Notes on the churches in the counties of Kent, Sussex, and Surrey/Supplement/Kent
NOTES TO KENT.
1. Addington.—A church of chancel, nave, north porch (with a good late Perp. bargeboard), and west tower. There are also a late addition on the south, and a smaller on the north, of the chancel. All the exterior seems Perp. The tower is one of those square Perp. structures, with battlements and stair turret, which are exceedingly common through great part of Kent, and also in part of Sussex. The inscription, recorded by Hasted, was not observed. Key of church could not be obtained.
25. Bexley.—Chancel, nave, north aisle, and west tower with a shingled spire in two portions. Over what was a south porch, and projecting beyond it, is a hideous modern erection used as the vestry. A window in the north wall of the chancel indicates that portion to be Norm., or Tr. Norm., the other walls and the tower may be E.E., but the exterior is completely concealed by plaster. The east window has been built up; other windows are Dec. and Perp. insertions. The chancel contains a piscina, and a sedile. There have been three sedilia, but the central is blocked up by a monument, and the western has been cut down to resemble a door. At the southern entrance of the churchyard is a lich-gate.
32. Birling.—Chancel, nave, with north and south aisles, and west tower. The last is Perp., the remainder seems Dec. with some Perp. In the north wall of the aisle, toward the east end, is a very wide, buttress-like projection, similar to others, which are conjectured to contain the stairs leading to, or to have been connected with, the roodloft. Church not entered.
85. Cray, Foot's.—A very small church, comprising chancel, nave, with a chapel on the north side, a tall timber bell-turret over the west end of nave, and west porch. The font, of Weald marble, is Norm., the chancel may be Tr. Norm., or at least E.E., the north chapel Perp., the windows generally the same. The roodloft stairs, Perp., still exist on the south side of nave, the pulpit being placed near the head of them. A very small portion remains of Dec. screenwork.
86. Cray, St. Mary.—This is the largest of the Cray Churches, having chancel, nave, north and south aisles not ranging with the central, the northern being the longest, large south porch with some kind of chamber over it, and west tower with shingled spire. Some windows Dec., some Perp. Key could not be procured.
86*. Cray, North.—A very small, and, apparently, very plain church, of chancel, nave with a modern projection on the south side, a modern north porch, and a shingled bell-turret at the west end. Building not entered.
87. Cray, St. Paul.—Chancel (longer than usual), nave, south aisle, a north chancel shorter than the principal one, west tower with shingled spire, and west porch. A north aisle in continuation of the north chancel has been destroyed. At the west door is a mutilated stoup. In the east wall of the chancel was originally a triplet of lancets, which were replaced by a three-light late Perp. window, which last is bricked up. The entire building is E.E., with the tooth moulding over the west door, though a curious two-light window, much injured by weather, but of Norm, character, and two round holes, in the tower, seem to have belonged to an earlier edifice. The entrance into the roodloft is visible in the southern side of the chancel arch.
92. Darent.—Chancel, nave, south aisle, modern north porch, and west tower with a shingled spire, or rather cap, at the extremity of the aisle. The chancel is in two divisions, the eastern vaulted with a chamber above, Norm.; the western part, Tr. Norm., was not improbably the original nave, and had a south aisle. The chancel arch and the tower may be E.E., in the remainder of the building appears Dec. and Perp. work. The remarkable font is cylindrical, of considerable size. The east end seems to have had five windows originally, of which the two upper and larger, opening perhaps into the chamber, are closed, the three lower and one in the north wall have externally the singular ornaments previously noticed. Walls now concealed by plaster.
99.* Ditton.—A small church comprising only chancel, nave, south porch now converted into a vestry, and slight western tower. There is a piscina, which has been repaired, and some coloured glass. In the south wall of chancel, either a door, or a low side window has been walled up. In the opposite wall is visible externally a round arch, which may have been a Norm, door; though the general aspect of the building is Dec., one of the windows being very good. In the south wall of nave is one of the wide, shallow projections imagined to contain the roodloft stairs. At the north-east angle of nave is an excellent example of the ancient method of constructing buttresses, namely, with bonding stones firmly connecting the buttress with the wall, not, as is commonly done in modern times, merely raising a heavy mass of masonry against the wall, in which latter case the foundation very frequently sinks, when the body of the structure leans away from what it was designed to support.
114. Eltham.—This church seems to have been originally very small, and enlarged to meet the increase of population. Judging from the exterior very little, if any, old work remains, nearly the entire building being constructed of brick. At the west end is a tall, spire-like bell-turret, similar to others in the district.
