Latin for beginners (1911)/Special vocabularies

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SPECIAL VOCABULARIES


The words in heavy type are used in Caesar's "Gallic War."


LESSON IV, §39[edit]

Nouns

dea, goddess (deity)
Diā´na, Diana
fera, a wild beast (fierce)
Lātō´ na, Latona
sagit´ ta, arrow

Verbs

est, he (she, it) is;
sunt, they are
necat, he (she, it) kills, is killing, does kill

Conjunction[1]

et, and

Pronouns

quis, interrog. pronoun, nom. sing., who?
cuius (pronounced co͝oi´yo͝os, two syllables), interrog. pronoun, gen. sing., whose?

LESSON V, §47[edit]

Nouns

corō´na, wreath, garland, crown
fā´bula, story (fable)
pecū´nia, money (pecuniary)
pugna, battle (pugnacious)
victō´ria, victory

Verbs

dat, he (she, it) gives
nārrat, he (she, it) tells (narrate)

Conjunction[1]

quia or quod, because
cui (pronounced co͝oi, one syllable), interrog. pronoun, dat. sing., to whom? for whom?

LESSON VI, §56[edit]

Adjectives

bona, good
grāta, pleasing
magna, large, great
mala, bad, wicked
parva, small, little
pulchra, beautiful, pretty
sōla, alone

Nouns

ancil'la, maidservant
lūlia, Julia

Adverbs[2]

cūr, why
nōn, not

Pronouns

mea, my
tua, thy, your (possessives)
quid, interrog. pronoun, nom. and acc. sing., what?

-ne, the question sign, an enclitic (§ 16) added to the first word, which, in a question, is usually the verb, as amat, he loves, but amat'ne? does he love? est, he is; estne? is he? Of course -ne is not used when the sentence contains quis, cūr, or some other interrogative word.

LESSON VII, §62[edit]

Nouns

casa, -ae, f., cottage
cēna, -ae, f., dinner
gallī'na, -ae, f., hen, chicken
in'sula, -ae, f., island (pen-insula)

Adverbs

dein'de, then, in the next place
ubi, where

Preposition

ad, to, with acc. to express motion toward

Verbs

ha'bitat, he (she, it) lives, is living, does live (inhabit)
laudat, he (she, it) praises, is praising, does praise (laud)
parat, he (she, it) prepares, is preparing, does prepare
vocat, he (she, it) calls, is calling, does call; invites, is inviting, does invite (vocation)

Pronoun

quern, interrog. pronoun, ace. sing., whom?

LESSON VIII, §69[edit]

Nouns

Italia, -ae, f., Italy
Sicilia, -ae, f., Sicily
tuba, -ae, f., trumpet (tube)
via, -ae, f., way, road, street (viaduct)

Adjectives

alta, high, deep (altitude)
clāra, clear, bright; famous
lata, wide (latitude)
longa, long (longitude)
nova, new (novelty)

LESSON IX, §77[edit]

Nouns

bellum, -ī, n., war (re-bel)
cōnstantia, -ae, f., firmness, constancy, steadiness
dominus, -ī, m., master, lord (dominate)
equus, -ī, m., horse (equine)
frūmentum, -ī, n., grain
lēgātus, -ī, m., lieutenant, ambassador (legate)
Marcus, -ī, m., Marcus, Mark
mūrus, -ī, m., wall (mural)
oppidānus, -ī, m., townsman
oppidum, -ī, n., town
pīlum, -ī, n., spear (pile driver)
servus, -ī, m., slave, servant
Sextus, -ī, m., Sextus

Verbs

cūrat, he (she, it) cares for, with acc.
properat, he (she, it) hastens

LESSON X, §82[edit]

Nouns

amīcus, -ī, m., friend (amicable)
Germānia, -ae, f., Germany
patria, -ae, f., fatherland
populus, -ī, m., people
Rhēnus, -ī, m., the Rhine
vīcua, -ī, m., village

LESSON XI, §86[edit]

Nouns

arma, armōrum, n,, plur., arms, especially defensive weapons
fāma, -ae, f., rumor; reputation, fame
galea, -ae, f., helmet
praeda, -ae, f., booty, spoils (predatory)
tēlum, -ī, n., weapon of offense, spear

