and chose 'Così fan tutte' for her benefit; and at Velluti's début in 'Il crociate,' Mme. Caradori sang the first woman's part, distinguishing herself particularly in the duet 'Il tenero affetto' with the musico. In 1826, though still belonging to the company, she was removed for the purpose of introducing Bonini, who was better suited as a foil for Velluti; and Caradori, when she re-appeared in 'La Donna del Lago,' was received with joy by the public. She sang also in the 'Barbiere' and in 'Romeo e Giulietta;' and took her benefit in ' Le Nozze,' as Susanna. [App. p.579 adds that "she sang in the Ninth Symphony of Beethoven on its production at the Philharmonic, March 21, 1825."]
Pasta having returned to London, and chosen Mayer's 'Medea' for her benefit, Caradori acted and sang most charmingly the tender and gentle part of Creusa. There is a good portrait of her in this character by J. Hayter, lithographed by Hullmandel. Her voice, though not very powerful, was exceedingly sweet and flexible, and her style almost faultless. She had much knowledge of music, and sang with great delicacy and expression. In a room she was perfect. Her appearance was interesting, her countenance very agreeable, and her manner modest and unassuming: she always pleased, though she never astonished, her audience. Her salary rose gradually from £300 in 1822 to £1200 in 27. In 34, happening to be again in England, she carried on the operas with tolerable success until the arrival of the expected prima donna, Giulia Grisi. But it was in concerts that she now achieved her greatest success, and first of all in the Festival in Westminster Abbey in this same year, in which she sang with her usual excellence, and was well heard, though it had been feared that her voice was not powerful enough for so large a space. Her 'With verdure clad' appeared to Lord Mount-Edgcumbe to be 'decidedly the best solo performance of the whole concert.' She took part also in the performance of the 'Mount of Olives,' 'in which it need not be said she sang well,' and gave equally well 'Rejoice greatly,' which, though a brilliant song, did not show her to the best advantage. During the carnival of 1830 she sang with success at Venice, but after 1835 she remained in England, singing at festivals and concerts. She sang the soprano part in 'Elijah' at Birmingham, Aug. 26, 1846, when Mendelssohn's judgment of her performance was not so favourable as Lord Mount-Edgcumbe's (Letters, Aug. 31). She died on Sunday, Oct. 15, 1865.
[ J. M. ]
CARAFA, Michele, born at Naples Nov. 28, 1785 [App. p.579 "Nov. 17, 1787"]; studied under Fazzi, Fenaroli, and Ruggi, and in Paris under Cherubini. His first opera was 'Il Fantasma.' So little however did Carafa feel his vocation that he entered the army, and became an officer in the bodyguard of Murat, then king of Naples. Like Henri Beyle (Stendhal) he made the campaign of Russia in 1812, and was decorated by Napoleon. After the Emperor's fall he left the army and embraced music as his profession. His first opera, 'Il vascello di occidente,' was produced at Naples in 1814, and was followed by a large number of others. 'Gabriele' (1818), 'Ifigenia,' 'Berenice,' etc., etc., were produced in Italy, but he was equally successful in Vienna and in Paris. In the latter city he made his début with 'Le Solitaire,' Aug. 17, 1822, which long remained extraordinarily popular. In 27 he took up his residence in Paris, and brought out 'La Violette,' [App. p.579 adds "Oct. 1828"] 'La fiancée de Lammermoor,' 'Masaniello' (Dec. 27, 1827, evidently written in competition with Auber's 'Muette,' Feb. 29, 1828), 'La prison d'Edimbourg,' etc. These operas, and many others, were very popular, notwithstanding the immense counter attractions of Auber and Rossini. This they owe more to an easy flow of melody and natural unaffected instrumentation than to any original character, and in consequence they have now fallen into oblivion. As a composer for the pianoforte Carafa was almost equally the fashion, and at Cherubini's instance he was made Professor of Composition in the Conservatoire shortly after his arrival in Paris, a post which he was still filling in 1876 [App. p.579 to "where he died, July 26, 1872"]. In 1837 he was elected a member of the Académie des beaux arts.
The 'Dictionnaire lyrique' of M. Felix Clement mentions no less than 35 of his operas.
[ G. ]
CARDARELLI, Signora, a singer who performed the part of Marina in Sacchini's 'L'Isola d'amore' at the King's Theatre in 1776.
[ J. M. ]
CARDON, Louis, a harpist of great repute, of Italian parentage, but born in Paris 1747. On the outbreak of the Revolution he migrated to Russia, where he died in 1805. His 'Art de jouer la harpe' was for long esteemed. His brother Pierre, born 1751 in Paris, was a singer and cello player.
CARDOSO, Manuel, a Spanish priest, born at Fronteira 1569; entered the Carmelite order at Lisbon 1588, and became its sub-prior and chapel-master, and a great favourite of King John IV. His works are exclusively for the church. Several are said to have been published, but only one is quoted, 'Livro … na Semana Santa,' Lisbon 1048. Two motets are given by Proske in the 'Musica Divina,' ii. Nos. 5 and 33.
CARESANA, Cristoforo, an Italian musician of note, born at Tarentum 1655, and settled in Naples in 1680. He published motets, hymns, and duetti da camera, and left many MSS. in the library at Naples. But his most famous work is his 'Solfeggi' (Naples, 1680), of which Choron published a new edition for use in the Conservatoire.
CARESTINI, Giovanni, one of the greatest of Italian singers, was born at Monte Filatrano, Ancona, about 1705. At the age of 12 he went to Milan, where he gained the protection of the Cusani family, in gratitude to whom he assumed the name of Cusanino. His voice, at first a powerful clear soprano, afterwards changed to the fullest, finest, and deepest contralto ever, perhaps, heard. His first appearance was at Rome 1721, in the female part of Costanza in Buononcini's 'Griselda.' In 1723 he sang at Prague, at the coronation of Charles VI as King