Latin for beginners (1911)/Part II/Lesson XXIII

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147. As we learned in § 126, the present stem of the third conjugation ends in , and of the fourth in . The inflection of the Present Indicative is as follows:

Conjugation III Conjugation IV
re´gō, re´gere (rule) au´diō, audī´re (hear)
Pres. Stem regĕ- Pres. Stem audī-
1. re´gō, I rule au´diō, I hear
2. re´gis, you rule au´dīs, you hear
3. re´git, he (she, it) rules au´dit, he (she, it) hears
1. re´gimus, we rule audī´mus, we hear
2. re´gitis, you rule audī´tis, you hear
3. re´gunt, they rule au´diunt, they hear

1. The personal endings are the same as before.

2. The final short -e- of the stem regĕ- combines with the in the first person, becomes -u- in the third person plural, and becomes -ĭ- elsewhere. The inflection is like that of erō, the future of sum.

3. In audiō the personal endings are added regularly to the stem audī-. In the third person plural -u- is inserted between the stem and the personal ending, as audi-u-nt. Note that the long vowel of the stem is shortened before final -t just as in amō and moneō. (Cf. § 12. 2.)

Note that -i- is always short in the third conjugation and long in the fourth, excepting where long vowels are regularly shortened. (Cf. § 12. 1, 2.)

148. Like regō and audiō inflect the present active indicative of the following verbs:

Indicative Present Infinitive Present
agō, I drive agere, to drive
dīcō, I say dīcere, to say
dūcō, I lead dūcere, to lead
mittō, I send mittere, to send
mūniō, I fortify mūnīre, to fortify
reperiō, I find reperīre, to find
veniō, I come venīre, to come




  1. Quis agit? Cūr venit? Quem mittit? Quem dūcis?
  2. Quid mittunt? Ad quem veniunt? Cuius castra mūniunt?
  3. Quem agunt? Venīmus. Quid puer reperit?
  4. Quem mittimus? Cuius equum dūcitis? Quid dīcunt?
  5. Mūnīmus, venītis, dīcit.
  6. Agimus, reperītis, mūnīs.
  7. Reperīs, dūcitis, dīcis.
  8. Agitis, audīmus, regimus.


  1. What do they find? Whom do they hear? Why does he come?
  2. Whose camp are we fortifying? To whom does he say? What are we saying?
  3. I am driving, you are leading, they are hearing.
  4. You send, he says, you fortify (sing. and plur.).
  5. I am coming, we find, they send.
  6. They lead, you drive, he does fortify.
  7. You lead, you find, you rule, (all plur.).


Cornelia and her Jewels (Concluded)

Proximum domiciliō Cornēliae erat pulchrae Campānae domicilium. Campāna erat superba nōn sōlum fōrmā suā sed maximē ōrnāmentīs suīs. Ea[1] laudābat semper. “Habēsne tū ūlla ōrnāmenta, Cornēlia?” inquit. "Ubi sunt tua ōrnāmenta?" Deinde Cornēlia fīliōs suōs Tiberium et Gāium vocat. "Puerī meī," inquit, "sunt mea ōrnāmenta. Nam bonī līberī sunt semper bonae fēminae ōrnāmenta maximē clāra."

Note. The only new words here are Campāna, semper, and .

Latin for beginners (1911) 85.png




  1. Ea, accusative plural neuter.