Adjectives

dūrus, -a, -um, hard, rough; unfeeling, cruel; severe, toilsome (durable)
Rōmānus, -a, -um, Roman. As a noun, Rōmānus, -i, m., a Roman

LESSON XII, §90[edit]

Nouns

filias, filī, m., son (filial)
fluvius, fluvī, m., river (fluent)
gladius, gladī, m., sword (gladiator)
praesidium, prāesi'dī, n., garrison, guard, protection
proelium, proelī, n., battle

Adjectives

fīnitimus, -a, -um, bordering upon, neighboring, near to. As a noun, finitimī, -ōrum, m., plur., neighbors
Germānus, -a, -um, German. As a noun, Germānus, -i, m., a German
multus, -a, -um, much; plur., many


Adverb

saepe, often

LESSON XIII, §95[edit]

Nouns

ager, agrī, m., field (acre)
cōpia, -ae, f., plenty, abundance (copious); plur., troops, forces
Cornēlius, Cornē'lī, m., Cornelius
lōrī'ca, -ae, f., coat of mail, corselet
praemium, praemī, n., reward, prize (premium)
puer, puerī, m., boy (puerile)
Rōma, -ae, f., Rome
scūtum, -ī, n., shield (escutcheon)
vir, virī, m., man, hero (virile)

Adjectives

legiōnārius, -a, -um,[3] legionary, belonging to the legion. As a noun, legiōnāriī, -ōrum, m., plur., legionary soldiers
līber, lībera, līberum, free (liberty). As a noun, līberī, -ōrum, m., plur., children (lit. the free born)
pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum, pretty, beautiful

Preposition

Apud, among, with acc.

Conjunction

sed, but

LESSON XIV, §99[edit]

Nouns

auxilium, auxi'lī, n., help, aid (auxiliary)
castrum, -ī, n., fort (castle); plur., camp (lit. forts)
cibus, -i, m., food
cōnsilium, cōnsi'lī, n., plan (counsel)
dīligentia, -ae, f., diligence, industry magister, magistrī, m., master, teacher[4]


Adjectives

aeger, aegra, aegrum, sick
creber, crēbra, crēbrum, frequent
miser, misera, miserum, wretched, unfortunate (miser)

LESSON XV, §107[edit]

Nouns

camis, -ī, m., cart, wagon
inopia, -ae, f., want, lack; the opposite of copia
studium, studī, n., zeal, eagerness (study)

Adjectives

armātus, -a, -um, armed
īnfīrmus, -a, -um, weak, feeble (infirm)
validus, -a, -um, strong, sturdy

Verb

mātūrat, he (she, if) hastens, Cf. properat


Adverb

iam, already, now
-que, conjunction, and; an enclitic (cf. §16) and always added to the second of two words to be connected, as arma tēla'que, arms and weapons.

LESSON XVII, §117[edit]

Nouns

agrī cultūra, -ae, f., agriculture
domicilium, domici'lī, n., abode, dwelling place (domicile)
fēmina, -ae, f., woman (female)
Gallia, -ae, f., Gaul
Gallus, -ī, m., a Gaul
lacrima, -ae, f,, tear
numerus, -ī, m., number (numeral)

Adjective

mātūrus, -a, -um, ripe, mature

Verbs

arat, he (she, it) plows (arable)
dēsīderat, he (she, it) misses, longs for (desire), with acc.

Adverb

quō, whither

Conjunction

an, or, introducing the second half of a double question, as Is he a Roman or a Gaul, Estne Rōmānus an Gallus?

