, feoffees of Sir Robert Herling, in Quidenham manor.
  • 1448, 1 Dec. Ralf Wode, on Gerard's resignation. Sir John Fastolf, Knt. feoffee.
  • John Sterre, on whose death, in
  • 1465, 4 Aug. John Caundyssh succeeded. Robert Wingfield and Anne his wife.
  • 1504, 5 Nov. John Butler, A.M. on Caundyssh's death. Lady Margaret Bedingfield, James Hobart, and Tim. Bachcroft.
  • 1544, 5 June, John Reder, chaplain, on Butler's death. John Bedingfield, Esq.
  • 1560, 6 July, Tho. Davye, priest, on Reder's death. John Sulyard and Alice his wife.
  • 1570, 7 Dec. Rob. Newsham. John Sulyard, Knt.
  • 1579, 28 July, Robert Downes, A.M. by lapse.
  • 1580, 27 April, Thomas Richards, on Downe's resignation. The Bishop collated by consent of Bedingfield, the patron.
  • 1583, 27 Nov. John Dalton, on Richard's resignation. Lapse.
  • 1584, 8 June, Daniel Reeve, on Dalton's resignation. The Bishop, by consent of Humphrey Bedingfield, Esq. patron.
  • 1603, Daniel Reeve, D.D. and rector of Banham, returned in his answer, that the e were 80 communicants here. Henry Bedingfield, patron.
  • 1621, William Wood, clerk.
  • 1636, 16 Nov. Henry Sulyard, A.M. on Wood's resignation. John Holland, Bart. He held it united to Tostock in Suffolk.
  • 1668, 15 October, Arthur Womack, clerk. Ditto.
  • 1685. Will. Bosworth, A.M. on Womack's death. Ditto. United to Icklingham St. James.
  • 1705, 8 Febr. James Baldwin, A.M. on Bosworth's death. Sir John Holland, Bart. He held it with Icklingham St. James; resigned June 24, 1731.
  • 1731, The Rev. Mr. John Hull, the present [1736] rector. Isabella-Diana and Charlotte Holland, sisters and heiresses of Sir William Holland, Bart.; the patronesses, are ladies of the manor, and owners of the whole town.

The Church is a small building, having its nave, chancel, and south porch tiled, the south isle and north dormitory leaded, a small steeple, round at bottom, and octangular at top, in which are three bells, two of them are thus inscribed,

1. Missus de Eelis, habeo nomen Cabrielis.

2.Uirgo Coronata, duc nos ad Regna beata.

On a brass in the south isle,
HERE lyeth the body of RICHARD DAVYE, who deceased the 29 of March, 1628.

On a mural monument, on the south side of the chancel,
Crompton, ar. on a chief az. three pheons or, impaling Holland.

Sub hoc Marmore jacet Katherina Uxor et Relicta Roberti Crompton, Ordinis Equestris, Filiaque Pulcherrima Thomæ Holland, ejusdem Ordinis, Quæ Katherina obijt in Edibus Henrici North de Millnall, in Comitatu Suffolciæ, Armigeri, vicesimo Novembris, Anno Dom. 1653, atque Ætatis suæ tricesimo quarto, Qui Henricus in Honorem et Memoriam Dominæ istius præclarissimæ, hunc Lapidem posuit.

En ! Pia Nata, Placens Uxor, Materque benigna, Fæmina, dum vivit, dic mihi, Qualis erat?

On a mural monument, at the north east end of the north wall,

Holland impaling Panton, gul. two fesses erm. on a canton sab. a ferdumolin ar.

In Memory of the Merits of that excellent Person, the Lady Alathea Sandys, whose Bodie lyeth in the adjacent Dormitorie, is this Monument deservedly erected; she was the Daughter of John Panton, Esq. first married with William, Lord Sandys, afterward with Sir John Holland, by whom she had 6 Sonns, and 5 Daughters, and with whom she lived happily 50 Years within 3 Months, and then in the 69 Year of her Age, upon the 22 Day of May, 1679, she Cheerfully rendred up her pious Soul to God that gave it.

Under this is an altar tomb covered with a black marble.

Holland, Knevet, and Wigmore.

Here lyeth the Body of that Worthy Knight Sir Thomas Holland, who lived highly esteemed in his Country, and died the 5. of Febr. in the 48 Year of his Age, and in that of our Lord One thousand six hundred twenty and five, universally lamented.

On a black marble on the floor, by this tomb,

Here lyeth the Lady Holland, the second Wife to Sir Thomas Holland, and Wife to Mr. Edward Barker, and buried in the Year 1648.

On a mural monument against the north chancel wall, more west,

Holland and Panton.

Sir John Holland who erected this Monument for himself, 17 Years before his Death, maryed the Lady Alathea Sandys, he was sent a Commissioner from the Parliament to K. C. the First, and received Marks of Royal Favour, he lived an Honour as well as Benefactor to his Family, being Eminent for his perticular Abilities and Integrity, and dyed 19th of Jan. 1700, after he was created Baronet 72 Yeares, and in the 98th Yeare of his Age.

There is a stone lately laid in the church for Ann, relict of Thomas Slapp of Rushford, daughter of Tho. Goddard of Wretham, who died Decem. 12, 1729, aged 57 years 11 months, and also for Sarah Slapp, her daughter, who died Nov. 25, 1729, aged 22 years 9 months.

There is an altar tomb in the churchyard for John Buckenham, who died April 22, 1731, aged 54 years.

In a south chancel window, is the effigies of the Virgin holding a wafer, on which is this,

Hi Visite ye.

On the south buttresses,

Jesus, Jesus Salbator.

Upon old stalls in the chancel are the arms of Vere, Bardolf, Herling, Plantaginet, Garnish, Ufford with a bendlet. A fess between six de-lises. Two fesses. Gironne of eight. Three roundels, on each three pales. On a bend cottised three escalops, a rose for difference.

In the parsonage window is an eagle snatching a piece of a sacrifice, with some of the fire sticking to it, which being carried to her nest, fires it, and burns her young; under the flaming nest is this,
So let him feare, who e're he be that dare, Purloin God's Tribute, and the Churches Share.

and round the oval is this,
It is Destructive to Devour That Which is Holy.

Here are 13 acres, 3 roods, and 20 perches town land, in divers pieces, all which (with the glebe) are abuttalled in a survey of the manor, taken A° 1587. The rent was 3l. per annum, paid to the church-wardens, and overseers, for the relief of the poor, and repairs of the church.

In the dormitory on the north side, there are seven coffins of lead, 1. Sir John Holland the first baronet of the family. 2. Lady Alathea Sandys, his wife 3. Thomas Holland, Esq. of Bury St. Edmund, their son 4. Sir John Holland, Bart. his son. 5. Lady Rebecca Paston, his wife. 6. Sir William Holland, Bart. their son. 7. Elizabeth Holland, his sister.

In 1723, at the bottom of the lime-pits in this parish, was found a large copper medal, thus circumscribed, Antoninus. P.P. TR. coss. iii.; on the reverse a Genius, and S.C. by which the Romans should have worked in these pits.