121. Fanne.—The statement above, p. 66, relating to the names Fane and Vane, requires some modification. The recoUection how very frequently, in early times, personal appellations were derived from the lands the individuals possessed, or the places where they resided, may well suggest the conjecture, that the noble families of Fane and Vane, at first the same, might have been connected originally with the estate, which is similarly designated in (D. B.). It is affirmed in Collins's Peerage (under Fane, Earl of Westmoreland, iii, 218, ed. 1779), that the common ancestors of the Earl of Westmoreland and of Vane Earl of Darlington came from Monmouthshire, and for some time were all styled Vane. The first in the pedigree, described as of Kent, was a younger son, who flourished temp. K. Hen. VI, being called of Hilden in Tonbridge, in which neighbourhood he seems to have owned from the beginning, or speedily to have acquired, extensive property, which was augmented by his descendants, Collins asserts (ut sup. 219) that John Vane of Tudely Esq. ("in Hen. VIII's reign" is a manifest error, for Hen. VII, as proved by the subsequent statement, that he deceased A.D. 1488,) was the earliest of the family, who assumed the name of Fane. According to this account therefore as a personal designation the name Pane was known first in the county of Kent, where however that, as a local one, it had already existed for 400 years at least, we have the sure authority of Domesday Book. The genealogical history certainly, instead of confirming, appears to invalidate the supposition of a relation between the family and the place entitled Fane. Such a relation however is still far from impossible, though it may date long anterior to any surviving document or tradition. The first Vane occurring in the Peerage pedigree is alluded to as "living before the time of William the Conqueror, as may be computed;" so that the original settlement of the family in Monmouthshire is lost in obscurity, and there is no impracticability of an individual, even at such a distant period, migrating from the eastern to the western side of our island.—Badsell in Tudely was added to the large possessions of the Fanes by the marriage of .Richard, said by Collins (ut sup. 219) to have been the second son of the above named John Fane of Tonbridge, with Agnes, heiress of Henry (not Thomas, as in the Peerage, iii, 223) Stidolf (or Stidulf) of Badsell, which estate Henry Stidolf's father Thomas had obtained by espousing Marion, the heiress of John Badsell. These facts remain recorded in the following inscription on the memorial in Tudely Church of George Fane (son and heir of the above mentioned Richard) and his wife Joan Waller. "Hie jacent Georg' Fane et Joane Waller uxor ejus Filius et Heres Ei Fane et Agnes Filie et Heredis Hen Filii et Hered' T. Stidulf et Marion Badsell Filie et Hered' John' Badsell qui Ge' obit 4 die Fe 1571 et Jo Waller 6 De 1545."
124. Farningham.—The roodloft stairs remain at the north-east angle of the nave of the church, and form the means of ascent into an interior gallery. These stairs are an evident addition to the E.E. wall, probably when the tower was erected, and Perp. windows inserted.—At the Red Lion inn here a part of the old house, at the back, and facing westwards, retains a remarkable barge-board, rich and elegant. The points of the carved work terminate in trefoils, and the ornamental border to the inner edge of the board bears some resemblance to the tooth moulding.
125*. Fawkham.—Only chancel, nave, with south porch of timber, and small timber shingled bell-turret over the west end. From small roundheaded windows, remaining, and closed, the walls may be Norm. Other windows are Dec. insertions, containing some very small portions of coloured glass. There is a piscina of unusual type, double, with a central shaft, each division cinqfoiled, and a quatrefoil over the shaft. The inner width of both divisions is only 20⅛ inches. The pointed canopy is crocketed, but mutilated. Dec., probably early. In the north wall of chancel is an E.E. tomb arch, the grave slab apparently entire. On the latter stands a large iron-bound oak chest, in shape resembling a rude coffin. In south wall of nave is a mutilated Dec. tomb arch. Door ancient. Porch Dec.
148*. Hartley.—Chancel, nave, modern south porch, and shingled bell-turret over west end. In the usual position of the piscina is a large plain arch, which may imply a sedile, whereof the lower part has been built up. Two Norm, windows claim that date for the walls. Other windows Dec. insertions. There are north and south low side windows, the southern being in two divisions. Font Dec., with quatrefoils in eight sides, on a stem and eight small shafts of Weald marble. The south door and lock are ancient, but mutilated, with much original ironwork. Church sadly dilapidated.
