and Handel. The last we hear in England of this eccentric Italian is his connection with the elder Thomas Linley, to whom he gave instruction in harmony and thorough-bass. He returned to Italy, and died at Venice in 1792. A Sonata by Paradies in D is printed by Pauer in his 'Alte Meister,' and another, in A, in his 'Alte Klaviermusik'; and a Toccata is given in Breitkopf's 'Perles Musicales.' The Fitzwilliam Collection at Cambridge contains much MS. music by him, apparently in his autograph.
[ C. F. P. ]
PARADIS, in the French theatres, is the top row of the boxes. It is called so either because it is the highest, and therefore nearest heaven, or, as some one wittily said, because like the real Paradise the top boxes contain more of the poor than the rich.
PARADIS, Marie Therese von, daughter of Joseph Anton, an Imperial Councillor, born in Vienna May 15, 1759. She was a highly-esteemed pianist, and Mozart wrote a concerto for her (in B♭, Köchel 456). She also attained to considerable skill on the organ, in singing, and in composition, and this in spite of her being blind from early childhood. The piano she studied with Richter (of Holland), and afterwards with Kozeluch, whose concertos were her favourite pieces; singing with Salieri and Righini; and composition with Friberth, and the Abbé Vogler. The Empress her godmother took a great interest in her, and made her a yearly allowance. In 1784 she went to Paris, where she remained 6 months, playing before the court, and at the Concerts spirituels, with great applause. In November she went to London. Here she stayed five months, played before the King, Queen, and Prince of Wales, whom she accompanied in a cello sonata, at the then recently-founded Professional Concerts (Hanover Square Rooms, Feb. 16, 1785), and finally at a concert of her own, conducted by Salomon, in Willis's Rooms on March 8. A notice of her appeared in the St. James's Chronicle for Feb. 19. She next visited Brussels, and the more important courts of Germany, attracting all hearers by her playing and her intellectual accomplishments. After her return to Vienna she played twice at the concerts of the Tonkünstler-Societät, and took up composition with great ardour, using a system of notation invented for her by a friend of the family named Riedinger. Of her works, the following were produced: 'Ariadne und Bacchus,' a melodrama, played first at Laxenburg before the Emperor Leopold (1791), and then at the national court-theatre; 'Der Schulcandidat' a pastoral Singspiel (Leopoldstadt theatre, 1792); 'Deutsches Monument,' a Trauer-cantate for the anniversary of the death Louis XVI (small Redoutensaal Jan. 21, 1794, repeated in the Kärnthnerthor theatre); and 'Rinaldo und Algina' a magic opera (Prague). She also printed a Clavier-trio, sonatas, variations (dedicated to Vogler); 12 Lieder; Bürger's 'Leonore,' etc. Towards the close of her life she devoted herself exclusively to teaching singing and the pianoforte, and with great success. She died Feb. 1, 1824.
[ C. F. P. ]
PARADISE AND THE PERI, the second of the four poems which form Moore's Lalla Rookh, has been several times set to music.
1. 'Das Paradies und die Peri,' by Robert Schumann, for solos, chorus, and orchestra (op. 50) in 3 parts, containing 26 nos. The words were compiled by Schumann himself from the translations of Flechsig and Oelkers, with large alterations of his own. It appears to have been composed shortly before its production at Leipzig, Dec. 2, 1843. In England it was first performed by the Philharmonic Society (Madame Goldschmidt) June 23, 1856. But it had previously been produced in Dublin under the conductorship of Mr. W. Glover, Feb. 10, 1854.
2. 'A Fantasia-Overture, Paradise and the Peri' (op. 42), composed by Sterndale Bennett for the Jubilee Concert of the Philharmonic Society, July 14, 1862, and produced then. A minute programme of the connexion of the words and music was furnished by the composer for the first performance, and is usually reprinted.
3. A Cantata, for solos, chorus, orchestra and organ, by John Francis Barnett; the words selected from Moore's poem. Produced at the Birmingham Festival Aug. 31, 1870.
PARDON DE PLOERMEL, LE. An opéra-comique in 3 acts; words by Barbier and Carré, music by Meyerbeer. Produced at the Opéra-Comique April 4, 1859. In London, in Italian, as 'Dinorah, ossia il pellerinaggio di Ploermel,' at Covent Garden, July 26, 1859; in English as 'Dinorah' at same theatre Oct. 3, 1859.
PAREPA-ROSA, Euphrosyne Parepa de Boyesku, born May 7, 1836, at Edinburgh. Her father was a Wallachian boyard, of Bucharest, and her mother (who died in 1870, in London) was Miss Elizabeth Seguin, a singer, sister to Edward Seguin, a well-known bass singer. On her father's death, the child, having shown great aptitude for music, was educated by her mother and eminent masters for an artistic career. At the age of 16 Miss Parepa made a successful début on the stage as Amina, at Malta, and afterwards played at Naples, Genoa, Rome, Florence, Madrid, and Lisbon. In this country she made her first appearance May 21, 1857, as Elvira in 'I Puritani' at the Royal Italian Opera, Lyceum, and played, Aug. 5, 1858, as Camilla on the revival of 'Zampa' at Covent Garden, on each occasion with fair success. During some of the seasons between 1859 and 65 she played in English opera at Covent Garden and Her Majesty's, and created the parts of Victorine in Mellon's opera of that name (Dec. 19, 59); the title-part of 'La Reine Topaze' of Massé, on its production in England (Dec. 26, 60); that of Mabel in Macfarren's 'Helvellyn' (Nov. 3, 64); playing also Arline, Satanella, Dinorah, Elvira ('Masaniello'), and the Zerlinas ('Fra Diavolo' and 'Don Giovanni). Her fine voice combined power and sweetness, good execu-
- Described in detail in the Leipzig Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung, 1810, No. 57.
- See Musical World, March 9. 1878. p. 174.