Take a guitar the strings of which are tuned in real notes
the basis of sharp keys: with a capo tasto on the first semitone fret we have
the basis of flat keys, the fingering remaining the same. With bow instruments the capo tasto is no longer used, but it was formerly with those having frets as the viol da gamba. The use of the thumb as a bridge to the violoncello serves as a capo tasto, as also, in principle, the pedal action of the harp.
[ A. J. H. ]
CAPRICCIETTO (Ital., dimin. of capriccio). A Capriccio, on a small scale, and of no great development.
[ E. P. ]
CAPRICCIO (Ital.; Fr. caprice), (1) This name was originally given, according to Marpurg, to pieces written for the harpsichord in a fugued style, though not strict fugues. It was also sometimes applied to actual fugues, when written upon a lively subject; and the composition was consequently for the most part in quick notes. Examples of this kind of capriccio can be found in Handel's 'Third set of Lessons for the Harpsichord' (German Handel Society's edition, part 2), and in the second of Bach's 'Six Partitas.' Bach also uses the word as synonymous with 'fantasia,' i.e. a piece in a free form, in his 'Capriccio on the departure of a beloved brother.' (2) In the middle of the last century the term was applied to exercises for stringed instruments, such as would now be called 'études,' in which one definite figure was carried through the composition. (3) In the present day the word Caprice is usually employed, and the name is applied to a piece of music constructed either on original subjects, and frequently in a modified sonata- or rondo-form (as in Mendelssohn's 'Three Caprices,' op. 33, or Sterndale Bennett's Caprice in E), or to a brilliant transcription of one or more subjects by other composers. As an example of the latter kind may be named Heller's 'Caprice brillant sur la Truite de Schubert.' Although, as already mentioned, the sonata- or rondo-form is frequently adopted for the caprice, there is, as implied by the name, no limitation in this respect, the composer being at liberty to follow his inclinations.
[ E. P. ]
CAPULETTI ED I MONTECCHI, I, an Italian opera in 3 acts, taken from Romeo and Juliet; libretto by Romani, music by Bellini, produced at Venice March 12, 1830, at Paris Jan. 10, 1833, and in London at the King's Theatre July 20, 1833. A fourth act was added by Vaccai, and is usually performed.
[ G. ]
CARACCIO, Giovanni, was born at Bergamo about the middle of the 16th century. He was at first a singer in the private choir of the Elector of Bavaria. Having quitted this service he spent some years at Rome and at Venice, and then returned to his native place, where he was appointed Maestro at the cathedral. He held this post for twenty-three years, when he migrated to Santa Maria Maggiore at Rome, remaining there until his death in 1626. He was one of those fourteen composers of different nations who showed their appreciation of Palestrina's genius by dedicating to him a volume of Psalms to which each had contributed. [ Palestrina.] His published works are:—Magnificat omnitonum, pars 1; Venice 1581. Magnificat omnitonum, pars 2; Venice 1582. Madrigali a 5 voci, lib. 1; Venice 1583. Musica a 5 voci da sonare; id. 1585. Dialogo à 7 voci nel, lib. 1, di Madrigali di Claudio da Correggio; Milan 1588. Madrigali a 5 voci, lib. 2; Venice 1589. Salmi di compieta con le antifone della Vergine, ed otto falsi bordoni a 5 voci; Venice 1591. Salmi a cinque per tutti i vesperi dell' anno, con alcuni hymni, mottetti, e falsi bordoni accommodati ancora a voci di donne; Venice 1593. Madrigali a 5 voci, lib. 4; Venice 1594. Salmi a cinque; Venice 1594. Madrigali a 5 voci, lib. 5; Venice 1597. Canzoni francesci a quattro; Venice 1597. Canzonette a tre; Venice 1598. Madrigali a 5 voci, lib. 6; Venice 1599. Messe per i defonti a quattro e cinque, con motetti; Milan 1611.
Bergameno has inserted some of Caraccio's work in his 'Parnassus musicus Ferdinandaeus,' 2–5 vocum; Venice 1615.
[ E. H. P. ]
CARADORI-ALLAN, Maria Caterina Rosalbina, née de Munck, was born in 1800 in the Casa Palatina at Milan. Her father, the Baron de Munck, was an Alsacian, and had been a colonel in the French army. Mlle. Munck's musical education was completed entirely by her mother, without assistance. Her father's death obliged her to avail herself of her gifts in order to support herself. Having attempted the stage in the course of a tour through France and part of Germany, she took her mother's family name of Caradori, and accepted an engagement in London in 1822. She made her début on Jan. 12 at the King's Theatre as Cherubino. 'It may be observed,' says Lord Mount-Edgcumbe, 'as an odd coincidence that Pasta, Vestris, and Caradori all have acted the Page in Le Nozze di Figaro, and none more successfully than the last, who by accident, not choice, made her début in that part; and it proved fortunate for her, as her charming manner of performing it laid the foundation of her subsequent favour.' She sang afterwards in 'La Clemenza di Tito,' 'Elisa e Claudio,' and 'Corradino,' as prima donna; and in 1834, as seconda donna, in 'Il Fanatico', with Catalani. She continued engaged through 1823 and 24; and in the latter year took her benefit in 'Don Giovanni.' In 25 she sang the second part in 'L'Adelina' of Generali, with Mad. Ronzi de Begnis as prima donna, showing thereby her great good nature. The same year, she played Fatima in Rossini's 'Pietro l'eremita,'