178. St. John's in Thanet, Margate.—The reference to the Monasticon, Addenda, p. 170, is not quite correct. The rectory of Salmyston is not named in the text (1, 149) but will be found in the index to that work. The locality of this spot has been recovered. "Salmeston, now Sampson's, and Sampson's Grange is a place here" (namely, St. John's, Margate), "that (as appears by Thome's Chronicle) did An. 1362 belong to the Abbey of St. Austin in Canterbury, where it remained till the dissolution 'Tis very likely it was a cell or country retirement for some of the monks of St. Austin's in case of sickness." (Harris's Kent). Salmyston or Sampson's Grange is close to the town of Margate, and the farm premises are reported still to comprise some remains of the monastic edifices, particularly of the chapel. This establishment seems to have been always small, yet that it was of importance may be inferred from the fact, that the term "rectory" has been applied to it.
194. Leveland.—This church, originally only a chapel, was, we learn, con- stituted a parish church so early as A.D. 1221, 6 of K. Hen. III. (Chartulary of St. Bertin's.)
195. Leybourne.—Chancel, nave, narrow north aisle, south porch, and an apology for a tower at the west end. The chancel contains a piscina. In the south-west angle is an arch, and another in the south-east angle of nave, both being mere recesses in the wall. In the exterior of the south wall of nave appears the frame of a small Norm, window filled up. There is some E.E. work, some Dec., and some Perp. Of the singular niche in the aisle the purpose has not hitherto been even conjectured. It is now covered with whitewash, and partly concealed by a pew. Both arches are filled about half way up the shaft, the entire masonry appearing of the same date; but possibly, if the stones were cleaned, and the whole face exposed to view, it would be found, that the object may have been a highly ornamented double piscina, replaced in that situation with the basins built up.
202. Longfield.—A very small church of chancel, nave, north aisle, and porch, and wooden west bell-turret. The chancel has a piscina with an ambry adjoining in the eastern side of the angle, and a sedile, unusually high, unless the seat has been raised. Chancel Dec. In west end of aisle is a small Norm, window, which must have been re-inserted there from somewhere else, as the aisle is Perp., to which style belong also some of the windows. A small fragment of coloured glass; also a good, but mutilated screen. Of the court-lodge it was stated, that all the old portions, except one or more stone door-cases, have been concealed by modern alterations.
209. Malling, East.—A large, lofty church. Chancel, nave, north and south aisles not extending nearly to the west end of nave, south porch, and west tower. The clerestory walls of nave, those of aisles, and tower have battlements. Of the tower, which has no stone stairs, the lower portion is E.E., or probably earlier, the upper Perp., giving the whole a resemblance to the Perp. towers of the neighbourhood. There are many remains of coloured glass in the northern windows, particularly in those of the Twysden chapel at east end of north aisle, which chapel is Dec., and has a flat boarded ceiling, with gilded ornaments at the intersection of the compartments. Chancel has flat timber roof. Some E.E. work, some Dec., and some Perp., The label to the brass of Rich. Adams describes him as "quondam prebendarius magne misse in monasterio de West Malkling," sic, "acvicarius...de est Malkling," sic. The roodloft was placed westward of the chancel arch, the passages on either side being yet visible. The south wall seems coeval with the tower, that of the northern side has been rebuilt.
210. Malling, West.—The old nave of this church fell down toward the end of the last century, when the present structure was erected. The Norm. tower has no staircase. Beside those already mentioned, there is another small brass of a civilian, Will. Skott, gentleman, 1532. Abbey.—The surviving portion of the cloisters, now included in the residence, are rich and elegant E.E., with trefoiled arches. St. Leonard's.—Just below the tower is a small piece of, apparently, ancient wall, running eastward; but it is very difficult to judge of the age of masonry formed with the stone of the district. No record nor tradition can be ascertained respecting the site of the chapel of St. Leonard.
212. St. Margaret's, Darent.—In the statements referring to this place and South Darent (compare the Notes above) there appears to be some confusion, demanding further research (which I was unable to bestow) for its elucidation. On inquiring in the neighbourhood for St. Margaret's, I learned that a spot was known under that name, and as the site of an ancient chapel, which was said to have stood in a field, but that every vestige of it was removed some years ago. This then could not have been the "building used as a malthouse," mentioned by Hasted, (see above, p. 100). Wherefore the inference seems tolerably clear, that, as already had been strongly suspected, beside the church or chapel of St. Margaret, at Hilles, there must have been another at South Darent, of which it remains to be ascertained whether any portion yet exists.
230. Nettlested.—The church, "a small building consisting merely of a tower, nave, and chancel, retains most of its original glazing. The south windows of the nave were almost totally destroyed by a storm many years ago, &c." The date of the glass is the fifteenth century, that of the chancel, placed A.D. 1465, being more simple than that of the nave. (An Inquiry into the Difference of Style observable in ancient Glass Paintings, &c., by an Amateur, I, 112. Oxford, 1847.)