LESSON XVIII, §124[edit]

Nouns

lūdus, -ī, m., school
socius, soci, m., companion, ally (social)

Adjectives

īrātus, -a, -um, angry , furious (irate)
laetus, -a, -um, happy, glad

Adverbs

hodiē, to-day
ibi, there, in that place
mox, presently, soon, of the immediate future
nunc, now, the present moment
nūper, lately, recently, of the immediate past

LESSON XX, §136[edit]

Nouns

fōrma, -ae, f., form, beauty
poena, -ae, i., punishment, penalty
potentia, -ae, f., power (potent)
rēgīna, -ae, f., queen (regal)
superbia, -ae, f., pride, haughtiness
trīstitia, -ae, f., sadness, sorrow

Adjectives

septem, indeclinable, seven
superbus, -a, -um, proud, haughty (superb)

Conjunctions

nōn sōlum . . . sed etiam, not only . . . but also

LESSON XXI, §140[edit]

Nouns

sacrum, -ī, n., sacrifice, offering, rite
verbum, -ī, n., word (verb)

Verbs

sedeō, -ēre, sit (sediment)
volō, -āre, fly (volatile)

Adjectives

interfectus, -a, -um, slain
molestus, -a, -um, troublesome, annoying (molest)
perpetuus, -a, -um, perpetual, continuous
ego, personal pronoun, I (egotism). Always emphatic in the nominative.

LESSON XXII, §146[edit]

Nouns

disciplīna, -ae, f., training, culture, discipline
ōrnāmentum, -ī, n., ornament, jewel
Gāius, Gāī, m., Caius, a Roman first name
Tiberius, Tibe'rī, m., Tiberius, a Roman first name

Verb

doceō, -ēre, teach (doctrine)

Adverb

maximē, most of all, especially

Adjective

antīquus, -qua, -quum, old, ancient (antique)

LESSON XXVII, §168[edit]

Nouns

āla, -ae, f., wing
deus, -ī, m., god (deity)[5]
mōnstrum, -ī, n., omen, prodigy: monster
ōrāculum, -ī, n., oracle

Verb

vāstō, -āre, lay waste, devastate

Adjectives

commōtus, -a, -um, moved, excited
maximus, -a, -um, greatest (maximum)
saevus, -a, -um, fierce, savage

Adverbs

ita, thus, in this way, as follows
tum, then, at that time

LESSON XXVIII, §171[edit]

Verbs

respondeō, -ēre, respond, reply
servō, -āre, save, preserve

Conjunction

autem, but, moreover, now. Usually stands second, never first

Adjective

cārus, -a, -um, dear (cherish)

Noun

vīta, -ae, f., life (vital)

LESSON XXIX, §176[edit]

Verb

superō, -are, conquer, overcome (insuperable)

Nouns

cūra, -ae, f., care, trouble
locus, -ī, m., place, spot (location). Locus is neuter in the plural and is declined loca, -ōrum, etc.
perīculum, -ī, n., danger, peril

Adverbs

semper, always
tamen, yet, nevertheless

Prepositions

, with abl., down from; concerning
per, with acc., through

Conjunction

, if

LESSON XXX, §182[edit]

Verbs

absum, abesse, irreg., be away, be absent, be distant, with separative abl.
adpropinquō, -āre, draw near, approach (propinquity), with dative[6]
contineō, -ēre, hold together, hem in, keep (contain)
discēdō, -ere, depart, go away, leave, with separative abl.
egeō, -ere, lack, need, be without, with separative abl.
interficiō, -ere, kill
prohibeō, ere, restrain, keep from (prohibit)
vulnerō, -āre, wound (vulnerable)

Nouns

prōvincia, -ae, f., province
vīnum, -ī, n., wine

Adjective

dēfessus, -a, -um, weary, worn out

Adverb

longē, far, by far, far away

LESSON XXXI, §188[edit]

Nouns

aunim, -ī, n., gold (oriole)
mora, -ae, f., delay
nāvigium, nāvi'gī, n., boat, ship
ventus, -ī, m., wind (ventilate)

Verb

nāvigō, -ire, sail (navigate)

Adjectives

attentus, -a, -um, attentive, careful
dubius, -a, -um, doubtful (dubious)
perfidus, -a, -um, faithless, treacherous (perfidy)

Adverb

anteā, before, previously

Preposition

sine, with abl., without

LESSON XXXII, §193[edit]

Nouns

animus, -ī, m., mind, heart; spirit, feeling (animate)
bracchium, bracchī, n., forearm, arm
porta, -ae, f., gate (portal)

Preposition

prō, with abl., before; in behalf of; instead of

Adjectives

adversus -a., -um, opposite; adverse, contrary
plēnus, -a, -um, full (plenty)


Adverb

diū, for a long time, long

LESSON XXXIV, §200[edit]

