others, and then, after an interval, by 'Le Precauzioni,' [App. p.746 "May 20, 1851 at Naples"] which remains his masterpiece in comic opera. [App. p.746 "add 'Elena di Tolosa,' 1852."] At the Scala he brought out 'Marco Visconti' (1855) [App. p.746 "1854"]; 'L'Assedio di Leyda' (1856); 'Ione' (1858); 'Il duca di Scilla' (1859); and 'Morosina' (1862). After this nearly every year produced its opera, but we need only mention 'Giovanna Il di Napoli' (Naples, Feb. 27, 1869)—said in some respects to surpass 'Ione,' which up to that time was his chef-d'œuvre—and 'I promessi sposi' (Lecco, Oct. 2, 1869). For the latter Petrella was called before the curtain 27 times in the first evening! In 1873 he produced 'Manfredo' at Rome; it was greatly applauded, and a silver crown presented to the composer.
Petrella died at Genoa, April 7, 1877. In the biography in Mendel's Dictionary 19 operas of his are named, but there is apparently some error in the dates. His music, though often violently applauded by the enthusiastic Italians, pleased the more critical audience of the Scala only moderately, and has no permanent qualities. [App. p.746 "Add that his last work was 'Bianca Orsini,' produced at Naples, April 4, 1874. A more correct chronological list than that given by Mendel will be found in Pougin's supplement to Fétis, art. Petrella."]
PETREIUS, Johann, printer and publisher of music, born at Langendorf, Franconia; graduated 'Magister' at Nuremberg; in 1526 began business in that town as a printer. His earliest music-publication appears to be 'Musicæ, id est, Artis canendi, libri duo, autor Sebaldus Heyden. Norimbergæ apud Joh. Petreium, anno salutis 1537'; and his latest, 'Guter, seltsamer, und kunstreicher teutscher Gesang … Gedruckt zu Nürnberg, durch Jo. Petreium. 1544.' Between these two, Eitner (Bibliographie) gives 6 works in 9 volumes, including a collection of 15 masses, a volume of 45 select motets, and 2 volumes of 158 four-part songs. He died, according to Fétis, at Nuremberg, March 18, 1550.
PETRUCCI, Ottaviano Dei, an illustrious printer, the father of the art of type-music-printing, was born of a good family at Fossombrone, between Ancona and Urbino, June 14 [App. p.746 "June 18"], 1466. Before 1498 he had established himself at Venice; for on May 25 of that year he obtained from the Seignory the sole privilege, for 20 years, of printing 'figured music' (canto figurato) and music in the tablature of the organ and lute—a privilege which he exercised there till about 1511. At that date he left the Venetian business in the hands of Amadeo Scotti and Nicolò da Raphael, and returned to Fossombrone, where, on Oct. 22, 1513, he obtained a patent from Pope Leo X for the monopoly of music-printing in the Roman States for 15 years. His latest work is dated 1523, and shortly after that he probably died [App. p.746 "he died May 7, 1539".
Petrucci's process was a double one; he printed first the lines of the stave, and then, by a second impression, the notes upon them. In fact he discovered a method of doing by the press what the German printers of patronendruck or pattern-printing, had done by hand. His work is beautifully executed. The 'register,' or fit, of the notes on the lines is perfect; the ink is a fine black, and the whole effect is admirable. But the process was expensive, and was soon superseded by printing in one impression, which appears to have been first successfully accomplished by Oglin of Augsburg in 1507.
Petrucci printed no missals, service books, or other music in canto fermo; but masses, motets, lamentations, and frottole, all in canto figurato, or measured music, and a few works in lute-tablature. [See Musica Mensurata; Tablature.] His first work was 'Harmonice Musices Odhecaton A.… Venetiis decimo octavo cal. junias. Salutis anno 1501,' a collection of 96 pieces in 3 and 4 parts by Isaac, Josquin, Obrecht, Ockeghem, and other masters of the day, the parts printed opposite one another on the open pages of a small 4to. His activity was very great; Chrysander gives a list of 18 works certainly and 2 probably issued between June 12, 1501, and Nov. 28, 1504. The last work cited by Eitner (Bibliographie) is the 'Motetti della Corona,' a collection of 83 motets for 4, 5, and 6 voices (in separate part books) in 4 portions, the 4th portion of which was published at Fossombrone Oct. 31, 1519. Fétis however mentions three masses, in large folio, printed for the lectern of a church, with the date 1523–25 and knocked down to an unknown buyer at a sale at Rome in 1829. His life and works are exhaustively treated by Anton Schmid, 'Ottaviano dei Petrucci,' etc., Vienna, 1845. [App. p.746 "See Part-Books, above, p. 739."]
PETTIT, Walter, violoncellist, was born in London on March 14, 1836, and received his musical education chiefly at the Royal Academy of Music. In 1851 he was engaged by Balfe for the orchestra of Her Majesty's Theatre, in which he remained for many years. In 1861 he succeeded Lucas as principal violoncello in the Philharmonic orchestra, and in 1876 took the place of Paque in Her Majesty's private band.
[ T. P. H. ]
PEUTINGER, Conrad, a lover and supporter of church music at a time when church music was the only kind, and a keen devotee for the welfare of literature and art. He was born at Augsburg (the city of the Fuggers) in 1465; was educated in Italy; in 1493 became secretary to the senate of Augsburg; in 1521, at the diet of Worms, obtained the confirmation of the ancient privileges of the city, and others in addition. He was a great collector of antiquities, inscriptions, and MSS., and in particular was the owner of the 'Peutinger Tables,' a map of the military roads of the Lower Roman Empire, probably dating about 225, which is one of the most precious geographical monuments of antiquity, and is now in the State Library at Vienna. His devotion to music is shown by his preface to the 'Liber selectarum Cantionum quae vulgo Mutetas appellant, sex, quinque, et quatuor
- Performed at the Lyceum, London, March 21, 1871.
- In his 'Melopolae,' see Chrysander (Musical Times, 1877, p. 326a). Fétis however quotes this very work as an evidence that Oglin followed Petrucci's method of two printings (Biogr. univ. vol. vii. p. 13 note, ed. 1864).
- The method of printing by double impression—so as to obtain the stave lines continuous without the breaks inevitable in printing by a single impression—was patented by Scheurmann in 1866. [See Scheurmann.]
- Musical Times, p. 325a.
- Biog. univ. vii. 16a.