little with much; the aim should be to make much with little.' Yet he extended compass to the absurd width of 8 octaves, maintaining that the perception of the extremes was a question of ear-education only. He reduced the structure of his actions to the simplest mechanism possible, preferring for understriking grand pianos the simple crank escapement of Petzold, and for upright pianos that of Wornum, which he adopted in 1815, as stated in the Notice already referred to. An excess of ingenuity has interfered with the acceptance of many of Pape's original ideas, which may yet find consideration when the present tendency to increase strain and pressure is less insisted upon. At present, his inventions of clothed key-mortices and of felt for hammers are the only important bequests makers have accepted from him, unless the cross or overstringing on different planes, devised by Pape for his table instruments, and already existing in some old clavichords, was first introduced into pianos by him. He claimed to have invented it, and in 1840 gave Tomkisson, a London maker, special permission to use it. [See Pianoforte.] He made a piano with springs instead of strings, thus doing away with tension altogether; added reed attachments, and invented a transposing piano, moving by his plan the whole instrument by means of a key while the clavier remained stationary. He also invented an ingenious saw for veneers of wood and ivory; in 1839 he veneered a piano which is now at St. James's Palace, entirely with the latter substance. Pape received many distinctions in France, including the decoration of the Legion of Honour. He died Feb. 2, 1875.
[ A. J. H. ]
PAPILLONS. The name of twelve pianoforte pieces by Schumann, constituting his op. 2, which are dedicated to his sisters-in-law, Theresa, Emilia, and Rosalia Schumann. They were composed at different times-Nos. 1, 3, 4, 6 and 8 in 1829, and the others in 1831. They may be regarded as the germ of the better-known and more highly-developed 'Carneval,' op. 9. The form of the two compositions is the same, but in the earlier work there are no characteristic titles to the several pieces. The subject of No. 1 of the 'Papillons' is referred to in 'Florestan,' No. 6 of the Carneval, and the 'Grossvatertanz' is made use of in the finales of both works. Many theories have been propounded as to the meaning or story of these pieces, and Schumann himself refers it to the last chapter of Jean Paul's 'Flegeljahre,' 'where,' as he says in a letter to Henriette Voigt, 'all is to be found in black and white.' (See Wasielewsky's Life, 3rd ed. p. 328.) It is evident that the idea of a Carnival is already in his mind, for the last few bars of the finale bear the following superscription: 'The noise of the carnival-night dies away. The church clock strikes six.'
[ J. A. F. M. ]
PAPINI, Guido, born Aug. 1, 1847, at Camagiore near Florence, a distinguished violinist, was a pupil of the Italian violin professor Giorgetti, and made his début at thirteen years of age in Florence, in Spohr's third concerto. He was for some years leader of the Società del Quartetto in that city. In 1874 he appeared at the Musical Union, which continues to be his principal locale during his annual visits to London, though he has been also heard at the Crystal Palace, the Old and New Philharmonic Societies, etc. In 1876 he appeared in Paris with success at the Pasdeloup concerts. His published compositions, besides arrangements, transcriptions, etc., comprise two concertos, for violin and violoncello respectively; 'Exercises de mécanisme pour le Violon seul,' and smaller pieces, such as 'Feuilles d'Album,' romances, nocturnes, etc., for violin or violoncello. Two other concertos, for violin and cello (the latter dedicated to Piatti), an Allegro di Concerto, for violin and orchestra, and some vocal works, remain unpublished.
[ J. A. F. M. ]
PAQUE, Guillaume, a well-known violoncellist, born in Brussels July 24, 1825. He entered the Conservatoire of his native city at an early age as Demunck's pupil, and at fifteen gained the first prize. He then went to Paris and was solo cello at Musard's Concerts. Thence he went to Madrid as cellist to the Queen of Spain. In 1851 he was employed by Jullien for his English Concerts, and thenceforward London became his home. He played in the Royal Italian Opera orchestra, occasionally replaced Piatti at the Monday Popular Concerts, was leader of the cellos at the new Philharmonic, Professor of his instrument at Dr. Wylde's London Academy, and a member of the Queen's Private Band. He played at the Philharmonic June 18, 1860. He died March 2, 1876, and was buried in Brompton Cemetery. As a man Paque was deservedly beloved and esteemed. As a player he had every quality, except tone, which was poor. He left numerous works.
His brother, Philippe J. Paque, has been Trumpeter to the Queen since 1864, and is a member of Her Majesty's Private Band.
[ G. ]
PARADIES, Pietro Domenico, born at Naples in 1710, a pupil of Porpora, and an esteemed teacher and composer, lived for many years in London. In 1747 he produced at the King's Theatre 'Phaeton,' 6 airs from which were published by Walsh, and frequently sung at concerts by Signora Galli. He also printed 'Sonate di gravicembalo,' dedicated to the Princess Augusta (Johnson; 2nd. ed. Amsterdam, 1770). Such players as dementi and Cramer studied his works conscientiously, and he was in great request as a teacher. When Miss Schmähling (afterwards Mme. Mara) made her first appearance in London as a violinist of 11, Paradies was engaged as her singing master, but her father soon found it necessary to withdraw her from his influence. An earlier pupil, and one of his best, was Miss Cassandra Frederick, who at the age of 5½ gave a concert in the Little Haymarket Theatre (1749), playing compositions by Scarlatti
- Miss Frederica, a favourite of Handel's, also played the organ in public in 1760, and sang in Handel's oratorios. She married Thomas Wynne, a land-owner in South Wales, and exercised considerable Influence over the musical educatiuu of her nephew Mazzinghi.