Adverbs

celeriter, quickly (celerity)
dēnique, finally
graviter, heavily, severely (gravity)
subitō, suddenly

Verb

reportō, -āre, -āvī, bring back, restore; win, gain (report)

LESSON XXXVI, §211[edit]

dexter, dextra, dextrum, right (dextrous)
sinister, sinistra, sinistrum, left
frūstrā, adv., in vain (frustrate)
gerō, gerere, gessī, gestus, bear, carry on; wear; bellum gerere, to wage war
occupō, occupāre, occupāvī, occupātus, seize, take possession of (occupy)
postulō, postulāre, postulāvī, postulātus, demand (ex-postulate)
recūsō, recūsāre, recūsāvī, recūsātus, refuse
stō, stāre, stetī, status, stand
temptō, temptāre, temptāvī, temptātus, try, tempt, test; attempt
teneō, tenēre, tenuī, ———, keep, hold (tenacious)

The word ubi, which we have used so much in the sense of where in asking a question, has two other uses equally important:

1. ubi = when, as a relative conjunction denoting time; as, Ubi mōnstrum audīvērunt, fūgērunt, when they heard the monster, they fled

2. ubi = where, as a relative conjunction denoting place; as, Videō oppidum ubi Galba habitat, I see the town where Galba lives

Ubi is called a relative conjunction because it is equivalent to a relative pronoun. When in the first sentence is equivalent to at the time at which; and in the second, where is equivalent to the place in which.

LESSON XXXVII, §217[edit]

neque or nec, conj., neither, nor, and ... not; neque ... neque, neither ... nor
castellum,-ī,n., redoubt, fort (castle)
cotīdiē, adv., daily
cessō, cessāre, cessāvī, cessātus, cease, with the infin.
incipiō, incipere, incēpi, inceptus, begin (incipient), with the infin.
oppugnō, oppugnāre, oppugnāvī, oppugnātus, storm, assail
petō, petere, petīvī or petiī, petitus, aim at, assail, storm, attack; seek, ask (petition)
pōnō, pōnere, posuī, positus, place, put (position); castra pōnere, to pitch camp
possum, posse, potuī,———, be able, can (potent), with the infin.
vetō, vetāre, vetuī, vetitus, forbid(veto), with the infin.; opposite of iubeō, command
vincō, vincere, vīcī, victus, conquer (in-vincible)
vīvō, vīvere, vīxī,———, live, be alive (re-vive)

LESSON XXXIX, §234[edit]

barbarus, -a,-um, strange, foreign, barbarous. As a noun, barbarī, -ōrum, m., plur., savages, barbarians
dux, ducis, m., leader (duke). Cf. the verb dūcō
eques, equitis, m., horseman, cavalryman (equestrian)
iūdex, iūdicis, m., judge
lapis, lapidis, m., stone (lapidary)
mīles, mīlitis, m., soldier (militia)
pedes, peditis, m., foot soldier {pedestrian)
pēs, pedis,[7] foot (pedal)
prīnceps, prīncipis, m., chief {principal)
rēx, rēgis, m., king (regal)
summus, -a, -um, highest, greatest (summit)
virtūs, virtūtis, f., manliness, courage (virtue)

LESSON XL, §237[edit]

Caeaar, -aris, m., Cæsar
captīvua, -ī, m., captive, prisoner
cōnsul, -is, m., consul
frāter, frātris, m., brother (fraternity)
hemō, hominis, m., man, human being
impedīmentum, -ī, n., hindrance (impediment); plur. impedīmenta, ōrum, baggage
imperātor, imperātōris, m., commander in chief, general (emperor)

legiō, legiōnis, f., legion
māter, mātris, f., mother (maternal)
ōrdō, ōrdinis, m., row, rank (order)
pater, patris, m., father (paternal)
salūs, salūtis, f., safety (salutary)
soror, sorōris, f ., sister (sorority)