235. Nockholt.—A subsequent collation having shown some errors in the curious extract from the Reigate MS. volume, as presented above p. 118, a corrected copy and translation are here given, the uncertainty being marked, wherever any question occurred as to the true reading.
"Temporibus Anglorum Regis Henrici tercii, filii regis Johannis, qui in Anglia regnabat LVI annis et diebus XX, erat quidam Radulphus Scot manens in parochia de Chelesfeld, juxta altam stratam regiam inter Farnbergh et Halstede jacentem, ubi crux est vocata Scottes Crouch. Qui quidem Kadulfus de loco illo se transtulit apud Ocolte, terras et varias ibidem possessiones emendo, quandamque construendo ibi mansionem vocatam la Halle. Propter quod locus ille vocatur Scottes Ocolte. Et quia prefatus Radulfus et ceteri inhabitantes dictum locum, pro divinis audiendis officiis, apud Chivenyng et alibi circumquaque se a parochiali ecclesia sua de Orpyntone divertebant; et quia ob loci distanciam a dicta parochiali ecclesia multa ibidem animarum contingebant pericula, ipse Radulfus Scot, et quidam Herveus (?) Goldsmyth, laicus (?) a deo, ut creditur, inspirati, in area viridi apud Ocolte, vocata Hertlepe, ubi diebus festivis communis accessus laicorum fiebat per inhabitantes dictum locum, quandam Capellam in honore beate Katerine virginis de suis construi bonis fecerunt. Primo lapide per dictum Radulfum in ipsius Capelle posito fundamento. Et post construccionem dicte Capelle ipse Radulfus Scot, de terris sibi adquisitis, de modica area juxta Cimiterium pro domibus capellani ibidem, ac etiam de quadam crofta sua ex opposite dicte Capelle situata, pro construccionem domorum ad colleccionem decimarum reponendam (?) ibidem, dotavit Capellam eandem libere, et donavit in perpetuam elemosinam possidendum. Postmodo idem Eadulfus Scot dictam Capellam, ixmo. die Maij, anno Domini Mo. CCo. octogesimo primo, tempore fratris Roberti Kilwardeby, tune Cantuarie archiepiscopi, de ejus licentia consecrari et dedicari in honore beate virginis Katerine, non obstante appellatione rectoris de Orpyntone in hac parte ad sedem apostolicam, sicut fert."
"In the times of the king of the English, Henry III, son of King John, who reigned in England fifty-six years and twenty days, there was a certain Ralph Scot abiding in the parish of Chelsfield, near the royal highway lying between Parnborough and Halsted, where is the cross called Scot's Crouch. Which Ralph indeed removed himself from that place to Ocolte, by buying there lands and sundry possessions, and by constructing there a certain mansion called the Hall. On which account that place is called Scot's Ocolte. And because the aforesaid Ralph, and others inhabiting the said place, for hearing divine services wandered to Chevening, and elsewhere in all directions, from their parish church of Orpington; and because, through the distance of the place from the said parish church, many perils of souls befell there, this Ralph Scot, and a certain Hervey Goldsmith, a layman, inspired by God, as is believed, in a certain green space at Ocolte called Hartleap, where on festivals took place a common assemblage of laity by those inhabiting the said place, caused to be erected out of their own goods a certain chapel in honour of St. Katherine, virgin; the first stone being laid by the said Ralph in the foundation of his own chapel. And after the completion of the said chapel this Ralph Scot, out of the lands he had acquired, out of a moderate-sized close near the cemetery for the house of the chaplain there, and also out of a certain croft of his situated opposite the said chapel, for the erection of buildings for the collection of tithes to be stored therein, freely endowed the said chapel, and gave to be possessed in perpetual alms. Afterwards the same Ralph Scot (procured) the said chapel, on the ninth day of May, A.D. 1281, in the time of brother Robert Kilwardeby, then archbishop of Canterbury, by his licence to be consecrated and dedicated in honour of St. Katherine the virgin, notwithstanding the appeal of the rector of Orpington interposed in this matter to the apostolic see, as he alleges."
245. Orpington.—Chancel, nave, west porch, square tower at east end of northern side of nave, vestry north of the chancel, apparently rebuilt on an old site, and Perp. private chapel westward of vestry. The building is E.E., though the tower arch has Norm, features, with some Dec. and Perp. work. The tooth moulding runs round the west door, which may be Tr. Norm., or early E.E. The roodloft stairs seem to exist in the south wall of nave. There are remains of a stoup at the west door, and the lower part of tower is vaulted.
