Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 4.djvu/185

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TRIAL.
169
TRILL.

Aveugles,' and 'Le Siége de Lille' (1792); 'La Cause et les Effets, ou le Réveil du Peuple en 1789' (1793), besides taking part in the celebrated revolutionary piece 'Le Congrès des Rois.' A first-rate accompanyist, Armand Trial might have made both name and money, but though he married Jeanne Méon, a charming artist at the Théâtre Favart, he plunged into dissipation, and died in Paris, from its effects, Sept. 9, 1803.

[ G. C. ]


TRIAL BY JURY. A very extravagant extravaganza; words by W. S. Gilbert, music by Arthur Sullivan. Produced at the Royalty Theatre, London, March 25, 1875. It owes its great success to the remarkable drollery of words and music, the English character of the institution caricatured, and the great humour thrown into the part of the Judge by the composer's brother, Frederick, who died with a great career before him.

[ G. ]


TRIANGLE. This is a steel rod bent in a triangular form, but open at one angle. The beater is of the same metal, and

should be somewhat of a spindle shape, so as to give a heavier or lighter stroke at the performer's discretion. It is hung by a string at the upper angle, held in the performer's hand, or more frequently attached to his desk or to one of his drums, as it is seldom that a man has nothing else to play besides this little instrument, except in military bands. It suits all keys, as besides the fundamental tone there are many subordinate ones, not harmonics. The woodcut is from an instrument of the pattern used at the Grand Opéra in Paris. It is an isosceles triangle, the longest side 7½ inches, and the short side or base 7 inches. Thickness of an inch. Rossini and his followers make frequent use of it, and Brahms has introduced it in the Finale of his Variations on a theme of Haydn's. Beethoven has a few strokes of it in his 9th Symphony.

[ V. de P. ]


TRIBUT DE ZAMORA, LE. A grand opera in 4 acts; words by MM. d'Ennery and Brésil, music by Gounod. Produced at the Grand Opéra, Paris, April 1, 1881. The story is a Moorish one, the scene is laid in Spain, and the action includes a ballet on the largest scale. The principal parts were taken by Mad. Krauss and

M. Lassalle.

[ G. ]


TRIÉBERT, Charles Louis, French oboist, son of a wind-instrument maker, born in Paris Oct. 31, 1810. He was well educated at the Conservatoire, and took the first oboe prize in Vogt's class in 1829. He had an excellent tone, great execution, and good style, and is still remembered at the Théâtre des Italiens, and the Société des Concerts. Although much occupied with instrument-making, he carried on his artistic cultivation with earnestness, and composed much for the oboe—original pieces, arrangements of operatic airs, and (in conjunction with M. Jancourt) fantaisies-concertantes for oboe and bassoon. At the Paris Exhibition of 1855 Triébert obtained a medal for his adaptation of Boehm's contrivances to the oboe, and for improved bassoons. This skilled manufacturer and eminent artist succeeded Verroust as professor of the oboe at the Conservatoire in April 1863, and retained the post till his death, July 18, 1867. His brother Frédéric (died in Paris March 1878, aged 65) was his partner, and showed considerable inventive genius. He constructed bassoons after Boehm's system, a specimen of which may be seen in the Museum of the Conservatoire. Frédéric Triébert was devoted to his art, and conversed on it with much learning and intelligence. He left a son, also named Frédéric, who is one of the best oboists of the French school.

[ G.C. ]


TRIHORIS, TRIORI, TRIHORY, TRIORY, an old Breton dance, long obsolete. Cotgrave describes it as 'a kind of British and peasantly daunce, consisting of three steps, and performed, by three hobling youths, commonly in a round.' It is mentioned by Rabelais ('Pantagruel,' bk. iv. ch. xxxviii.) and by his imitator, Noël du Fail, Seigneur de la Herrisaye, in chapter xix. of his 'Contes et Discours d'Eutrapel' (1585). From this passage it would seem that it was a 'Basse Danse,' and was followed by a 'Carole'— a low Breton name for a dance in a round, or according to Cotgrave 'a kind of daunce wherein many daunce together.' [See Tourdion.] (Compare the Italian 'Carola,' described in Symonds' 'Renaissance in Italy,' vol. iv. p. 261, note.) Du Fail says the dance was 'trois fois plus magistrale et gaillarde que nulle autre.' It was the special dance of Basse Bretagne, as the Passepied (vol. ii. p. 662) was of Haute Bretagne. Jehan Tabourot, in his 'Orchésographie' Template:Missing link[see vol. ii. p. 560a], says the Trihoris was a kind of Branle, and that he learnt it at Poitiers from one of his scholars. He gives the following as the air to which it was danced:

According to Littré the name is allied to the Burgundian 'Trigori,' a joyful tumult.

[ W.B.S. ]


TRILL (Ital. Trillo; Fr. Trille; Germ. Triller). An ornament consisting of the rapid alternation of a note with its major or minor second, generally known in English by the name of Shake, under which head it is fully described. [See vol. iii. p. 479.] The ornament itself dates from about the end of the i6th century, but it received the name of Trill at a somewhat later date, not to be exactly ascertained. It is described in the 'Nuove Musiche' of Caccini, published in Florence in 1601, under the name of Gruppo, a name which is now used to express a turn-like group of four notes, also called Groppo, thus:—

{ 
\time 1/4 
\override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f 
\cadenzaOn 
c''16[ b' c'' d''] \bar "|" 
\override TextScript.extra-offset = #'(0.5 . 5)
s4-\markup { \whiteout \pad-markup #2.4 "or" } \bar "|"
c''16[ d'' c'' b'] \bar "|"
}

Caccini also makes use of the term trillo, but as indicating a pulsation or rapid repetition of a single sound sung upon a single vowel, an effect expressed in modern terminology by vibrato. [​Vibrato.]

[ F. T. ]