LESSON XLI, §239[edit]

calamitās, calamitātis, f., loss, disaster, defeat (calamity)
caput, capitis, n., head (capital)
flūmen, flūminis, n., river (flume)
labor, labōris, m., labor, toil
opus, operis, n., work, task
ōrātor, ōrātōris, m., orator
rīpa, -ae, f., bank (of a stream)
tempus, temporis, n., time (temporal)
terror, terrōris, m., terror, fear
victor, victōris, m., victor
accipiō, accipere, accēpī, acceptus, receive, accept
cōnfirmō, cōnfirmāre, cōnfirmāvī, cōnfirmātus, strengthen, establish, encourage (confirm)

LESSON XLIII, §245[edit]

animal, animālis (-ium[8]), n., animal
avis, avis (-ium), f., bird (aviation)
caedēs, caedis (-iiun), f., slaughter
calcar, calcāris (-ium), n., spur
cīvis, cīvis (-ium), m. and f., citizen (civic)
cliēns, clientis (-ium), m., retainer, dependent (client)
finis, finis (-ium), m,, end, limit (final); plur., country, territory
hostis, hostis (-ium), m. and f ., enemy in war (hostile). Distinguish from inimīcus, which means a personal enemy
ignis, ignis (-ium), m., fire (ignite)
īnsigne, īnsignis (-ium), n., decoration, badge (ensign)
mare, maris (-ium[9]), n., sea (marine)
nāvis, nāvis (-ium), f., ship (naval); nāvis longa, man-of-war
turris, turris (-ium), f., tower [pixx^'C)
urbs, urbis (-ium), f., city (suburb). An urbs is larger than an oppidum

LESSON XLIV, §249[edit]

arbor, arboris, f., tree (arbor)
collis, coUis (-ium), m., hill
dēns, dentis (-ium), m., tooth (dentist)
fōns, fontis (-ium), m.. fountain, spring; source
iter, itineris, n., march, journey, route (itinerary)
mēnsis, mēnsis (-ium), m., month
moenia, -ium, n., plur., walls, fortifications. Cf. mūrus
mōns, montis (-ium), m., mountain; summus mōns, top of the mountain
numquam, adv., never
pōns, pontis, m., bridge (pontoon)

sanguis, sanguinis, m., blood (sanguinary)
summus, -a, -um, highest, greatest (summit)
trāns, prep, with acc., across (transatlantic)
vīs(vīs),gen. plur. vīrium, f., strength, force, violence (vim)

LESSON XLV, §258[edit]

ācer, ācris, ācre, sharp, keen, eager (acrid)
'brevis, breve, shorty brief
difficilis, difficile, difficult
facilis, facile, facile, easy
fortis, forte, brave (fortitude)
gravis, grave, heavy, severe, serious (grave)
omnis, omne, every, all (omnibus)
pār, gen. paris, equal (par)
paucī, -ae, -a, few, only a few (paucity)
secundus, -a, -um, second; favorable, opposite of adversus
signum, -ī, n., signal, sign, standard
vēlōx, gen. vēlōcis, swift (velocity)
conlocō, conlocāre, conlocāvī, conlocātus, arrange, station, place (collocation)
demōnstrō, demōnstrāre, demōnstrāvī, demōnstrātus, point out, explain (demonstrate)
mandō, mandāre, mandāvī, mandātus, commit, intrust (mandate)

LESSON XLVI, §261[edit]

adventus, -ūs, m., approach, arrival (advent)
ante, prep, with acc, before (antedate)
cornū, -ūs, n., horn, wing of an army (cornucopia); ā dextrō cornū, on the right wing; ā sinistrō cornū, on the left wing
equitātus, -ūs, m., cavalry
exercitus, -ūs, m., army
impetus, -ūs, m., attack (impetus); impetum facere in, with acc, to make an attack on
lacus, -ūs, dat. and abl. plur. lacubus, m., lake
manus, -ūs, f., hand; band, force (manual)
'portus, -ūs, m., harbor (port)
post, prep, with acc., behind, after (post-mortem)
cremō, cremāre, cremāvī, cremātus, burn (cremate)
exerceō, exercēre, exercuī, exercitus, practice, drill, train (exercise)

LESSON XLVII, §270[edit]