273. Rokesley.—The ancient church is still standing, and still used as a barn, being full of corn when visited, wherefore the interior was inaccessible. It is about sixty feet long, appearing to have had two windows in each side, with one and a door in the west end ; the east end was entirely concealed. The hood mouldings have been so carefully destroyed, that no idea can be formed of the style of architecture. From the present condition of the walls the suppression must have been procured by deception. A duplicate copy of the deed of annexation with North Cray is preserved in the parish chest of that place, having appended thereto a beautiful, perfect seal of Card. Pole. This church was one of those small edifices, of which the chancels were distinguished from the naves only by the interior fittings. The statement, alluded to above p 142 in the Custumale Roffense (p. 246) is, that the chancel "yet" contained "two confessionary stalls with mitred arches and seats in them," as also "the receptacle for holy water. This report is dated in 1774. Thorpe says, that a southern entrance was "enlarged" into the existing barn-doors.
277*. Ryarsh.—Chancel, nave, south aisle with porch, and west tower There is a Norm, piscina in the chancel. Part of the approach to the roodloft yet remains; also a few fragments of coloured glass. In east end were sundry small Norm, windows, now one late Perp. Some Dec. work appears. Most windows Perp., as is the tower. The door at the bottom of the tower stairs has a good handle and scutcheon. In the yard is a gravestone ornamented with a cross.
280. Sandwich.—The charter of King Cnut bestowing this place upon Christ's Church, Canterbury is repeated by Mr. Kemble (Cod. Dipl. VI, 191), where however the document is marked as being suspicious, if not spurious.
319. Sutton-at-Hone.—Chancel, nave, wide south aisle with porch, and west tower. All windows, except in tower, Dec., the three-light east window, with flowing tracery, being built up. The church was not entered.
329. Throwley.—Wylrington or Wilrentune, now Walderton or Wilderton, lying due north of Throwley church, is an ancient manor in this parish, the site of the chapel of Wylrington, mentioned from Hasted above, p. 160. This must have been an early foundation, because it appears, that, near the commencement of the thirteenth century, a dispute had arisen between the abbot of St. Bertin's and the lady of Wylrington manor, in consequence of the latter having suspended a bell in her chapel (see, p. 300, a similar case at Waldron, Sussex, about the same period, namely, A.D. 1233) to the prejudice, as alleged, of the mother church of Throwley. The matter being referred by the pope to the consideration of the abbot of Faversham and Walter prior of Canterbury, these latter delivered their award, A.D. 1217, 1 of K. Hen. Ill, against the lady of Wylrington and in favour of the abbot of St. Bertin's, that the bell should be removed as an injustice to Throwley Church, and that it should not be re-erected except by consent of the abbot of St. Bertin's, a stipulation being added, that the chaplain serving in "Trulee" should provide oblations for the chapel of Wylrington, when officiating there at the Lord's Supper, "in oblatis et vino capelle de Wilrintune providebit quotiens ad predictam capellam celebraturus accesserit." (Chartulary of St. Bertin's.) For the above extract, as likewise for another given under Leveland above, I am indebted to the kind information of the Rev. Lambert B. Larking, who copied them, and all other matter relating to English history, from the Chartulary still preserved at St. Ouen, the said Chartulary being a transcript of about 1750, which has happily survived the French Revolution, wherein all the original documents perished.
339. Watringbury.—Church originally small, comprising chancel, nave, south porch, and west tower with shingled spire. Now enlarged by recent additions on north side. Font has a pyramidal, not very lofty, wooden cover. Tower may be E.E., but the exterior of the entire building is concealed by plaster. Oldest windows Perp.
- I cannot but suppose, that this Hervey Goldsmith (the last appellation derived from his occupation doubtless) is the identical " magister Herveus," who is recorded in the Account Bolls of Norwich priory to have been concerned there A.D. 1277 in the making of images and paintings, in which work gold and silver leaves are stated to have been employed in considerable quantities. The renovations at Norwich and the building of Nockholt Chapel must have been nearly, or quite, simultaneous. See Proceedings of Archaeological Institute at Norwich in 1847, p. 207.
- Though foreign to the subject in hand, it may be remarked here, that the language of the above quotation bears upon a ritual question. The expression "in oblatis et vino" manifestly signifying the bread and wine used in the Holy Communion, we may understand, that the term " oblations" in the Prayer for the Church Militant of our own Communion Service also is designed to apply to the bread.