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Index:A Treatise on Geology, volume 1.djvu

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A Treatise on Geology, volume 1.djvu



CONTENTS.






 
PREFACE
 
CHAPTER I.
 
INTRODUCTORY VIEWS.
Page
Objects of Geological Science 1
Means of Geological Investigation 6
Scale of Geological Time 8
Series of Stratified Rocks 9
Lapse of Time inferred from the Nature of the Series of Rocks 10
Antiquity of the Surface 11
Nature of the Scale of Time 12
Terms of the Scale of Geological Time 12
Series of Terms on the Scale of Geological Time 14
Interruptions in the Series of Time 16
Length of the Scale of Time 17
Means of Investigation of Facts 18
Means of Interpretation of Phenomena 20
 
CHAP. II.
 
GENERAL REASONINGS CONCERNING THE SUBSTANCE OF THE GLOBE.
 
Chemical Data as to the exterior Parts of the Earth 23
Proportions per cent, of Oxygen in Earths, Minerals, and Rocks 24
Physical Data as to the interior Constitution of the Earth 26
Mass of the Globe, whence derived 28
 
CHAP. III.
 
GENERAL TRUTHS CONCERNING THE STRUCTURE OF THE EXTERNAL PARTS OF THE GLOBE.
 
Structure of the external Parts of the Globe 33
Forms of Rock Masses 35
Position of Rocks. Declination of Strata 36
Local Declinations and unusual Positions of Strata 39
Faults 40
Extent and Frequency of Faults 42
Relation of Faults, Mineral Veins, Dikes, &c. to the great Lines of disturbed Rocks 44
Origin of stratified and unstratified Rocks 45
Relative Periods of disturbed Stratification 49
 
CHAP. IV.
 
SERIES OF STRATIFIED ROCKS.
 
Sections and Maps of Strata 53
Table of British stratified Deposits 54
Varieties of Stratification 59
Divisional Structures of Rocks 62
Geographical Relations of Joints 65
Cleavage 67
 
CHAP. V.
 
ORGANIC REMAINS OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS.
 
Fossil Plants 69
Table of their Geological Distribution 73
Fossil Zoophyta 73
Table of certain Groups 76
Fossil Mollusca 77
Table of proportionate Number of Species at different Geological Periods 80
Table of proportionate Number of Species in the different Orders or Classes of Mollusca in different Geological Periods 81
Table of Genera containing many living Species of Gasteropoda 82
Table of Genera containing many Fossil Species of Conchifera 83
Table of Genera of Cephalopoda 83
Table of Subgenera of Ammonites 84
Articulated Animals 84
Table of Crustacea 85
Fossil Fishes 86
Agassiz's. Classification of Fishes 88
Table 90
Fossil Reptiles 91
Owen's System of Fossil Saurians 92
Fossil Birds 95
Fossil Mammalia 95
Marsupial of Stonesfield 97
Table of Mammalia 99
General Considerations 100
 
CHAP. VI.
 
HISTORICAL VIEW OF THE STRATIFIED ROCKS IN THE CRUST OF THE EARTH.
 
Introductory Remarks 107
Granitic Basis of the Crust of the Earth 108
Granite Veins 109
Metamorphism of Rocks 110
Hypozoic Strata.
Gneiss and Mica Schist System 111
Composition 111
Lamination 114
Stratification 115
Succession and Thickness of its Strata 117
Organic Life 118
Extent of Country occupied by 119
Physical Geography 120
Igneous Rocks 121
General Inference concerning 122
Palæozoic Strata.
Lower Cambrian System of Sedgwick 124
Composition 125
Structure 126
Cleavage 128
Succession of its Strata 128
Organic Remains 131
Geographical Extent 132
Physical Geography 133
Igneous Rocks 134
Silurian System of Murchison 136
Composition 136
Structure 136
Succession and Thickness of its Strata 138
Table of the Strata 139
Organic Remains 140
Tables of ditto 141-144
Figures of ditto 145
Geographical Extent 146
Figure exhibiting ditto 147
Physical Geography 148
Igneous Rocks 148
Mineral Veins 149
Close of the Silurian Period, and ensuing Disturbances of the Crust of the Globe 149
Figures exhibiting ditto 151-153
Devonian System 154
Composition 154
Organic Remains 156
Tables exhibiting ditto 157
Figures of ditto 158-159
Geographical Extent 160
Carboniferous System 162
Composition 162
Structure 160
Figures of ditto 164-165
Succession and Thickness of its Strata 166


Organic Remains 170
Figures of ditto 171,173,175
Physical Geography 175
Geographical Extent 177
Igneous Rocks 184
General View of the Circumstances under which the Carboniferous System was deposited 186
Extent of British Coal Fields under superior Strata Disturbances of the Carboniferous System 193
Figures illustrating ditto 194-195
Permian System (Magnesian Limestone Series of England) 195
Composition 196
Structure of its Deposition 197
Divisional Planes 197
Succession and Thickness of its Strata 197
Organic Remains 198
Table of ditto 199
Figures of ditto 200
Table of Fauna of 201
Geographical Extent 202
Mesozoic Strata.
Triassic System (Part of Saliferous of former Editions) 203
Composition 203
Organic Remains 205
Geographical Extent 206
Physical Geography 208
Igneous Rocks 208
Origin and Aggregation of the Materials of the Triassic and Permian Systems 209
Origin of Rock Salt and Gypsum 210
Oolitic System 214
Composition 214
Structure 217
Divisional Planes 217
Series of Strata 218
Table exhibiting ditto 219
Figures illustrating ditto 220-221
Organic Remains 222
Tables of ditto 222-224
Figures of ditto 224-225
Geographical Extent 226
Figure of ditto 229
Physical Geography 230
Figure illustrating ditto 230
General Review of the System 231
Cretaceous System 233
Composition 233
Stratification 235
Succession of its Strata 236
Organic Remains 237
Figures of ditto 238-240
Geographical Extent 240
Physical Geography 242
Igneous Rocks 243
Close of the Secondary Period, and ensuing Disturbances of the Crust of the Globe 244
Cainozoic or Tertiary Strata.. (Supercretaceous Deposits, &c.) 249
Composition 250
Structure and Stratification 251
Divisional Planes 252
Succession and Thickness of its Strata 252
Freshwater Formations 254
Geographical Extent and Physical Geography 260
Organic Remains 264
In Marine Deposits 272
In Lacustrine and Lignitic Deposits of known Era 273
In Lacustrine Deposits of doubtful Era 275
Figures of ditto 275
Disturbing Movements during and after the Tertiary Period 276
Post-Tertiary and Modern Strata (including Pleistocene and other Deposits)
View of the Relation of these to Tertiary Strata 278
Classification of 281
Detrital Deposits 281
Erratic Block Group 283
Ossiferous Gravel, Pebbly Clay, Sand, &c. 298
Ossiferous Caves and Fissures 303
General Table of Vertebral Remains in Post-Tertiary Accumulations 304
Description of Caverns 310
General Considerations on "Diluvial" Phenomena 316
Zoological and Botanical Character of "Diluvial" Period 319
Ancient Marine Deposits 321
Raised Beaches 321
Change of Level of Land adjoining the Baltic 324
Marine Deposits in Progress 329
Coral Reefs 329
Mr. Stutchbury's Views of 330
Mr. Darwin, on Coral Islands 333
Shell Beds 336
Classes of Shells 340
Banks of Sand, Clay, Gravel, &c. 341