Aihēnae, -ārum, f., plur., Athens
Corinthus, -I, f., Corinth
domus, -ūs, locative domī, f., house, home (dome). Cf. domicilium
Genāva, -ae, f., Geneva
Pompēiī, -ōrum, m., plur., Pompeii, a city in Campania. See map

propter, prep, with acc, on account of, because of
rūs, rūris, in the plur. only nom. and acc. rūra, n., country (rustic)
tergum, tergī, n., back; ā tergō, behind, in the rear
vulnus, vulneris, n., wound (vulnerable)
committō, committere, commīsī, commissus, intrust, commit; proelium committere, join battle
convocō, convocāre, convocāvī, convocātus, call together, summon (convoke)
timeō, timēre, timuī, ——, fear; be afraid (timid)
vertō, vertere, vertī, versus, turn, change (convert); terga vertere, to turn the backs, hence to retreat

LESSON XLVIII, §276[edit]

aciēs, -ēī, f., line of battle
aestās, aestātis, f,, summer
annus, -ī, m., year (annual)
diēs, diēī, m,, day (diary)
fidēs, fideī, no plur., i., faith, trust; promise, word; protection; in fidem venīre, to come under the protection
fluctus, -ūs, m,, wave, billow (fluctuate)
hiems, hiemis, f., winter
hōra, -ae, f., hour
lūx, lūcis, f., light (lucid); prīma lūx, daybreak
merīdiēs, acc. -em, abl. , no plur., m., midday (meridian)
nox, noctis (-ium), f., night (nocturnal)
prīmus, -a, -um, first (prime)
rēs, reī, f., thing, matter (real); rēs gestae, deeds, exploits (lit. things performed); rēs adversae, adversity; rēs secundae, prosperity
spēs, speī, f., hope


LESSON XLIX, §283[edit]

amīcitia, -ae, f., friendship (amicable)
itaque, conj., and so, therefore, accordingly
littera, -ae,f., a letter of the alphabet; plur., a letter, an epistle
metus, metūs, m.,fear
nihil, indeclinable, n., nothing (nihilist)
nūntius, nūntī, m., messenger. Ct nūntiō
pāx, pācis, f., peace (pacify)
rēgnum, -ī, n., reign, sovereignty, kingdom
'supplicium, suppli'cī, n., punishment; supplicium sūmere dē, with abl., inflict punishment on; supplicium dare, suffer punishment. Cf. poena
placeō, placēre, placuī, placitus, be pleasing to, please, with dative. Cf . §154
sūmō, sūmere, sūmpsī, sūmptus, take up, assume
sustineō, sustinēre, sustinuī, sustentus, sustain

LESSON L, §288[edit]

corpus, corporis, n., body (corporal)
dēnsus, -a, -um, dense
īdem, e'adem, idem, demonstrative pronoun, the same (identity)
ipse, ipsa, ipsum, intensive pronoun, self; even, very
mīrus, -a, -um, wonderful, marvelous (miracle)
ōlim, adv., formerly, once upon a time
pars, partis (-ium), f., part, region, direction
quoque, adv., also. Stands after the word which it emphasizes
sōl, sōlis, m., sun (solar)
vērus, -a, -um, true, real (verity)
dēbeō, dēbēre, dēbuī, dēbitus, owe, ought (debt)
ēripiō, ēripere, ēripuī, ēreptus, snatch from

LESSON LI, §294[edit]

hic, haec, hoc, demonstrative pronoun, this (of mine); he, she, it
ille, illa, illud, demonstrative pronoun, that (yonder); he, she, it
invīsus, -a, -um, hateful, detested, with dative Cf. §143
iste, ista, istud, demonstrative pronoun, that (of yours); he, she, it
lībertās, -ātis, f., liberty
modus, -ī, m., measure; manner, way, mode
nōmen, nōminis, n., name (nominate)
oculus, -ī, m., eye (oculist)
prīstinus, -a, -um, former, old-time (pristine)
pūblicus, -a, -um, public, belonging to the state; rēs pūblica, reī publicae, f., the commonwealth, the state, the republic
vestīgium, vestī'gī, n., footprint, track; trace, vestige
vōx, vōcis, f., voice

