the first strain of the first gavotte in Bach's Suite in D:—
The gavotte should always begin on the third beat of the bar, each part finishing, therefore, with a half-bar, which must contain a minim, and not two crotchets. Occasional exceptions may be found to the rule that the gavotte is to begin on the third crotchet, as, for instance, in that of No. 3 of Bach's 'Suites Françaises,' which commences on the first crotchet, of which, however, it should be noticed that in some editions it is termed an 'Anglaise.' In any case it is not strictly a gavotte. The same may be said of the 'gavotte' in Gluck's 'Orphée,' which begins on the fourth beat of the bar, and should therefore rather have been marked 'Tempo di Gavotta.' A second gavotte frequently succeeds the first as a 'trio,' in the modern sense of that term. This second gavotte is either similar in construction to the first, as in Bach's Suite in B minor ('Französische Ouverture'), or is a Musette, i.e. founded on a 'drone-bass,' as in the third and sixth of Bach's 'Suites Anglaises.' The position of the gavotte in the suite is not invariable, but it usually follows the sarabande, though occasionally (as in Bach's Suite in B minor above referred to), it precedes it.
[ E. P. ]
GAWLER, an organist in London in the early part of the present century, published a collection of psalm tunes with interludes, under the title of 'Harmonia Sacra'; 'Dr. Watts's Divine Psalms'; 'Lessons for the Harpsichord,' and two sets of Voluntaries for the Organ.'
[ W. H. H. ]
GAWTHORN, Nathaniel, clerk at the Friday Lecture in East Cheap, published in 1730 a collection of psalm tunes in 4 parts under the title of 'Harmonia Perfecta,' containing also some hymns and anthems, and an Introduction to Psalmody.
[ W. H. H. ]
GAZZA LADRA, LA (the thieving magpie). A comic opera in two acts; libretto by Gherardini; music by Rossini; produced at La Scala, Milan, in the Spring of 1817, in London at the King's Theatre March 10, 1821, and in Paris Sept. 18. In English (adapted by Bishop) as 'Ninetta, or, the Maid of Palaiseau,' at Covent Garden, Feb. 4, 1830.
[ G. ]
GAZZANIGA, Giuseppe, one of the most celebrated opera composers of his time, born at Verona, Oct. 1743; pupil of Porpora, both in Venice and at San Onofrio in Naples. He also studied under Piccinni. Through Sacchini's influence his first opera 'Il finto cieco' was performed in Vienna (1770). Among his many operas may be mentioned 'Il convietato di pietro,' the forerunner of 'Don Giovanni,' which lad an extraordinary success in Venice (1787), Ferrara, Rome, Bergamo, and London, where it was performed repeatedly. Gazzaniga was afterwards maestro di capella at Cremona, where he devoted himself entirely to church music.
[ F. G. ]
GEBAUER, Franz Xaver, born in 1784 at Eckersdorf, Glatz, Prussian Silesia, received his early musical education from his father, the village schoolmaster. In 1804 he became organist at Frankenstein; and in 1810 went to Vienna, where he soon became known for his extraordinary execution on the Jews-harp, and lived by giving excellent pianoforte lessons, and playing the cello. In 1816 he was appointed Chordirector of the church of St. Augustin, and there, thanks to his indefatigable efforts, the larger works of the great masters were satisfactorily performed. He was also one of the earliest and most active members of the 'Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde,' founded in 1813. In 1819, through his endeavours, were started the Spirituel-Concerte which continued in existence until 1848, and into the programmes of which none but sterling works were admitted. [See Spirituel Concerte [App. p.646 "omit this reference"].] Gebauer was the first conductor, but did not long enjoy the fruit of his labours. In Oct. 1822 he returned from a journey to Switzerland seriously ill, and died in Vienna on the 13th Dec., sincerely regretted as a sterling musician and an upright man. He published a few Lieder, and left a small number of choral compositions in MS. He was intimate with Beethoven, who in a note preserved by Seyfried ('Beethovens Studien,' Anh. 36, and Nohl's Briefe, No. 234), puns upon his name in his favourite style, calling him 'Geh' Bauer' and 'der Bauer.'
[ C. F. P. ]
GEDACKT-WORK (i.e. gedeckt}. All the Flue-stops of an Organ composed of pipes that are entirely covered or closed in at the top are members of the 'Gedackt' or Covered-work. To this class therefore belong the Sub-Bourdon, 32; Bourdon, 16; Stopped Diapason, 8; and Stopped Flute, 4 feet-tone. When made to a 'small scale,' and voiced so as to produce a sweet tone, the adjective 'Lieblich' is prefixed, as Lieblich Bourdon, 16, Lieblich Gedackt, 8, Lieblich Flöte, 4 feet-tone. Large stopped pipes are generally made of wood; the smaller ones either of wood or metal. Covered Stops were first made in Germany, in the early part of the 16th century.
[ E. J. H. ]
GEIGEN-PRINCIPAL, i.e. Violin Diapason. An organ stop of 8 feet or unison pitch; crisp in tone, and much resembling the violin in quality. A 'violl and violin' stop originally formed one of the features in the choir organ of the instrument in the Temple Church, built by Father Smith in 1688; but seems to have been removed shortly afterwards to make room for an additional reed stop. The Geigen-principal was first brought under notice in England in recent times by Herr Schulze, who introduced two, one of 8 feet and another of 4, into the admirable little organ he sent to the Great Exhibition of