KES, CHARLES. This excellent musician was born in 1784, and received his first instruc- tions as a chorister in St. Paul's Cathedral. He was afterwards a pupil of Mr. Webbe, senior, the glee composer, who was his godfather and of other masters ; but he was most indebted for his musical knowledge to Mr. Samuel Wesley, with whom he was long and intimately ac- quainted. Mr. Stokes officiated for several years as assistant-organist to Dr. Callcott, at St. Paul's, Covent Garden, and for Mr. Bartleman at Croy- don ; but he latterly preferred the quiet pursuit of his own studies, in domestic retirement, to the exertion and fatigue of public engagements. Yet his musical acquirements were of the highest order. Vincent Novello speaks of him as a most able teacher, an excellent organist, a delightful pianoforte-player, a refined and tasteful com- poser, and one of the most profound musical theorists now living. His name was little known, and his published music was almost confined to the pieces printed in Novello's ' Select Organ Pieces' (from which this notice is derived). That collection contains I o pieces by Stokes, full of quiet feeling, and real, though somewhat antiquated, musicianship. Novello also published an A nth em of his, ' I will lay me down in peace.' [G.]
STOLTZ, KOSINE, celebrated French singer, whose chequered life has afforded materials for more than one romance, born in Paris, Feb. 13, 1815. According to Fe"tis her real name was Victorine Noeb, but she entered Ramier's class in Choron's school in 1826 as Rose Niva. She became a chorus-singer at one of the theatres after the Revolution of 1830, and in 1832 made a very modest ddbut at Brussels. In 1833 she sang at Lille under the name of Rosine Stoltz. Her knowledge of music was deficient, and she never became a perfect singer, but nevertheless made a considerable mark in lyric tragedy. The first time she displayed her powers was when acting with A. Nourrit as Rachel in ' La Juive ' at Brussels in 1836. She re-appeared in the part at the Opdra in Paris, Aug. 25, 1837. Though in- ferior to Mile. Falcon, who had created the rdle, the public was interested by a talent so original and full of fire, though so unequal, and Mme. Stoltz became a favourite from the day she appeared in parts written expressly for her. Indeed through- out Le"on Pillet's management (1841 to 47) she reigned without a rival. She created the follow- ing mezzo-soprano parts : Lazarillo in Marliani's Xacarilla* (1839); Le*onore in 'La Favorite' (1840); Agathe in Der Freischutz' (1841); Catarina in 'La Reine de Chypre* (1841); Odette in 'Charles VI' (1843) ; Zayda in Doni- zetti's < DomSe'bastien'(i843); Beppo in HaleVy's 'Lazzarone,' Desdemona in 'Otello,' and ' Marie Stuart' in Niedermeyer's opera (1844); Estrelle in Balfe's 'Etoile de Seville' (1845); David in Mermet's opera of that name, and Marie in Rossini's pasticcio 'Robert Bruce' (1846). The last three were failures, and in 1849 s ^ e ^^ Paris, but appeared for some time longer in the provinces and abroad. Then no more was heard of her excepting the fact of her successive mar-
��STOPS (HARPSICHORD). 717
riages to a Baron and two foreign princes. Schoen published in her name six melodies for voice and PF. in 1870.
Among the works based on the life of Rosine Stoltz may be mentioned Scudo's ' Histoire d'une cantatrice de 1'Op^ra'; Lamer's .'Mme. Rosine Stoltz' (Paris 1847, i6mo) ; Cantinjou's ' Les Adieux de Mme. Stoltz' (Paris 1847, i8mo) and Mile. Eugenie PeVignon's 'Rosine Stoltz' (Paris 1847, 8vo).
She must not be confounded with Teresina Stolz, an Italian soprano who distinguished her- self in Verdi's operas, especially as A'ida. [G-.C.]
STONARD, WILLIAM, Mus. Doc., Oxon. 1608, was organist of Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford. Some of his compositions are preserved in the Music School, Oxford, and an Evening Service in C in the Tudway Collection (Harl. MS. 7337). The words of some of his anthems are in Clifford's Collection. He died in 1630. [W.H.H.]
STOOPS TO CONQUER, SHE. An English opera, in three acts ; adapted by E. Fitzball from Goldsmith's comedy ; music by G. A. Macfarren. Produced at Drury Lane Theatre (Pyne & Har- rison), Feb. ii, 1864. [G.]
STOPPED PIPE. An organ pipe, the upper end of which is closed by a wooden plug, or cap of metal. The pitch of a stopped pipe is one octave lower (roughly speaking) than that of an open pipe of the same length ; it is usual there- fore, in a specification, to state the pitch of a stopped pipe instead of its length ; thus, ' Open Diapason 16 ft./ 'Bourdon 16 ft.-tone.' etc. By the former it is understood that the longest pipe is 1 6 ft. long; by the latter that the longest pipe (though only 8 ft. in length) gives the same note as an open pipe of 16 ft. For the acoustic law which governs the pitch of closed pipes, see PIPES, VIBEATION OP AIB IN, vol. ii. P. 754- [J.S.]
STOPPING. The technical term for the opera- tion of pressing the fingers on the strings of a violin, viola, etc., necessary to produce the notes. DOUBLE-STOPPING is the producing of two notes at once. [G.]
STOPS (HARPSICHORD). Like the organ, the harpsichord had stops, by which, with double keyboard, contrasts as well as changes could be made. The principle, borrowed from the organ, was the simple movement of each rack of jacks forming a register, so that the quills of the jacks might or might not touch the strings. The earliest notice of stops to a keyed stringed in- trument appears in the Privy Purse Expenses of Henry VIII., April 1530, published by Sir N. Harris Nicholas in 1827 (Rimbault, History of the Pianoforte, 1860, p. 33). The item mentions 'ii payer of Virginalls in one coffer with iiii stoppes.' The term 'Virginals ' in England under the Tudors and up to the Commonwealth, had, like ' Clavier ' in German, the general significa- tion of any keyed stringed instrument. [See VIRGINAL.] We therefore interpret this quota- tion as a double harpsichord, in one case, with