This town paid to the tenths, 3l. 10s. is now assessed at 274l. 10s. and hath 9 houses, and about 50 inhabitants. Leet fee to the hundred is 2s. per annum.

Cuidenham, or Guidenham[edit]

Undoubtedly signifies Villa Guidonis, or the country seat of one Guido or Guy, but who he was we know not; one part of it was Godwic's, a freeman, under the protection of the Abbot of Bury, who held it three years after King William came into the realm; but Godwin Awnd, a man of Earl Ralf's, unjustly took it from him: the soc was at first in Kenninghall; it was worth 15s. and after 30; it was then a mile and a quarter long, and a mile broad, and paid 17d. 1q. geld, being at the survey, in the King's hands, who had taken it from Godwin, and committed it to Earl Godric's care.

Another part was given by the Conqueror to be held at a fee and half, to Will. de Albany Earl of Arundell and Sussex, who gave one fee of it to Warine de Munchensi, who granted it to Miles Hastyngs, against whom William, son of Warin de Munchensi, in 1194, brought his action to recover it, but to no purpose; this was after held at one fee of the Munchensis, (lords of Winfarthing,) and their successours, who held it of Bokenham castle.

The other half fee was given by the said Earl, in King Henry the First's time, to the monks of Rading in Berkshire, in pure alms, who were obliged to grant it to Ralf, sirnamed the Great, (Magnus,) conditionally, that he and his successours should for ever pay an annual rent of one mark, for the health of his own, his ancestors, and successours souls, to make a good dinner or repast in that convent, on his uncle Joceline's anniversary. It contained a carucate of 100 acres of land in Quidenham, Kenninghall, and Atlleburgh, and 40 acres in Ridlesworth, and divers rents and services, with common of pasture on all the commons in Quidenham, and a fold-course there: from this Ralf it came to Brian his son, who settled it on William de Hocham for life; and in 1198, Wimar, son of William de Hocham, had it confirmed to him and his heirs, by William, the third of that name, Earl of Arundell and Sussex, from whom it it was called

Hockham's Manor, or Free Tenement[edit]

John son of Brian, agreed to this confirmation, on condition that he should pay 1s. a year to him and his heirs, and a mark sterling every Michaelmas Day, to the Earl and his heirs; and in 1200, Wimar and John jointly conveyed it to Miles Hastyngs of Quidenham, who joined it to his other part, with which it now continues. It was always held of the manor of Kenninghall, as of the castle of Bokenham.

One manor and moiety of the advowson, belonged to Bury abbey, with the whole soc of it, in King Edward's time, and was in the Abbot's hands, till Baldwin, Abbot there, infeoffed his brother Frodo in it, in the Conqueror's time, who infeoffed Joceline, who held it at the survey; this Joceline was sirnamed de Lodne, and was uncle to William de Albani Earl of Sussex, as he says in his deed. In 1196, Ernald de Charneles had it, between whom and Sampson Abbot of Bury there was a fine levied this year, by which he acknowledged, that he held it at one fee of the Abbot, by the service of 20s. scutage, and castle-guard to Norwich; it then extended into Quidenham, Aclee, Turiston, Elyngham, and Norton, and had 60 acres in demean, two villeins, and one bordarer; and in 1199, it was in Miles de Hastyngs, a younger son (as I take it) of William de Hastyngs, Steward to King Henry I. He sealed with Hastyng's arms, I cannot say whether with any difference or not, though I have a seal of Nicholas de Hastyng's about this time, which hath a label of five over the maunch.

Miles, his son and heir, was lord in 1264, being then married to Dionise, daughter of Peter Goldington of Goldington in Bedfordshire. In the Roll of the Rebels and Adversaries to King Henry III. and Prince Edward his son, after the battles of Lewes and Evesham, this Miles was found to be one, being then lord and patron, and holding 80 acres in demean, all which were seized, it being proved that he had taken the barons' part; it was afterwards restored, as all those estates were which were seized upon this account. His brother Will. de Hastyngs lived here; Miles de Hastyngs, son of Miles, was lord of Stoke-Goldyngton, and Cavendish in Suffolk, Elesford in Oxfordshire, and Dayleford in Worcestershire; he settled Elesford on Thomas, his youngest son, who was rector of this parish; he married Maud, who was lady in 1280, and soon after married to Pigaz, whose widow she was in 1288; they had three sons and one daughter; Margaret, who married Richard de Noers. Nicholas, the second son, was alive in 1282, at Phillip his eldest brother's death, who left Alice his widow, who, in this year, recovered against Miles de Hastyngs, her father-in-law, 10l. a year in land, in Cavendysch, for her dower; but it appearing that those lands were settled on Thomas, Nicholas, and Margery, the younger children of Miles, with the consent of her husband, she had 20l. a year in Quidenham, with a watermill there, instead of it. Miles, son of Phillip, was 30 years old in 1304, and at his grandfather's death became heir; he had two wives, Dionise, and Maud who outlived him, and was lady in 1334, and so continued till after 1345. In 1355, John de Herling purchased a third part of the manor and advowson, of William Furneaux of Sheffield, who had married one of the three daughters and coheiresses of Miles Hastyngs, and another third part anno 1362, of William de Ingaldesthorp, Knt. and Elcanor his wife; and in 1371, the other third part of Tho. Caus and James de Hegham, by which means he had the whole manor, from which time it passed as East-Herting, till Sir Edmund Bedingfield sold Herling, and continued this, in his family.

Fawconer's Manor[edit]

Was made up of different parts; it belonged at the survey to Roger Bigot, and went to Walter Bygot of Fornsete, a younger brother of that family, and from him to Richard Bygot, his son, who conveyed a part to Ralf of Kenninghull, called the Falconer; Edmund de Bella Campo, or Beauchamp, had 30 acres of it, and the moiety of the advowson; he left it to John de Beauchamp, his son, who, in 1287, by deed enrolled in the King's-bench, granted it to Edward, son of Sir Will. Charles, Knt. of whom it was purchased by Miles Hastyngs, who joined it to his manor, and so had the whole advowson. Another part went to Simon Bygod, who was lord in 1280, John le Fauconer being then lord of Richard Bygot's tenement. In this year Richard Le Baxter and Agatha Maynwaryn are said to have a manor here, but it was only a part of Maynwaryn's manor in East-Herling, that extended hither, and soon after John le Fauconer got Simon Bygod's part, and so became lord of both; Will. Hastyngs of Quidenham gave Simon Fawconer, father of John, a messuage and lands here, which he added to this manor, and Maud de Hastyngs conveyed a quarter of a fee out of her manor to him, this whole manor being then held of her manor, at half a fee, and paid 20s. relief, and from the time it was purchased by Ralf Le Falconer, always went as Fawconer's manor in East-Herling, to which I refer you.

