Latin for beginners (1911)/Part II/Lesson X

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LESSON X

SECOND DECLENSION (Continued)

79. We have been freely using feminine adjectives, like bona, in agreement with feminine nouns of the first declension and declined like them. Masculine adjectives of this class are declined like dominus, and neuters like pīlum. The adjective and noun, masculine and neuter, are therefore declined as follows:

Masculine Noun and Adjective Neuter Noun and Adjective
dominus bonus, the good master pīlum bonum, the good spear
Bases domin- bon- Bases pīl- bon-

Singular

terminations terminations
Nom. do'minus bonus -us pīlum bonum -um
Gen. dominī bonī -ī pīlī bonī -ī
Dat. dominō bonō -ō pīlō bonō -ō
Acc. dominum bonum -um pīlum bonum -um
Abl. dominō bonō -ō pīlō bonō -ō
Voc. domine bone -e pīlum bonum -um

Plural

Nom. dominī bonī -ī pīla bona -a
Gen. dominō’rum bonō’rum -ōrum pīlō’rum bonō’rum -ōrum
Dat. dominīs bonīs -īs pīlīs bonīs -īs
Acc. dominōs bonōs -ōs pīla bona -a
Abl. dominīs bonīs -īs pīlīs bonīs -īs

Decline together bellum longum, equus parvus, servus malus, mūrus altus, frūmentum novum.

80. Observe the sentences

Lesbia ancilla est bona, Lesbia, the maidservant, is good
Fīlia Lesbiae ancillae est bona, the daughter of Lesbia, the maidservant, is good
Servus Lesbiam ancillam amat, the slave loves Lesbia, the maidservant

In these sentences ancilla, ancillae, and ancillam denote the class of persons to which Lesbia belongs and explain who she is. Nouns so related that the second is only another name for the first and explains it are said to be in apposition, and are always in the same case.

81. Rule. Apposition. An appositive agrees in case with the noun which it explains.

82.

EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 285.

I.

1. Patria servī bonī, vīcus servōrum bonōrum, bone popule.
2. Populus oppidī magnī, in oppidō magnō, in oppidīs magnīs.
3. Cum pīlīs longīs, ad pīla longa, ad mūrōs lātōs.
4. Lēgāte male, amīcī lēgātī malī, cēna grāta dominō bonō.
5. Frūmentum equōrum parvōrum, domine bone, ad lēgātōs clārōs.
6. Rhēnus est in Germāniā, patriā meā.
7. Sextus lēgātus pilum longum portat.
8. Oppidānī bonī Sextō lēgātō clārō pecūniam dant.
9. Malī servī equum bonum Mārcī dominī necant.
10. Galba agricola et Iīlia fīlia bona labōrant.
11. Mārcus nauta in īnsulā Sidliā habitat.

II.

1. Wicked slave, who is your friend? Why does he not praise Galba, your master?
2. My friend is from (ex) a village of Germany, my fatherland.
3. My friend does not love the people of Italy.
4. Who is caring for[1] the good horse of Galba, the farmer?
5. Mark, where is Lesbia, the maidservant?
6. She is hastening[1] to the little cottage[2] of Julia, the farmer's daughter.

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References

  1. 1.0 1.1 See footnote 1, p. 33. Remember that cūrat is transitive and governs a direct object
  2. Not the dative. (Cf.§43.)