sity, he studied composition with Padre Petronio Franceschini. In 1680 he conducted in San Petronio a Missa solennis of his own composition for soli, choir, and orchestra. Hia first two operas 'Atide' (1679) and 'Oreste' (1681), were given in Bologna; those that followed, 'Marzio Coriolano,' libretto by Frencasco Valsini (anagram of Francesco Silvani) (1683); 'Brenno in Efeso' (1690); 'L'Inganno scoperto' (1691); 'Furio Camillo' (1692); 'Nerone fatto Cesare' (l693); and 'Laodicea e Berenice' (1695), in Venice, at the theatres SS. Giovanni e Paolo, and San Salvatore. His oratorio 'Abramo vincitor de' propri affetti' was printed in Bologna in 1687, and performed under his own direction in the palace of Count Francesco Caprara. Fétis, followed by Mendel, speaks of his relations with the German Emperors Leopold and Carl VI, but the writer of this article has failed to discover any documentary evidence to support the assertion that he was made Capellmeister by the Emperor Leopold, and Hofrath by Carl VI. In Köchel's Life of Fux, the most trustworthy book on the period, no mention is to be found of Giacomo Perti in connection with the court; the only instance of the name being Antonio Perti, a bass-singer in the Hofcapelle. It is moreover beyond a doubt that Perti was Maestro di cappella of San Petronio in Bologna, and retained the post till his death, April 10, 1756. Gerber states that a Te Deum of Perti's was sung under his own direction in Vienna, on the relief of the Turkish siege in 1683, but this must be a mistake, as Perti had then not made his name, and was scarcely known beyond Bologna. He was elected a member of the Filarmonici on March 13, 1681, and at the time of his death had been 'Principe' six times. Among his friends was Pope Benedict XIV, with whom he kept up a close correspondence. Another friend was Padre Martini, who states in his 'Saggio di Contrapunto' (ii. 142) that he held communications on musical subjects with Perti down to 1750. Besides 'Abramo' he printed in Bologna 'Cantate morali e spirituali' (1688), and 'Messe e Salmi concertati' (1735). Abbate Santini had a fine collection of Perti's church works (4 masses, 3 Confitebors, 4 Magnificats, etc.), unfortunately now dispersed. His 'Elogio' was pronounced before the Filarmonici by Dr. Masini in 1812, and printed in Bologna. There is an 'Adoramus Te' by Perti in the Fitzwilliam Library, Cambridge, and Novello has included two fine choruses by him in his 'Sacred Music' (vol. ii) and 'Motetts' (bk. xi). Others are given by Choron, and in the 'Auswahl fur vorzüglicher Musikwerke.'
[ F. G. ]
PESANTE, 'heavy.' This direction is as a rule only applied to music for keyed instruments, though some writers have transferred it to orchestral, or even vocal music. It indicates that the whole passage to which it refers is to be played with great firmness and in a marked manner. It differs from marcato, however, in that it applies to whole passages, which may be quite legato at the same time; while marcato refers to single, notes or isolated groups of notes, which would not as a rule be intended to be played smoothly. A good example is the opening passage, or introduction, to the 1st Ballade of Chopin (in G minor, op. 23).
[ J. A. F. M. ]
PESCHKA, Minna, née Leutner, was born Oct. 25, 1839, at Vienna. She received instruction in singing from Heinrich Proch, and made her début on the stage at Breslau, in 1856, as Agatha, and afterwards played Alice, remaining there a year. She next played at Dessau up to the time of her marriage with Dr. Peschka of Vienna, in 1861. In Sept. 1863 she appeared at Vienna with great success as Margaret of Valois, Isabel, etc., and afterwards received further instruction from Mme. Bockholtz Falconi. She next appeared at Lemberg and Darmstadt, and in 1868 at Leipzig, where she remained until 1876. She gained great popularity there both in opera and concerts, being equally successful both in serious and the lighter operatic parts. In 1877 she went to Hamburg, where she is at present engaged. In 1879 she reappeared at Leipzig for a short operatic season under Herr Julius Hoffmann, and played with great success the title part of Handel's 'Almira,' on the revival of that opera. She is at present (July 1880) fulfilling an engagement there under the same manager. Mme. Peschka-Leutner visited England in 1872, sang (March 20) at the Philharmonic, and at the Crystal Palace, and was well received at both concerts. In the autumn of that year she went to America, and sang at the Boston Festival with very great success. Her voice, a soprano of great volume, and extraordinary compass and agility, her good execution combined with good acting, and her agreeable appearance, have made her very popular in the principal cities of her own country, where she is an established favourite at festivals and concerts, as well as on the stage.
[ A. C. ]
PETER, ST. An oratorio in two parts; the words by Mr. Chorley, the music by Sir Julius Benedict. Produced at the Birmingham Festival, Sept. 2, 1870.
[ G. ]
PETERS, Carl Friedrich, bought in 1814 the 'Bureau de Musique' of Kühnel and Hoffmeister (founded 1800) in Leipzig, and greatly improved the business. Many important works by Bach, Haydn, Beethoven, Spohr, and Schumann, were published by him, besides the first complete editions of the works of Haydn and Bach (the latter edited by Dehn, Roitzsch, and Griepenkerl). The present members of the firm. Dr. Abraham and J. Friedlander, carry on the old traditions with extraordinary energy and judgment, and 'the Peters editions,' famous for correctness, legibility, and cheapness, are known throughout the world.
[ F. G. ]
PETRELLA, Enrico, was born at Palermo Dec. 1 [App. p.746 "Dec. 10"], 1813, and learnt music at Naples under Zingarelli, Bellini, and Ruggi. He made his first appearance at Majella in 1829, with the opera 'Il Diavolo color di rosa.' It was followed by four
- Cinelli's 'Biblioteca volante,' Scanzle xlv.