The manor which belonged to the family sirnamed de Quidenham, was joined to this, by one of the Falconers. William de Quidenham lived in Henry the Second's time; Adam his son succeeded him, he granted divers lands to be held of his manor, by the service of four annual suits at his courts here. Hugh his son had Gilbert, who was dead in 1319, Igred being then his widow; I take it he was the last of this family that was lord, though it did not extinguish till after 1400; for then William Quedenham lived at Quidenham. About this time also they purchased the messuage, and all thereto belonging, which Richard Bygot granted to Martin, father of Adam de Quidenham, to be held of him in villeinage; and after that Bygot sold him as his villein, to Adam Neve of Quidenham, who sold to Rob. de Sulwode of Wymondham, Adam son of Martin de Quidenham, his villein, with all his cattle, and family, born, or to be born, and all their appurtenances.

The family sirnamed De-ponte de Quidenham; or atte Brygge, continued here from Henry the Third's time, to about 1500, and had a free tenement held of Kenninghall manor, at 16s. 5d. a year, which is now joined to the other manor; and thus all the manors and free tenements became joined in

Sir Henry Bedingfield, Knight of the Bath, in right of the heiress of the Tudenhams; he left it to Peter Bedingfield, his fourth son, who settled here; he had two wives; by his last, who was daughter of John Moninges of Greynford in Kent, he had John Bedingfield, Esq. his son and heir, who married Alice, daughter of Humphry Kervile of Wigenhall St. Marie's, who outlived him, and after married Sir John Sulyard, Knt. who was lord here in 1550, her first husband dying Jan. 1, 1545; at her death Humphry Bedingfield, Esq. her son, became lord; he married Margaret, daughter of Edward Cocket of Ampton, by whom he had Dorothy, that died without issue, and Frances, his sole heiress, who married Anthony Twaits of Hardyngham, whose only daughter and heiress, Elizabeth, married Jeffery Cobb of Sandringham, whose son, Will. Cobb of Sandringham, was living in 1664.

This Humphry, in 1572, sold it to John Holland, Gent. and his heirs.

Holand, or Holland: this honourable family flourished in the time of the Confessor, and took their name either from Holand in West Derby hundred, in the county of Lancaster, or from Holand in Lincolnshire, both which were the ancient possessions of this house. Sir Otho de Holland, lived before the Conquest, and left Sir Stephen his son, whose grandson, Sir Ralph, son of Sir Ralph, lived at the Conquest, and held divers lands of the Conqueror's gift; he married Sibill, daughter to William de Well, and left issue, Sir John, father of Sir John, and grandfather of Sir Robert de Holland, Knt. who was summoned a baron of parliament, July 29, the 8th of Edward II. (A° 1314,) he founded the priory of black monks at Holand in Lancashire; by his wife Maud, daughter and coheir to Alan Lord Zouch of Ashby, he had a numerous issue; his eldest son, Robert, was a baron in parliament in the time of Edward III. and dying without issue male, left only Maud, married to John Lovell of Tichmarsh, afterward Lord Lovell. Sir Otho, Otes, or Eton Holland, Knight of the Garter, was at the siege of Calais, attended with three esquires, where he was taken prisoner; he bore a cross patee gul. upon the shoulder of his lion, for his gentilitial distinction; Sir Tho. Holland also was at that siege, attended by four esquires, and four archers on horseback; he was summoned as a baron in parliament the 27th of Edward III. and was Earl of Kent, and Baron Wake of Lydell, in right of Joan his wife, sister and heir to John Plantaginet Earl of Kent, and of his wife Margaret, sister and heir to Thomas Lord Wake, which lady afterwards married the Black Prince. From this Thomas proceeded the Hollands Earls of Kent, one of which was advanced to the dignity of Duke of Surrey; and by a younger son, the Dukes of Exeter, and Earls of Huntingdon, some time enjoying the title of Earl of Ivory in Normandy, and Edw. Holland Earl of Montaigne. The line of Kent expired in the 9th of Edward IV. for want of male issue, as did also, about that time, the lines of Exeter and Huntingdon; their lives are written at large in Mr. Dugdale's Baronage, from fol. 73 to fol. 83 of the second volume, for which reason I have no occasion to repeat it here.

The fourth son of Sir Robert de Holland first mentioned was John, who by the daughter and heir of Sir Andrew de Medestede, was progenitor to the Hollands of Weare in Devonshire; his fifth son was William, of Denton in Lancashire, and from him branched the Hollands of Clifton, and from them, by a second son, the Hollands of Sutton; his eldest son was also named William, who had lssue, Richard Holland of Denton, who, by a daughter of Harington of Hornby castle in Lancashire, had a son named Thurstan, and by Amery, his second wife, daughter and heir of Adam Kenyon, had another son named Richard.

Thurstan Holland of Denton, Esq. his eldest son, married Jane, daughter of John Arderne of Hawardine, in the county of Chester, Esq. and had issue five sons; Robert, who married Elizabeth, daughter of Richard Ashton of Middleton, Esq.; the second was Sir Richard Holland, Knt. who married twice, and left issue by both wives; third John; fourth Ralph; fifth Terence.

John, the third son, had issue, Brian Holland, Esq. of Denton Hall, with whom I shall begin the pedigree, his third son, John, being the first of the family that settled in Norfolk.

Among the evidences of the Hollands there is a very large genealogical table of the family of the Hollands in Lincolnshire, from which house all the families of this name are descended. It was collected by Geo. Holland, one of the family, in 1563, and continued since to 1601; it begins thus: "Estovinghall, Here ensueth the pedigree of the Hollandes of the house of Estovenhall, in the partes of Holland, in the countie of Lincolne, and do dwell there, without alteration or change, eyther of house or name, by xiijth. descent before the Conquest," &c.

Before which time they all bore, party per pale indented, of six, or and gul. which the house of Estoven always continued, and since the Conquest their descendants bore the present arms, with their proper differences.

Sir Ralph Holland, who descended in a direct line from that Sir Ralph that lived in the Conqueror's time, was entombed in Swineshed abbey, anno 1262; Sir John Holland, his great grandson, was buried in the parish church of Swineshed. In 1340, his greatgrandson's grandson was Sir Thomas Holland, who married the Devilish Dame, called Elizabeth, daughter to Sir Piers Tempest, Knt.; he spent his life in the Holy-Land, and came home but every seventh year; his son, Sir Thomas, lived about 1457, and dwelt two years at Crowland, then at Boston, Easton, and at Lynn, where he is buried, in St. Nicholas's church. His son, Thomas Holland, was buried at Bury abbey; Tho Holland, his son, was first Comptroller of the Household, and after Treasurer to the Duke of Richmond's good grace; and Hamond Holland, his brother, was first apprentice in London, and after, by great conjectures, was thought to be of great authority under the Grand Turk; this Thomas had three wives; by Jane, his first wife, he had George, Secretary to Thomas Duke of Norfork, who died without issue; by his second wife he had Tho. Holland, Esq.; and by Jane, his third wife, daughter of Henry Smith of Norfolk, he had Hen. Holland, who, in midsummer, 1563, proceeded master of arts in Gonvile Hall in Cambridge, and Christ. Holland, then student in Pembrook Hall, whose son, Edw. Holland, in 1601, was student also in Cambridge.