LESSON LII, §298[edit]

incolumis, -e, unharmed
nē . . . quidem, adv., not even. The emphatic word stands between and quidem
nisi, conj., unless, if . . . not
paene, adv., almost (pen-insula)
satis, adv., enough, sufficiently (satisfaction)
tantus, -ā, -um, so great
vērō, adv., truly, indeed, in fact. As a conj. but, however, usually stands second, never first
dēcidō, dēcidere, dēcidī, —— , fall down (deciduous)
dēailiō, dēsilīre, dēsiluī, dēsultus, leap down, dismount
maneō, manēre, mānsī, mānsūrus, remain
trādūcō, trādūcere, trādūxī, trāductus, lead across

LESSON LIII, §306[edit]

aquila, -ae, f., eagle (aquiline)
audāx, gen. audācis, adj., bold, audacious
celer, celeris, celere, swift, quick (celerity). Cf . vēlōx
explōrātor, -ōris, m., scout, spy (explorer)
ingēns, gen. ingentis, adj., huge, vast
medius, -a, -um, middle, middle part of (medium)
mēns, mentis (-ium), f., mind (mental). Cf. animus
opportūnus, -a, -um, opportune
quam, adv., than. With the superlative quam gives the force of as possible, as quam audācissimī vīrī, men as bold as possible
recēns, gen. recentis, adj., recent
tam, adv., so. Always with an adjective or adverb, while ita is generally used with a verb
quaerō, quaerere, quaesīvī, quaesītus, ask, inquire, seek (question). Cf . petō

LESSON LIV, §310[edit]

alacer, alacris, alacre, eager, spirited, excited (alacrity)
celeritās, -ātis, f., speed (celerity)
clāmor, clāmōris, m., shout, clamor
lēnis, lēne, mild, gentle (lenient)
mulier, muli'eris, f., woman
multitūdō, multitūdinis, f ., multitude
nēmō, dat. nēminī, ace. nēminem (gen. nūllius, abl. nūllō, from nūllus), no plur., m. and f., no one
nōbilis, nōbile, well known, noble
noctū, adv. (an old abl.), by night (nocturnal)
statim, adv., immediately , at once
subitō, adv., suddenly
tardus, -a, -um, slow (tardy)
cupiō, cupere, cupīvī, cupītus, desire, wish (cupidity)


LESSON LV, §314[edit]

aedificium, aedifi'cī, n., building, dwelling (edifice)
imperium, impe'rī, n., command, chief power; empire
mors, mortis (-ium), f ., death (mortal)
reliquus, -a, -um, remaining, rest of. As a noun, m. and n. plur., the rest (relic)
scelus, sceleris, n., crime
servitūs, -ūtis, f., slavery (servitude)
vallēs, vallis (-ium), f., valley
abdō, abdere, abdidī, abditus, hide
contendō, contendere, contendī, contentus, strain, struggle; hasten (contend)
occīdō, occīdere, occīdī, occīsus, cut down, kill. Cf. necō, interficiō
perterreō, perterrēre, perterruī, perterritus, terrify, frighten
recipiō, recipere, recēpī, receptus, receive, recover; sē recipere, betake one's self, withdraw, retreat
trādō, trādere, trādidī, trāditus, give over, surrender, deliver (traitor)

LESSON LVI, §318[edit]

aditus, -ūs, m., approac, access; entrance
cīvitās, cīvitātis, f., citizenship; body of citizens, state (city)
inter, prep, with ace, between; among (interstate commerce)
nam, conj., for
obses, obsidis, m. and f., hostage
paulō, adv. (abl. n. of paulus), by a little, somewhat
incolō, incolere, incoluī, ——, inhabit; intransitive, dwell. Cf. habitō, vīvō
relinquō, relinquere, relīquī, relictus, leave, abandon (relinquish)
statuō, statuere, statuī, statūtus, fix. decide (statute), usually with infin.

