The most valuable études for the pianoforte are the following:—
I. CLASSICAL SCHOOL.
Inventions—à deuz et à trois parties.
Gradus ad Parnassum. Préludes et exercises dans tous les tons.
Toccata in B♭
24 Studien, Op. 70. Characteristiche Studien, Op. 95.
II. MODERN SCHOOL.
12 grandes Etudes. Op. 10.
12 Etudes. Op. 25.
Prelude in C♯ minor.
12 Etudes de concert. Op. 2.
12 Etudes de salon. Op. 5.
Grandes Etudes da Paganini, transcrites, etc.
Etudes d'execution transcendante.
Ab-Irato. Etude de perfectionnement.
Trois grandes Etudes de concert.
Zwei Etudien—Waldesrauschen; Gnomentanz.
C. V. ALKAN.
12 Grandes Etudes.
Etude pour la main gauche.
" " " " droite.
" " " " les deux mains.
Besides these there exists an enormous number of études with comparatively little educational and less artistic value, which are for the most part written to the order of publishers, from whose shops they find their way to the schoolrooms and salons of amateurs; such are those by Czerny, Steibelt, Hummel, Kessler, Bertini, Mayer, Döhler, Schulhof, Ravina, etc.
[ E. D. ]
Of Etudes for the Violin, the following four works are considered as indispensable for the formation of a good technique and correct style, by the masters of all schools of violin-playing:—
R. Kreutzer, 40 Etudes or Caprices.
Fiorillo, Etude de Violon, formant 36 caprices.
P. Rode, Vingt-quatre Caprices.
N. Paganini, 24 Caprices, op. 1.
to which may be added Gaviniés' 'Vingtquatre matinées.'
Of more modern études, those of Dont, Ferd. David, Alard, and Wieniawsky, are amongst the most valuable. The violin-schools of Spohr, Ries, and others, also contain a great many useful études. Some movements from Bach's Solo Sonatas, such as the well-known Prelude in E major, fall under the same category.
[ P. D. ]
EULENSTEIN, Charles, was born in 1802 at Heilbronn, in Wurtemberg. His father was a respectable tradesman; but nothing could deter the son from following his strong predilection for music. After enduring all sorts of privations and ill-success, he appeared in London in 1827, and produced extremely beautiful effects by performing on sixteen Jew's-harps, having for many years cultivated this instrument in an extraordinary manner. [Jew's-Harp.] The patronage of the Duke of Gordon induced him to return in 1828; but he soon found that the iron Jew's-harp had so injured his teeth that he could not play without pain, and he therefore applied himself more and more to the guitar. At length a dentist contrived a glutinous covering for the teeth, which enabled him to play his Jew's-harp again. He was very successful in Scotland, and thence went to Bath, to establish himself as teacher of the guitar, concertina, and the German language. After remaining there a considerable time he returned to Germany, and is now (1878) living at Günzburg, near Ulm.
[ V. de P. ]
EUPHONIUM. A name given to the bass instrument of the Saxhorn family, usually tuned in B♭ or C. It only differs from the barytone Saxhorn in the larger diameter of its bore, which thus produces a louder and somewhat deeper quality of tone. It is usually furnished with four valves, sometimes even with five, the first three worked by the fingers of the right hand, and severally depressing the pitch by a semitone, a tone, and a minor third; the fourth by the left hand applied to a different part of the instrument, and lowering the pitch by two tones and a semitone.
From the gradual disuse of the Serpent and Ophicleide, the Euphonium is becoming the chief representative of the eight-foot octave among the brass instruments; with the exception of the few notes attainable on the French horn in that register. In quality it is however less sympathetic than its forerunners, and less able to blend with the stringed instruments. It therefore serves chiefly as a solo instrument, in which capacity it affords considerable support to the brass or military band. It possesses the usual harmonic series of open notes. Its compass is to a considerable degree dependent on the lip of the individual player. The fundamental note is obviously C or B♭ according to the pitch of the instrument, and the gap between this and the next harmonic above is more or less bridged over according to the number of the valves. The valves also admit of being used, together or separately, as integral parts of the tube, thus lowering the fundamental tone obtained, even to the extent of an octave.
The upper limit may be generally described as three octaves above the fundamental before named, although accomplished players obtain sounds very much more acute. It is usually written for in the bass clef, and in orchestral usage the real notes are given. If the instrument be in C, which it commonly is, no change is necessary; if however it be a B♭ instrument, the whole scale has to be really and systematically raised through the interval of a tone. [See Transposing.] Some French writers, however, transpose the part exactly as is done for the clarinets and cornet. The Euphonium being a modern invention, is not written for by the older composers. It is however freely employed in more recent instrumentation.
[ W. H. S. ]
EURYANTHE. The 6th of Weber's 7 operas. Text by Helmine von Chezy. Overture completed Oct. 19, 1823; produced Oct. 25, 23, at the Kärnthnerthor theatre, Vienna; in London, at Covent Garden, June 29, 33; at Paris, Grand Opéra, April 6, 1831, with interpolations from Oberon; at Théatre Lyrique, with new libretto, Sept. 1, 57. The opera is damaged by its libretto, and is too little known.
[ G. ]