Note, "At the dissolucion of the abbaye of Swineshead, I my selfe, [sc. George Holland,] with my elder brother, and divers other gentlemen being there, sawe the body of Sir Ralf Holland our Ancestor, entombed there in the right-hand of the Quyre, by the High Altar, as the chief founder of the house, who was there buried A° 1262, lye as wholy to the sight of the eyes, as might be, 'till being touched with a little stone falling from the brincke of the tombe, that wholly dissolved to duste; Cuthbert Tunstall, late Bishop of Durham in his you the, near ij Yeres, was brought up in my great grand father Sir Thomas Hollandes kitchin unknowne, 'till being knowne, he was sent home to Sir Richard Tunstall his father, and so kept at schoole, as he himself declared in manner the same unto me.

"Note, Sir Robert Holland was had in great favour and reputation with Thomas Earl of Lancaster, in 1321, as my poore father was the like with the mighty Prince Henry Duke of Richmond, in the time of his father, King Henry the Eight." (This Duke married a daughter of Thomas Howard Duke of Norfolk, by whose means this George Holland became that Duke's Secretary, and dying without issue, left much to John Holland, Gent. of Wortwell, his successour to his place in that family, by which means the pedigree came into this family.) "My grandfather lieth buryed at Burne abbey, he had among other children, 7 sonnes, and made them all religious, viz. Davy and Laurence to Ramsey; Daniel and George to Crowland, where I dwell next house to the late abbey; Richard to Walsyngham; John to Barkyng, after that to Newbowe; Nicholas parson of Thurleby, a bachelor of divinitye; and Sir Antony of Twynne, and this John, channon of Barkyng, twynne brother to Sir Antony, was the first that ever King Henry the VIIIth by his supremacie dispensed with, and so was secular prieste, and after that, parson of Feltwelle in Norfolk. Doctor Makeryll, Abbot of Barkynge, who in the commotion, was called Captaine Coblerne, killed him in person.

Henrye Holland was bachelor of divinitye in Cambridge, and after vicar of Boston, and so died.

Note, That the cuntry of Holland being at the Conquest very strong, by abundance of waters, the Hollands, the Welles, and the Lords of Kyme, being confederate together (as by old men, from man to man I have heard credibly reported) kept out the Conqueror by force, 'till at length he had it by composition and agreement, that they should keep their lands still, and so the grant to the Hollandes at that tyme from the Conqueror, passed in this sorte.

Notescat omnibus Anglis Francis et Alienigenis nos Willum: Regem, redidisse Radulpho Militi de Holand totum dominium suum de Esteveninge, tam libere honorifice, quiete et in pace sicut aliqui alij de Baronibus nostris de nobis tenent. Teste, &c.

This manor or lordship of Estevening continues his name and place, and never went from the Hollands since, and now Thomas Holland my brother is heire, and enjoyeth it; the same lordship hath by special charter very great privileges and liberties, viz. free-chace and free-warren, wyeffe, stray, fellons goods, and ought to pay no manner of towle, nor pays no rent, but 5s. to castle-warde, and a marke for his liberties, whereby he may keep sessions within the lordship, as Sir Thomas Holland my grandfather did, who executed two fellons at Drayton, within the lordshipp, arraingned and condemned at the said sessions.

Edmund Holland, Earl of Kent, who was killed beyond sea, was brought home and buried at Burne abbey, about 10 miles from Estoveningehall, where I see him lye entombed in the midst of the quire, with 5 or 6 of my ancestors, entombed round about him, and there did my grandfather in his latter days keep house, and lies buried hard by; the said Earl also, part of his tyme, kept house there, and was either founder, or a great benefactor to the priory of St. James at Deeping: none of the Hollands are buryed at Swyneshed church, but only Sir John, who lies flat with the Hollands quire there, the scripture of his burial being in French, the date worn out, he married Margaret, but further appears not, most of the Hollands were buried in abbeys, and friers houses; I have seen them lye in great number at Bourne, Swyneshed, Barkyng, Bardeney, Sempring, Grysted, Strikswold, Spalding, Crowland; and the friers at Boston and Stamford, now being the Dukes of Suffolk, and my father lies in Spaldynge church, to which houses of religion, my said ancestors to my knowledge, have been too great benefactors, my mother lies buried in the Holland's quere at Swineshead, and my uncle Blase at Boston. Geo. Holland was Secretary to the most worthy and mighty prince, Thomas Duke of Norfolk, grandfather to the present Duke, and served him in that calling, and Clerk of the Counsail in the warrs both in France, England, and Scotland, and when he was committed to the Tower, and his son of Surrey beheaded in the last year of King Henry the VIIIth, and being most worthily delivered thence by Q. Mary, I served him in that callinge till his death, and was with him against Sir Tho. Wiatt his godson, where he was most slenderly appoynted by his own men & capt; trayterously."

===BANHAM===

There were three manors in this town, all which are now united, though each retains its name in the style of the court, which is Banham, Marshall's, Beckhall, and Grey's.

The Customs of which are, that the lands descend to the eldest son; the fines are at the lord's will; it gives a third dower; and the tenants cannot fell timber on the copyhold without the lord's license, unless to repair their copyhold premises.

Marshall's[edit]

Was the head manor, part of which was owned by the Abbot of Ely. at the Confessor's survey, of whom it was held in the Conqueror's

time by William De'Schoies, L'Escois, or the Scot, who in his own right then held another part and the advowson. At this time the church had 30 acres of land belonging to it; part of this manor Ordar then held of the said William, at one carucate, which, with the advowson, was afterwards given to York abbey; and in the Confessor's time was held (together with the manor and advowson of Wylby) by Fader, L'Escois's predecessor. The whole town of Banham was 3 miles long, and 2 miles broad, and paid 14d. ob. geld or tax, out of every 20s. that was laid on the hundred.

In the time of William Rufus, William de Eschois, for the health of the soul of that King, his lord, gave to the monks of St. Mary's abbey by York walls, the advowson of this church, with a carucate of land here; together with the advowson of Wilby, and two parts of the tithes of his demeans, which were after valued at 8 marks per annum, and for that sum let to the rector and his successours. This pension was after granted by that abbey to their priory or cell at Rumburgh in Suffolk, in which it continued till it was dissolved by Cardinal Wolsey, who procured bulls to dissolve this and some other small monasteries, in order to erect two colleges, one at Oxford, and the other at Ipswich; and besides those bulls and letters patent that he had obtained of the King, he procured releases of them from the patrons, for the Abbot of St. Mary at York released to Tho. Capon, Dean of the Cardinal's college at Ipswich, all his right in the priory of Rumburgh, and all its possessions, lying in Banham, Wilby, Cossey, Bawburgh, and Swaffham in Norfolk, and in other places in other counties. This portion was issuing out of his demean lands in Banham and Wilby jointly, but yet the whole was paid out of Banham, that rectory being by far the best; the donation was confirmed by Henry I. and by Everard Bishop of Norwich, and Theobald Archbishop of Canterbury; after this the said William sold the manors to

Walter Giffard, who gave the advowsons to the abbey of Nutley, which he had founded in his park at Crendon, near Tame in Buckinghamshire; but it appearing that William de Escois had given them to York abbey before the sale, Giffard's grant had no force.