LESSON LVII, §326[edit]

aequus, -a, -um, even, level; equal
cohors, cohortis (-ium), f., cohort, a tenth part of a legion, about 360 men
currō, currere, cucurrī, cursus, run (course)
difficultās, -ātis, f., difficulty
fossa, -ae, f., ditch (fosse)
gēns, gentis (-ium), f., race, tribe, nation (Gentile)
negōtium, negōtī, n., business, affair, matter (negotiate)
regiō, -ōnis, f., region, district
rūmor, rūmōris, m., rumor, report. Cf. fāma
simul atque, conj., as soon as
suscipiō, suscipere, suscēpī, susceptus, undertake
trahō, trahere, trāxī, trāctus, drag, draw (ex-tract)
valeō, valēre, valuī, valitūrua, be strong; plūrimum valēre, to be most powerful, have great influence (value). Cf . validus

LESSON LVIII, §332[edit]

commeātua, -ūs, m., provisions
lātitūdō, -inis, f., width (latitude)
longitūdō, -inis, f., length (longitude)
magnitūdō, -inis, f., size, magnitude
mercātor, mercātōris, m., trader, merchant
mūnītiō, -ōnis, f., fortification (munition)
spatium, spatī, n., room, space, distance; time
cognōscō, cognōscere, cognōvī, cognitus, learn; in the perfect tenses, know (re-cognize)
cōgō, cōgere, coēgi, coāctus, collect; compel {cogent)
dēfendō, dēfendere, dēfendī, dēfēnsus, defend

incendō, incendere, incendī, incēnsus, set fire to, burn (incendiary). Cf. cremō
obtineō, obtinēre, obtinuī, obtentus, possess, occupy, hold (obtain)
perveniō, pervenīre, pervēnī, perventus, come through, arrive

LESSON LIX, §337[edit]

agmen, agminis, n., line of march, column; prīmum agmen, the van: novissimum agmen, the rear
atque, ac, conj., and; atque is used before vowels and consonants, ac before consonants only. Cf. et and -que
concilium, conci'lī, n., council, assembly
Helvētiī, -ōrum, m., the Helvetii, a Gallic tribe
passus, passūs, m., a pace, five Roman feet; mīlle passuum, a thousand {of) paces, a Roman mile
quā dē causā, for this reason, for what reason
vāllum, -ī, n., earthworks, rampart
cadō, cadere, cecidī, cāsūrus, fall (decadence)
dēdō, dēdere, dēdidī, dēditus, surrender, give up; with a reflexive pronoun, surrender one's self, submit, with the dative of the indirect object
premō, premere, pressī, pressus, press hard, harass
vexō, vexāre, vexāvī, vexātus, annoy, ravage (vex)

LESSON LX, §341[edit]

aut, conj., or; aut . . . aut, either . . . or
causā, abl. of causa, for the sake of, because of. Always stands after the gen. which modifies it
ferē, adv., nearly, almost
opiniō, -ōnis, f., opinion, supposition, expectation
rēs frūmentāria, reī frūmentāriae, f. (lit. the grain affair), grain supply
timor, -ōris, m., fear, Cf. timeō
undique, adv., from all sides
cōnor, cōnārī, cōnātus sum, attempt, try
ēgredior, ēgredī, ēgressus sum, move out, disembark; prōgredior, move forward, advance (egress, progress)
moror, morārī, morātus sum, delay
orior, orīrī, ortus sum, arise, spring; begin; be born (from) (origin)
proficīscor, proficīscī, profectus sum, set out
revertor, revertī, reversus sum, return (revert). The forms of this verb are usually active, and not deponent, in the perfect system. Perf. act., revertī
sequor, sequī, secūtus sum, follow (sequence). Note the following compounds of sequor and the force of the different prefixes : cōnsequor (follow with), overtake; īnsequor (follow against), pursue; subsequor (follow under), follow close after

  1. 1.0 1.1 A conjunction is a word which connects words, parts of sentences, or sentences.
  2. An adverb is a word used to modify a verb, an adjective, or another adverb; as, She sings sweetly; she is very talented; she began to sing very early.
  3. The genitive singular masculine of adjectives in -ius ends in -ii and the vocative in -ie; not in -i, as in nouns.
  4. Observe that dominus, as distinguished from magister, means master in the sense of owner.
  5. For the declension of deus, see §468
  6. This verb governs the dative because the idea of nearness to is stronger than that of motion to. If the latter idea were the stronger, the word would be used with ad and the accusative.
  7. Observe that e is long in the nom. sing, and short in the other cases.
  8. The genitive plural ending -ium is written to mark the i-stems.
  9. The genitive plural of mare is not in use.