years in the Conservatoire, and in 29 came out at the Opera Comique with great success. After this she divided her time between Brussels and Paris, and in 1854 appeared in the important and difficult part of Catherine in the 'Etoile du Nord,' expressly written for her by Meyerbeer. In 59 he wrote for her the part of Dinorah. In 60 she played the Figlia del Reggimento at Her Majesty's Theatre July 14, and appeared in the Shadow scene from Dinorah, July 28. In 61 she played at St. Petersburg, and soon after left the boards. Her voice was not large, but sympathetic and of extraordinary flexibility, and she was a very clever actress.
[ G. ]
[App. p.574 "Correct the existing article by the following:—Her name was properly Cabu; she studied at the Conservatoire in 1848–9, and in the latter year made her début at the Opéra Comique, with little effect, in 'Val d'Andorre' and 'Les Mousquetaires de la Reine.' She was next engaged at Brussels for three years, and obtained a great success. After performances at Lyons and Strassburg she was engaged at the Lyrique, Paris, for three years, and made her first appearance Oct. 6, '53, as Toinon, on production of 'Le Bijou Perdu ' (Adam). She also appeared in new operas, viz. 'La Promise' (Clapisson), Mar. 16, '54, and 'Jaguarita l'Indienne' (Halévy), May 14, '55. In 1854 she came to England with the Lyrique company. She first appeared on June 7 in 'Le Bijou' and made a great success in the 'Promise,' 'Fille du Régiment,' and 'Sirène,' in spite of the inferior support given by the above company. On Feb. 23, '56, she reappeared at the Opéra Comique on the production of 'Manon Lescaut' (Auber), and remained there until 1861, her best new parts being Catherine, on the revival of 'L'Étoile du Nord'; and April 4, '59, as Dinorah on the production of 'Le Pardon de Ploërmel.' In 1860 she played the Figlia, etc., as described in vol. i., renewed her successes in revivals of 'Le Bijou,' 'Jaguarita,' and appeared as Féline on the production of 'La Chatte merveilleuse' (Grisar), March 18, '62. In 1861 she was again at the Lyrique, and on March 21, '63, played in 'Così fan Tutte,' with a new libretto adapted to 'Love's Labour's Lost.' From 1865–70 she was again at the Opéra Comique, and among her new parts were Philine in 'Mignon,' Nov. 17, '66, and 'Hélène, Le Premier Jour de Bonheur,' Feb. 15, '68. In '71 she sang at the New Philharmonic and other concerts, and in '72 sang in French opera at the Opéra Comique, London, in the 'Fille du Régiment,' 'L'Ambassadrice,' and 'Galathée,' and was well received, though the company was bad, and the theatre much too small for important opera. She played in the French provinces until 1877, but in '78 was struck with paralysis, from which she never wholly recovered. She died at Maisons Laffitte, May 23, '85.
A brother-in-law (or son) of hers, Edouard, was a singer at the Opéra Comique and the Lyrique, and sang the song of Hylas in 'Les Troyens a Carthage.' See Berlioz' Memoirs. His song was well received, but it was nevertheless cut out, in order that Carvalho should not have to pay him extra salary.