Walter Giffard, son and heir of the aforesaid Walter, sold it to

John le Mareshall, whose son, John Le Mareschall, was lord in 1276, in which year he brought an action against the Abbot of York, in order to recover the advowson, but without success. In 1285, Havise, widow of John le Mareschall, was lady, and had freewarren, view of frankpledge, assize of bread and beer, allowed her to this manor, which was then valued at 40l. a year; she held it in dower of the inheritance of John le Marshall, a minor, then the King's ward. It seems John died under age; for in 1314 she held it in dower of the inheritance of William le Marshall. In 1332, Sir Anselm Marshall, Knt. was lord, who, in 1345, held it at the third part of a fee of the Earl of Gloucester, and paid 13s. 4d. relief. This Sir Anselm united the manors, for he held the manor which John le Grey and his tenants formerly held, at one fee, of the Earl-Marshal, he of the Earl Warren, and he of the King, and paid 40s. relief; and the said Sir Anselm, jointly with William de Banham and his tenants, held half a fee of John de Beck, who held it of Hugh le Verc, he of the Earl-Marshal, and he of the King, which manor Havise le Marshall and Will. de Banham lately held, and for this he paid 20s. relief: after Sir Anselm's death,

William de Morley, Marshal of Ireland, was lord, who, in 1361, granted to Sir John de Herling and his heirs free commonage in Banham, for all manner of beasts. It was after in

Havise le Marshall, wife of Robert de Morley. In 1380, Thomas de Felton, Knt. and Joan his wife, had these and Wylby manor; Joan held them to her death, which was long after her husband's; they left two daughters their heiresses,

Mary, the eldest, married to Sir Edmund Hengrave, Knt.; and

Isabell, or Sibill, to Sir Thomas de Morley.

In 1401, the said Joan settled them after her death, on her two daughters and their husbands, and their heirs, Robert Braybrook Bishop of London, Sir Tho. de Erpingham, Knt. Sir Will. Rykill, Knt. and others being trustees.

In 1415, they were settled by John Spencer, and others, on Sir Simon Felbrigg, John Hubard, and others, in trust for Sibill de Felton Abbess of Berkyng.

In 1420, they were conveyed to Sir Lewis Robesart, Knt. who settled them on Catherine, widow of John Spencer, for life, remainder to him and his heirs, Sir Simon Felbrigge, John Hubard, clerk, Robert Ashfield, and other feoffees, releasing their rights.

In 1430, they were conveyed to John Eastfield, and Will. Alnwyk Bishop of Norwich, Sir Ralf Cromwell, and other trustees, by Tho. Chaucer, and John Arundell, Dean of the free college of St. George at Windsor, and others, John Tirrell at that time holding them during the life of Katerine his wife, who was widow (I suppose) of John Spencer.

In 1432, Sir Tho. Morley, Knt. and Isabell his wife, conveyed them in fee to Will. Alnwyk Bishop of Norwich, Sir John Tirrell, Knt. Ralf Cromwell, Knt. and their heirs; and in the same year, Tho. Greene of West-Creeting in Suffolk, cousin and heir of William, formerly vicar of East-Dearham, released to them all his right in the manors of Marshall's and Crey's, and the moiety of Beckhall, which formerly were the said Thomas Green's, and extended into Banham, Wilby, Quidenham, Old Bokenham, Winfarthing, and Tibenham, from which time they went with Bokenham castle, till they were sold to

Thomas Duke of Norfolk, in whose family it still continues, the Duke of Norfolk being now [1736] lord. In 1558, Sir John Tirrel of Gipping granted all his right in the manor, with many lands here, to the Duke, who gave him Cotton and Bacton manors in exchange.

Grey's Manor[edit]

At the first survey, belonged to Lessius a freeman, who had one carucate in demean; it was William Earl Warren's, at the Conqueror's survey, and belonged to his castle at Lewes.

It went from William, the second Earl Warren, who died in 1135, to Reginald de Warren, a younger son, whose chief seat was at Wirmegay, or Wrongay, in Norfolk, which he had by marrying Alice, daughter and heiress to William de Wirmegay; at his death, William his son succeeded, who died in 1209, leaving Beatrice his daughter, then widow of Dodo, or Doun Bardolph, his heir, by which marriage this manor came to the said Doun, who very soon after parted with it to Hugh Bardolph, his cousin, who was son of Hameline, brother to Will. Bardolph, grandfather to the said Doun. This Hugh was sheriff of Cornwal anno 1184, one of the King's Lieutenants in England, when he was in Normandy in 1186, associate to the Bishop of Durham and Ely, to administer justice in the realm, during the King's absence in the Holy-Land, being in such high esteem with King Richard, that in the third year of his reign, (1191,) when he was in the Holy-Land, and suspected his Chancellor, (to whom he had chiefly committed the charge of governing in his absence,) he wrote his letter to Hugh Bardolph and others, requiring them, that if the Chancellor did not do as he ought, they should take upon them the rule in all things; from which time he was one of the King's justices for some years, as also justice itinerant, of whose warlike actions and honours more may be seen in Mr. Dugdale's Baronage. (Vol I. 284.) He died in 1203, the 5th year of King John's reign, without issue male, leaving Robert Bardolph, his only brother, his heir, and a widow, who after married John de Brahose, whom she outlived. This Robert was a priest, and parson or rector of no less than thirty churches, an argument of his interest with the Pope at that time, who usually used to grant, by way of proviso, (as it was called,) many rectories to one man, under pretence that the income, over and above serving them, should go towards the expenses of the holy war, the darling enterprise of that age. Robert died in 1224, leaving his inheritance divisible among his five sisters, of which Isolda (as the Latin Records) or Odoyne, (as the French,) the eldest, married Sir Henry de Grey, Knt. to whose share this manor, with others, was allotted; by Isolda he had six sons, to the second of which he gave this manor, viz. John, some time justice of Chester, progenitor to the Greys of Wilton and Ruthyn; he was a most remarkable man in King Henry the Third's time, of whom you may see a large account in Dug. Bar. Vol. I. 713. In 1265, he held it of the Earl Warren at one fee, and died this year, leaving it to Reginald his son, who, in 1277, had free-warren allowed him; he died in 1307, leaving Henry his son and heir, 40 years old, and Roger, a younger son, by a second wife, from which Henry the Greys of Wilton descended, and from Roger, those of Ruthyn. Roger died in 1352, but long before had parted with this manor, for in 1328, Sir Robert de Morley had an interest in it, if not the fee; and in 1345, Sir Anselm Marshall was sole lord, and held it united to Marshall's manor.

Beckhall Manor[edit]

Was in two parts in the Conqueror's time, the chief of it belonged to Aluric, a freeman, who held it of Bishop Osbern, who owned it in King Edward's time; it had then one carucate in demean, and woods that would maintain 100 hogs, the whole of that part being then worth 20s. and 40 at the survey. The other part was only one socman, and his services, of 2s. value, which formerly belonged to Ely abbey, but after the Conquest, Roger Bygot's ancestors had him, of whom Berard held him.

