Latin for beginners (1911)/Part II/Lesson XXXV
THE PASSIVE PERFECTS OF THE INDICATIVE • THE PERFECT PASSIVE AND FUTURE ACTIVE INFINITIVE
201. The fourth and last of the principal parts (§ 183) is the perfect passive participle. From it we get the participial stem on which are formed the future active infinitive and all the passive perfects.
- 1. Learn the following principal parts, which are for the first time given in full:
|Conj.||Pres. Indic.||Pres. Infin.||Perf. Indic.||Perf. Pass. Part|
|This is the model for all regular verbs of the first conjugation.|
- 2. The base of the participial stem is found by dropping -us from the perfect passive participle.
202. In English the perfect, past perfect, and future perfect tenses of the indicative passive are made up of forms of the auxiliary verb to be and the past participle; as, I have been loved, I had been loved, I shall have been loved.
Very similarly, in Latin, the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect passive tenses use respectively the present, imperfect, and future of sum as an auxiliary verb with the perfect passive participle, as
- Perfect passive, amā´tus sum, I have been or was loved
- Pluperfect passive, amā´tus eram, I had been loved
- Future perfect passive, amā´tus erō, I shall have been loved
- 1. In the same way give the synopsis of the corresponding tenses of moneō, regō, capiō, and audiō, and give the English meanings.
203. Nature of the Participle. A participle is partly verb and partly adjective. As a verb it possesses tense and voice. As an adjective it is declined and agrees with the word it modifies in gender, number, and case.
204. The perfect passive participle is declined like bonus, bona, bonum, and in the compound tenses (§ 202) it agrees as a predicate adjective with the subject of the verb.
| Vir laudātus est, the man was praised, or has been praised
Cōnsilium laudātum est, the plan was praised, or has been praised
Virī laudātī sunt, the men were praised, or have been praised
- 1. Inflect the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect indicative passive of amō, moneō, regō, capiō, and audiō (§§ 488-492).
205. The perfect passive infinitive is formed by adding esse, the present infinitive of sum, to the perfect passive participle; as, am´t-us (-a, -um) esse, to have been loved; mo´nit-us (-a, -um) esse, to have been advised.
- 1. Form the perfect passive infinitive of regō, capiō, audiō, and give the English meanings.
206. The future active infinitive is formed by adding esse, the present infinitive of sum, to the future active participle. This participle is made by adding -ūrus, -a, -um to the base of the participial stem. Thus the future active infinitive of amō is amat-ū´rus (-a, -um) esse, to be about to love.
- a. Note that in forming the three tenses of the active infinitive we use all three conjugation stems:
- Present, amāre (present stem), to love
- Perfect, amāvisse (perfect stem), to have loved
- Future, amātūrus esse (participial stem), to be about to love
- 1. Give the three tenses of the active infinitive of laudō, moneō, regō, capiō, audiō, with the English meanings. 207.
- Fābula Andromedae nārrāta est.
- Multae fābulae ā
magistrō nārrātae sunt.
- Ager ab agricolā validō arātus erat.
- Agrī ab agricolīs validīs arātī erant.
- Aurum ā servō perfidō ad domicilium suum portātum erit.
- Nostra arma ā lēgātō laudāta sunt. Quis vestra arma laudāvit?
- Ab ancillā tuā ad cēnam vocātae sumus.
- Andromeda mōnstrō nōn data est, quia mōnstrum ā
Perseō necātum erat.
- The provinces were laid waste, the field had been laid waste, the towns will have been laid waste.
- The oracles were heard, the oracle was heard, the oracles had been heard.
- The oracle will have been heard, the province had been captured, the boats have beencaptured.
- The fields were laid waste, the man was advised, the
girls will have been advised.
- The towns had been ruled, we shall have been captured, you will have been heard.