[ A. C. ]
CABINET PIANO. An upright pianoforte about six feet high, much in vogue from soon after the date of its introduction early in this century to about 1840. A few years later the lower upright instruments, oblique, cottage, piccolo, etc., had quite superseded it. The name Cabinet Pianoforte appears for the first time in a patent secured by William Southwell in 1807 (patent No. 3029), but upright pianofortes with the strings descending nearly to the floor instead of only to the stand or legs as in the older Upright Grand, had been previously suggested by Isaac Hawkins in 1800 (patent No. 2446) and Thomas Loud in 1803 (patent No. 2591). The bold step of inverting the wrestplank or tuning-pin block, which in the Upright Grand was at the bottom near the keys, but in the Cabinet was at the top, appears to have been taken by Thomas Loud [App. p.574 amends to Isaac Hawkins], as in his specification we find his wrestplank fixed diagonically in the sides of the case, the bass end near the top, 6 feet 3 inches high, to preserve length for the bass strings, the treble end lower 4 feet 3 inches from the bottom, leaving an angular space above which might be utilised for bookshelves. In Southwell's patent, which refers specially to the action and damper movement, the wrestplank is certainly elevated horizontally. James Shudi Broadwood, in some MS. notes dated 1838, since printed for private circulation, claims a part in the invention through having given a sketch for a vertical or cabinet pianoforte to William Southwell about 1804. He adds no particulars, but remarks that the new instrument when introduced was for a time unsuccessful, which is also stated from another source by Mr. A. N. Wornum (Address to Jurors, Paris Exhibition, 1867). The further history of this important invention, which includes the almost contemporaneous oblique and cottage pianofortes is referred to in Pianoforte, but it has a special interest from the upright piano of any height, oblique or vertically strung, having been invented and first produced in this country, independent of foreign suggestion or help. See also Cottage Piano, Oblique, and Piccolo.
[ A. J. H. ]
CACCINI, Giulio, a native of Rome, known also as Giulio Romano, born, according to the preface of his own 'Nuove Musiche,' in 1558 or 1560. He learned to sing and play the lute from Scipione della Palla, and in 1578 removed to Florence, where he remained till his death in 1640. Great as a singer he was still greater as a reformer in music. Though neither harmonist nor contrapuntist, it was he who, following the lead of V. Galilei, first gave countenance and importance to music for a single voice. The recitatives which he composed and sang to the accompaniment of the theorbo, amid the enthusiastic applause of the musical assemblies meeting at the houses of Bardi and Corsi in Florence, were a novelty of immense significance. They were the first attempt to make music dramatic, to use it as the expression of emotion. From such small beginnings he proceeded to detached scenes written by Bardi, and thence to higher flights. The pastoral drama of Dafne, written by Rinuccini and set to music by Caccini and Peri in 1594, and still more the 'Euridice, Tragedia per Musica,' of the same poet and the same musicians in 1600, were the beginnings of the modern opera. Other compositions of Caccini's were the 'Combattimento d'Apolline col Serpente,' 'Il ratto di Cefale' (with Peri), and 'Le nuove Musiche,' a collection of madrigals and canzone for a single voice. 'Euridice' has been published—but with the name of Peri alone attached to it—by Guidi (1863, 8vo.). Caccini's daughter Francesca was celebrated both as a singer and composer.
CACHUCHA (Spanish). An Andalusian dance, introduced to the theatre by the celebrated Fanny Elssler in the ballet of 'Le diable boiteux,' the music of which is in 3–4 time, and closely resembles the Bolero. The dance-tune was originally sung with a guitar accompaniment. Of the origin of the name nothing certain is known.
[ E. P. ]
CADEAC, Pierre, master of the choristers at Auch about the middle of the 16th century, church-composer of great merit in his day; composed masses and motets for the most part published in the following collections:—'Quintus liber Motettorum' (Lyons, 1543); 'Gardano's XII Missæ' (Venice, 1554); and 'Missarum Musicalium' (Paris, 1556).
[ M. C. C. ]
CADENCE. Cadences or (as they are often called) Closes, are the devices which in music answer the purpose of stops in language. The effect is produced by the particular manner in which certain chords succeed one another, the order being generally such as to produce suspense or expectation first, and then to gratify it by a chord which is more satisfying to the ear. They are commonly divided into three kinds—the Perfect cadence, the Imperfect cadence, and the Interrupted cadence. Some writers specify a greater number, but this only tends to confusion and misconception. All that is requisite is to group the various kinds under names which mark their common effect. Thus every cadence which can be used satisfactorily to end a movement must of necessity be a Perfect cadence. Every cadence which is broken away from at the very moment when it seemed to promise a conclusion is obviously an Interrupted cadence; and every cadence which without producing the effect
- Mme. Vandenheuvel, then Caroline Duprez, daughter of the tenor, was the heroine on its production, not Mme. Catel, as stated in vol. i.