This manor afterwards came to the Crown, for when King Henry II. (anno 1175) assessed his demeans, his tenants of Banham were taxed at half a mark.

It was after in the Bygods, and then in the Munchensies, of whom John de Jerpenville held it, who divided it; for William, son of Will. de Banham, in 1218, held a good part of it of the said John; and in 1235, the said William held it of Warin de Munchensi, as part of the fees of Roger Rigot.

In 1237, Peter de Kenet and Isolda his wife, settled a moiety on Amy, widow of Ralf de Banham, in dower.

In 1249, Warin de Munchensy and John de Plessy, had that part called Banham Haugh, which was excepted when the manor was sold.

In 1288, Robert Rose, Wm. Genner, and Wm. le Parker held it.

In 1305, John de Bek of Banham settled it on Nicholas de Stanhou, and Isolda, wife of the said John.

In 1311, John, son of John de Bek of Banham, divided it into several parts; he conveyed to Richard le Forester (or Foster) of Herling 25 acres, with a part of the manor, and divers bondmen; Isolda de Bek, his mother, conveyed her right in 40 acres of land, to the said Richard, which John de Bek her husband had settled on her, and Nicholas de Stanhou, her trustee; soon after the manor was settled by John and Isolda, on Robert Cleryz, (or Clere,) of Stokesby, who had another conveyance of it from John, son of James de Eggemere, at which time he settled it on himself and Maud his wife, Robert Cleryz, his son, and John, his second son. In 1317, John de Bek conveyed a part to Will. de Crungethorp and Alice his wife. In 1323, it was held of Will. de Banham, but was divided by this John, into so many parts, and each called Bekhall manor, that it is impossible to know how they all went, except the biggest part, to which all the rest were afterwards joined; and that in 1329, was owned by William de Claydon, and Eleanor his wife, and soon after was settled by Thomas de Newton, and Elizabeth his wife, (daughter and coheiress of Claydon,) on John Oliver of Stanway in Essex, to whom Bartholomew de Bek released his right in 1338. In 1345, the heirs of John de Claydon, and his tenants of the other part, viz. Walter Snovile, Simon Le-Cotere, Nicholas de Stanhowe, and others, held a moiety of it of Hugh Le-Vere, he of the Earl-Marshal, and he of the King. In 1374, Peter de Bekhall conveyed his right in the moiety (which was now reckoned as a whole manor) to Thomas Asty and his heirs, Tho. de Chaunticlere being trustee; and soon after it was settled in reversion on John Oliver of Stanway, in Essex, after Thomas de Hardell's death, who held it by the courtesy of England, after his wife's death, who was heiress to it.

In 1381, Tho. de Newton, and Elizabeth his wife, settled a moiety of Bekhall on John Clervaux, clerk, &c.

In 1401, John Darlington had it, and from that time till it came to the Duke of Norfolk in Henry the Eighth's time I am ignorant how it went; but at his attainder, it was given to Sir Francis Calthorp of Ingham, and in 1558, Will. Calthorp of Hempstead had it, after which it soon came to the Norfolk family again, Sir John Tirrell releasing it as aforesaid.

In 1226, Stephen de Ebroic, lord of Wylby, (who held part of the carucate of land in Banham, that was given to York abbey, which part always was included in Wilby manor, after he had purchased it of Walter, son of Walter Giffard, who sold the rest to the Marshalls,) had a grant for a fair and market in Banham; the market hath been disused time immemorial, but the fair is still kept on St. Barnabas's day.

In 1285, Roger Bigot Earl of Norfolk claimed assize of bread and ale in Lopham and Banham, but as to Banham, he acknowledged that it belonged not to him, but to Roger de Montealt, lord of the hundred. It was thought to belong to him on account of Bekhall manor, which was held of him; the Countess of Arundell had liberty of a gallows here in 1256, and Grey's manor was then held of her.

The Hawe[edit]

Was part of Beckhall manor which was excepted when it was sold, and therefore that passed with Winfarthing manor, in the Munchensies, Veres, and other families that owned it; it was no manor, but was originally part of the demeans of Beckhall, and contained 220 acres of wood and pasture, with a messuage thereon built; it abuts east and south on Banham Heath. In 1311, Sir Hugh Le-Vere and Dionise his wife, then owners of it, purchased of Richard Le Forester of Herling a parcel of land of Overhaghe in Banham, under the said Hugh's wood, called Banham Haghe, extending itself from the common pasture, lying at the head of the said land, and was only 10 feet broad, it being in order to enclose the Haghe. This came with Winfarthing manor to the Norfolk family, and was farmed under them by Sir Henry Dye, Knt. in 1607; it was after sold off, and hath continued in private hands ever since.

Banham Heath[edit]

Is a large common containing above 1200 acres of land, lying in the parishes of Banham and Winfarthing, and in ancient evidences is divided into three parts: the whole that lies in Winfarthing is called Winfarthing Chase; (see fol. 189, 190,) the part that joins to Tibenham, Carleton, and New Bokenham, is called Banham Outwood, and contains 300 acres; the part that joins to Banham is called Banham Green, and contains 300 acres more; on all which the tenants and inhabitants of Banham and Winfarthing only have right of commonage, and are intercommoners, each having the drift of their separate parts, and can common all manner of great cattle, as well as sheep, at all times of the year. In King James the First's time, viz. 1618, there was a long suit between the townsmen of Banham, and the townsmen of Tibenham, concerning the right of commonage upon this heath, the substance of which was this; the townsmen of Tibenham claimed an original right of commonage on the 300 acres called Banham Outwood in Banham, in right of their copyhold lands and tenements, held of the manor of Tibenham, and common of vicinage on Banham Green, there being no fences or ditches between Banham Outwood and Banham Green; but upon the trial, the townsmen of Tibenham were cast, and paid 30l. damages and costs, it being found by the jury that the lord of Tibenham manor, and his tenants, had no original right on Banham Outwood, nor no common of vicinage on Banham Green; and whereas there were divers tenants of the manor of Tibenham, that claimed right of commonage for set numbers of sheep, going on this heath, by the giants of divers of the former lords of the manor of Banham, all which commonages were held by copy of court-roll of the manor of Banham in fee, by a fine of 10s. paid at every death, and two hens a year for the pasturage of every six score sheep thereon, John Clark of Banham (in behalf of the parish of Banham) brought his action against Mathew Buxton of Tibenham, for feeding 60 sheep and one ram on the heath, according to the grant of the lord of the manor of Banham, made to the owner of his tenement, called Easthangles in Tibenham, and recovered damages and costs, it being found by the jury, that such customary pasturage and commonage was not to be demised, neither was it to be demisible by copy of court-roll, by the lord of the manor of Banham, to any customary tenant whatever: upon which all the commonages.of this nature were set aside. An exemplification of the whole under seal, dated Febr. 13, 1625, now lies in Banham Town Chest.

In 1611, there were three separate juries, one for each manor, and the leet belonged to the manor, the leet fee being 3s. 4d.

This town paid 4l. for a whole tenth, and is now assessed at 1439l. 5s. to the land-tax. In 1603, it had 400 communicants, and now [1736] there are 126 dwelling-houses, and 650 inhabitants. It is a pretty village, standing round a small green, the church being on its west side.

