minor, and many other works were obtained (often in MS.) and performed before they were heard in any other place in the metropolis. Bennett's 'Parisina' was first played there after an interval of a quarter of a century.
A disposition is apparent in the managers of these concerts to present the audience with pieces of special interest; such as the MS. works of Schubert, and of Mendelssohn; Beethoven's arrangement of his Violin Concerto for the piano, and his Leonora Overture, 'No. 2'; an alternative Andante written by Mozart for his Parisian Symphony; the first version of Mendelssohn's Hebrides Overture, and other rare treasures of the same nature.
The performances are of that exceptional quality which might be inferred from the ability, energy, and devotion of the conductor, and from the fact that owing to the wind and a portion of the strings of the orchestra being the permanent band of the Crystal Palace, Mr. Manns has opportunities for rehearsal which are enjoyed by no other conductor in London.
[ G. ]
CSARDAS. A national dance of Hungary, which consists of two movements, an andante and an allegro, both in common (4-4 or 2-4) time and in the same key. The andante, which is written in the Hungarian Lied-form, has usually no repeats; but the Allegro consists generally of eight- and sixteen-bar phrases which are repeated. The character of the latter is wild and impetuous, and the whole is sometimes in a major key, sometimes in alternating majors and minors. The music of the csárdás is always performed by gipsies, and it partakes strongly of the peculiar character of Hungarian national music, in its accents on the weak beats of the bar, its cadences, etc. An example of the csárdás, which is too long to be quoted here, may be see at p. 91 of F. L. Schubert's 'Die Tanz-musik,' from which book the above particulars are derived.
[ E. P. ]
CUDMORE, Richard, was born at Chichester in 1787, and received his first instruction in music from James Forgett, an organist in that city. At a very early age he became a proficient on the violin, and at eleven years old was placed under Salomon. The next year he led the band at the Chichester Theatre, and was engaged in the orchestra at the Italian Opera, London. He next resided for nine years in Chichester, and then removed to London for the purpose of studying the pianoforte under Woelfl, and became a member of the Philharmonic Society's band. He afterwards settled in Manchester as leader of the Gentlemen's Concerts there. He composed several concertos for the violin and others for the pianoforte, as also an oratorio, 'The Martyr of Antioch' (published) portions of which were performed in Manchester and Liverpool. Cudmore died at Manchester in January 1841 [App. p.601 "Dec. 29, 1840"].
[ W. H. H. ]
CUE, i. e. queue, the tail of the preceding passage. Where a player or singer is reading from a separate part, and not from the score, some help is advisable to aid him in coming in correctly after the long pauses. A few notes of some other part immediately preceding the entrance of his own are therefore printed small in the stave as a guide; and this is called a cue:—
CUMBERLANDS, Royal Society of. This is an ancient society of change-ringers long established in London, and originally called the Society of London Scholars. But in the early part of the 18th century some members of the society rang the bells of Shoreditch Church in honour of the public entrance into London of the Duke of Cumberland, and to commemorate this event a medal was presented to the society bearing a likeness of the Royal Duke. It was on receipt of this that its members changed the name of their society to that of 'Cumberland Youths' or 'Royal Cuinberlands.'
[ C. A. W. T. ]
CUMMINGS, William Hayman, native of Sidbury, Devon, born 1835, placed at an early age in the choir of St. Paul's Cathedral, and afterwards in that of the Temple Church. On leaving the latter he was appointed organist of Waltham Abbey, and after a time admitted as tenor-singer in the Temple, Westminster Abbey, and the Chapels Royal, appointments which he subsequently resigned. Mr. Cummings is much in request for the important tenor parts in Bach's Passion, Bach's Mass, and other works where an accomplished musician is as necessary as a good singer. His publications include several prize glees, a Morning Service, an Anthem, various songs, a Cantata, 'The Fairy Ring,' and a Primer of the Rudiments of Music (Novello). [App. p.602 adds "that he is editor of the publications of the Purcell Society, and that he contributed a life of that master to the 'Great Musician' series. He was appointed conductor of the Sacred Harmonic Society in 1882."]
[ G. ]
CURIONI, a seconda donna, engaged at the King's Theatre about 1754. Among other parts, she sang that of Plistene, a male character in the 'Ipermestra' of Hasse and Lampugnani. She was, perhaps, the mother of Alberico Curioni, a distinguished tenor, born about 1790. After singing at the San Carlo at Naples, and other theatres, he went to Barcelona, and had great success. Benelli, catering for the London Opera, found him there and engaged him for the season of 1821 at £600. He had a very sweet and pleasing voice, was a very agreeable, if not yet a great, singer, and was one of the handsomest men that ever appeared on the Italian stage. As time went on, his talent developed and he improved in dramatic force and value. His expression and taste were pure, and he sang with much intelligence. In 1831 he made his first appearance in London as Tito with Camporese. He then seemed the best tenor that had belonged to the theatre for some time, but he hardly gave the full promise of his future excellence. Curioni was re-engaged in 1822, at an increased salary, and appeared in 'Otello' with renewed éclat; and again in 'La Clemenza di Tito,' in 'La Donna del Lago,' and 'Ricciardo e Zoraide,' in 1823. In 24 and 25 he was again engaged. In the latter year he appeared as Orosmane in