This rectory is in Norfolk archdeaconry and Rockland deanery; it hath a good parsonage-house joining to the west side of the churchyard, and 37 acres 2 roods of glebe.

Rectors[edit]

  • 1310, kal. March, Sir James de Salucijs, son of the noble Sir John de Salucijs, was instituted by his proxy, Belingarius de Quibano, rector of Clippestone in Lincolnshire, at the command of R. Abbot of Messendene, in Lincolnshire, executor of the apostolic indulgence, granted to the said Sir James, by Pope Clement V. The Abbot of St. Mary at York.
  • 1329, 18 kal. Jan. Robert de Caue, priest. The King, on account of the late vacancy of the abbey, in his father's hands.
  • 1331, 17 kal. June, Thomas de Staunton, priest; Caue resigned. The King, the abbey being void.
  • 1344, 4 October, Will. Galeys, priest; Staunton resigned. The Abbot.
  • 1350, 21 March, James Bek, priest. Mary Countess of Norfolk.
  • 1360, William de Hawe, parson of B.
  • 1361, 13 Aug. William de Cotyngham, priest.
  • 1361,11 Octob. John Clervaux, priest, on Cotyngham's resignation. They exchanged for a prebend in the chapel of St. Mary and all the English Saints at York. The Abbot.
  • 1378, 4 Dec. Mr. Adam de Lakinhith, priest; Clervaux resigned. He exchanged for Groundesburgh in Suffolk.
  • 1391, 7 August, Andrew de Bondeby, priest.
  • 1393, 3 April, he changed with Henry Harburgh, for the rectory of Collingbourne Abbots, in Salisbury diocese.
  • 1393, 20 Dec. Harburg changed with Tho. atte Ende for a canonry in Wells, church, and the prebend of Codeworth there.
  • 1394, 8 June, atte Ende exchanged with John Juel, for Anneport vicarage in Winchester diocese.
  • 1394, 5 July, Thomas Jewel exchanged with Nich. Saresbury, for Stockton, in Salisbury diocese.
  • 1401, 12 June, John Pygot, shaveling, on Saresbury's resignation.
  • 1443, 8 April, John Cotyngham, priest.
  • 1445, 8 October, Stephen Cloos, priest, scholar in divinity, on Cotyngham's death. John Abbot of York.
  • 1452, 18 July, Cloos resigned, and Henry Cossey succeeded.
  • 1483, 24 Sept. Richard Hoog, on Cossey's death.
  • 1496, 24 Febr. John Longe, A.M. on Hoog's death. William Bishop of Carlisle, Abbot of St. Marie's at York.
  • 1516, 9 June, Roger Darley, on Longe's resignation.
  • 1518, 4 June, Sir Brian Stapleton, on Dorleigh's death.
  • 1520, 26 Octob. Rowland Lee, doctor of the decrees, on Stapleton's death. In 1534, he was consecrated Bishop of Litchfield and Coventry, and so voided this living.
  • 1534, 23 May, George, or Gregory Greves. (All these were presented by he abbot)
  • 1539, 14 Aug. Barnaby Kirkebride, on Greves's death. Percivall, Michael, and John Kirkebride, and John Snell, by grant of the turn from the late Abbot.
  • 1562, 14 July, William Tompson, priest, on Kirkebride's death. John Eglesfield, Esq. by grant of the turn, from William, late Abbot of York.
  • 1577, 18 July, Richard Stokes. Queen Elizabeth; from which time it hath been in the crown, and so continues.
  • 1587, 27 June, Daniel Reeve, S.T.B. in 1603, D.D. and rector of Quidenham.
  • 1628, 9 May, Humfry Tovey, B.D. buried here.
  • 1640, 23 June, Robert Caddiman or Cademan, on Tovey's death.
  • 1671, 13 June, John Gibbs, A.M. on Cademan's death, who was succeeded by

Mr. Charles Kidman, who held it united to Twait in Suffolk, of which he is now rector, having resigned Banham.

  • 1735, 12 April, the Rev. Mr. John Kerrich, the present [1736] rector, on Mr. Kidman's resignation. The King.

Mr. Kerrich bears sab. on a pile in point ar. a caltrap of the field, a martlet for difference.

The Tindals, alias Kendals, had a very good estate here, to which family Cambden, Clarencieux, granted arms in July 1611, viz. to John Tindall of Dicleburgh, son of John Tindall of Banham, son of John Tindall of Bokenham,

Or, five mascles in cross, and a chief indented gul. Crest, a hand proper, holding a cross of five mascles gul.

This grant, in 1685, was in the hands of Mr. Tindall of Banham. The heir male of this family is Mr. Robert Tindall, who lately sold the estate at Banham, and lives at Ratlesden in Suffolk [1736].

The family of the Kendals, Clarks, Leches, and Colbys, were all considerable owners in this parish in 1483, and none of them are yet extinct.

The Church is dedicated to St. Mary the Virgin, and is a regular building, 45 yards long, having a nave, two isles, chancel, south porch, and vestry, all leaded; a square tower, with a spire of wood covered with lead, on its top, and in it five bells, a clock and saints bell.

In the south isle is an altar tomb for Mr. Robert Clark, who died June the 18, 1685, aged 59. But is Clark dead ? What dost thou say, His Soul's Alive, his Body here doth lie, But in a Sleep, untill the Judgment Day, And live he shall unto Eternity. Men Say he's dead, I say so too, And e're a while, they'll say the same of you.

On stones in the chancel,
Hic jacet Humfridus Tovey, in Theologiâ Baccalaureus, nuper hujus Ecclesiae Rector, qui obijt Vicessimo primo die Maij Anno Domini 1640.

John Bringloe, Gent. died the ninth of March, 1683, John his Eldest Son July 3, 1714, aged 60 years. Also Awdry, wife of the last John, 26 Jan. 1713.

In the north isle, at the east end, is a chapel or chantry, divided from the church by screens handsomely painted; in a niche in the wall lies a knight in armour; (founder of the church, if not, of this isle at least, though I am apt to think the former, because the whole building appears as if built at one time;) it is oak, carved; there is, no inscription remaining, but yet it is plain that it was made for Sir Hugh Bardolph, Knt. some time lord of Grey's manor in this town, who died 1203, for under his left arm is a large cinquefoil, which is the badge of that family; and in the adjoining window are his arms, impaling Morley, which induces me to think he married one of that family. This Sir Hugh was with King Richard I. at Messina in Sicily, being one of those who, on the behalf of that King, undertook that the articles of peace and friendship, which were then agreed on betwixt King Richard and Tancred King of Sicily should be firmly kept, in order to carry on the holy wars, as they were called. This tomb is very antique and perfect, as the following representation will shew you, for which I own myself much obliged to the Rev, Mr. Kerrich, the rector.

The windows of the chapel, and those of the church, were adorned with the following arms, of the lords of this town, and others related to them, many of which now remain.

And besides these, there were the arms of Morley, Kerdeston, Caily, Bavent, impaling arg. a cross ingrailed az. Marshall impaling Tirrell. Tirrell single. Bassingbourne and Gawdy. Clare impaling Plantaginet.

In the east window a broken effigies of Bardolph.

This chapel belonged to the lords of the manors, who founded a chantry priest to sing for the dead in it: and in 1419, Will. Morley was chaplain; in 1392, Hen. Colred; and in 1474, Tho. Sething.

Opposite, in the south isle, was another chapel, heretofore belonging to the gilds of the Holy Trinity and St. Mary in this town, to both which William Gye was a benefactor in 1479.

  • 1410, Reginald Manifrey, chaplain.
  • 1474, John Wisse, chaplain.
  • 1479, Reginald Btnitownne, was chaplain here.
  • 1505, John Glover, chaplain, to whom Roger Midilton, who was then buried in this church, gave a legacy, and 53s.


8d. to repair the church.

In the chancel, in a north window, was an effigies in a religious habit, with a broken scroll from his mouth, on which,

Supplicat hic Ehomas

Here was a parcel of land given in Henry the Seventh's time, to find lamps before Trinity altar, called Lamp-Loud.

The ancient names of the streets are, Cherchegate, Tycknald, Freschenale, Westmor, Hardwick, and Westgate.

The crosses were Smalmor Cross, White Cross, Atte Borghe, and Alforthe Cross. Seynt Maries-Meer, and Banham-Gap are often mentioned in evidences.

  • 1429, Peter Payn of Banham gave to West-Acre prior 6s. 8d.; to the canons there 13s. 4d.; to the brethren of every house of friars in Norwich x.s. to say 100 masses for his soul; to each house of the friars at Thetford x.s. for 100 masses for his soul; to the prioress of the nuns at Thetford 6s. 8d.; and to the convent 6s. 8d.; to the chapel of the Blessed Virgin at Thetford 6s. 8d.; to the repairing St. Peter's church 6s. 8d.: he ordered to be buried in Banham churchyard, and gave 40s. to be divided among the poor at his burial; to every lazar-house at Norwich 3s. 4d.; to the chapel of the Blessed Virgin at Buckyngham 13s. 4d. to mend Hardewyk way in Banham 40s. and 40s. more to set up a cross at the end of it, where the way parts; Edmund atte Welle, clerk, and others, were executors; the will was proved the same year.

In 1437, John Ropere of Banham gave 12s. to the lamp that burns before the image of the Virgin Mary in the church.

In 1462, Jeffry Canne was executor to Bartholomew Canne, senior, of Banham, who gave 5 marks to buy a new vestment to the red cope.

Mr. Kidman hath two brasses, which came off a stone in this church, containing inscriptions of the same purport, one in Latin, the other in English, viz.

Hic iacet Dna. Elizabetha Wounteneye, quondam Driorissa, huius Loci, que obiit rro die Mensis Aprilis, Anno Dom: MCCCCCo rbiiijo ruius aic: propicietur Deus.

Praye for the Somle of Dame Elizabethe Mountemey, sometime Prioress, of this Place.

It hath occasioned much surmise how this inscription should be true, when there was never any priory in this place; but the mystery lies in the impropriety of the wording the inscription, for the words of this place, do not refer to her being prioress, but to herself, she being born here, where her family for many generations had a good estate, and afterwards removed to Wilby, for she was prioress of the monastery of nuns, of St George the Martyr at Thetford, for in the 12th Institution Book I read thus: in 1498, the 15th of Sept. the Bishop confirmed the election of the lady Elizabeth Mownteneye, a nun of the priory of St. George at Thetford, of the Benedictine order, who was elected prioress there, at the death of the lady Joan Eyton, by the president and convent of the said house.

Town lands[edit]

In 1631, Thomas Canne, only surviving feoffee of the freehold town lands of Banham, renewed the feoffment to Thomas Colby, son and heir apparent of Thomas Colby, S.T. P.; Thomas, eldest son of Richard Tindal, Gent.; Robert, son of Daniel Clark, Gent.; Warwick, son and heir of Robert Dade of Thelvetham, clerk, and heir apparent of Rowland Warwick of Banham, his grandfather, and others, settling all the following lands on them and their heirs, " for the profit and advantage of all the inhabitants of the town of Banham for ever."

A close of pasture by Oxneye Meere, in three pieces, the whole containing one acre, one rood and an half, abutting on Banham Great Green east. One rood of it was purchased in 1438, the rest in 1471.

One acre in two pieces in Banham; the first lies at Langcroft, and abuts on the way leading from Alforth Cross to Banham Moor, south, and upon Wilby-Lawnd, now called Wilby-Warren, north; the second piece lies at Thwart-Furlong, this was given in 1473 by Edward Knith, clerk.

Two roods in Banham, in two pieces; the first rood lies at Muspese, and the second in Brimli-wong. This was town land in 1484.

Two acres in Broad-Meadow at Wanfen in Lancroft-Furlong; one acre of this was purchased by the inhabitants in 1571, and the other acre was town land in 1512.

One pightle, called Le Leete pightle, containing one acre and an half, abutting on the common called Grissell-Moor. The leet fee is to be paid yearly out of the rent of this land.

One close called Semere-Wong, containing 7 acres and three roods in Banham, abutting on Nete-Gale way, which leads to the Moor, east. This was town land in Henry the Eighth's time.

One close called the Breche, and now the Town Close, containing 10 acres in Banham, which formerly was Edward Cann's, and then abutted on the land of Ambrose Norris, jun. west, the lord's lands, east, the lord's wood, called the Great Wood, south, and the land of Tho. Reve, senior, north. The inhabitants had it of Sir Tho. Tirrel of Gipping in Suffolk, Knt. A° 1564.

In 1544, Henry Cotessey, or Cossey, clerk, rector here, settled a messuage called the Gild-Hall, (which was copyhold on Grey's cum Beckhall manor,) on Edward Colby and Tho. Canne, who were to hold it to this intention and use, viz. to keep the obit of the said Henry in the church of Banham, on the vigil and day of St. Margaret the Virgin, and to cause mass to be celebrated for him on that day, &c.; they held it till 1549, for that use, and then it fell to the lord by vertue of the statute, who seized it accordingly, and then granted it to divers feoffees, who were to hold it "to the use and profit of all the copyhold tenants of Banham manor, inhabiting in Banham, upon condition, that the lord of the manor and his heirs, by himself, his servants, officers, or deputies, shall for ever have liberty to hold and keep his courts and leet for the said manor, in the said messuage, with free ingress, egress, and regress, for all the tenants, to do their business at such courts, without the contradiction or molestation of any one."

The feoffees also hold by copy of court-roll of the said manor, a' parcel of ground, with a house thereon built, being 27 feet broad, and 13 feet long.

Here was a small oratory or hermitage, at a place called Stonebridge, the foundation of which may still [1736] be seen.

The half of this hundred towards Thetford is champaign, the land being very light and sandy; the other is heavy ground, and enclosed; it produces plenty of grain of all kinds, and in the champaign part there are good flocks of sheep; the soil there is chiefly a chalk under the sand.