Guadagnini, Mezzadri, Lavazza, and others, complete the group of Milanese makers who followed the Testores in general plainness of style, aiming at producing instruments rather useful and lasting than ornamental. [E. J.P.]
THALBERG, S. P. 966, at the top of the column, the story concerning Schumann and his wife occurs in Schumann's ' Gesammelte Schriften,' i. 199, where it is told, not as an actual occurrence, but as having happened to the imaginary characters Florestan and Zilia. It may or may not have had its foundation in fact.
THEATRES IN LONDON. See VAUDE- VILLE THEATRE, vol. iv. p. 232 and the same heading in Appendix..
THESPIS. Line 4 of article, for Dec. 23 read Dec. 26.
THOMAS, AETHUR GORING. Add that his four-act opera ' Nadeschda,' set to a libretto by Julian Sturgis, was produced by the Carl Rosa Company at Drury Lane, April 16, 1885. An orchestral Suite de baUet ' waa performed by the Cambridge University Musical Society on June 9, 1887. (Died Mai-. 20, 1892.)
THOMAS, CHABLES AMBROISE. Correct the statement in 1. 5-6 from end of article, by a reference to GOUNOD in Appendix.
THOMAS, HAROLD. Add date of death, July 29, 1885.
THOMAS, THEODORE. Add that the famous orchestra formed by him was disbanded in 1888.
THOMASSCHULE. See vol. ii. p. 1146, and vol. iv. p. 198 a.
THOMSON, GEORGE. Line 2 of article, for Edinburgh read Dunfermline.and omit the words or 1 759.
THORNDIKE, HERBERT ELLIOT. Was born April 7, 1851, at Liverpool, and educated at Woolwich Academy and Cambridge. As an undergraduate of the University he competed successfully at the Crystal Palace National Music meetings, and gained the first prize. He then went to Milan, to Francesco Lam- perti, under whom he studied for four years. Since his return to England he has studied oratorio and English singing with Signor Ran- degger and Mr. Deacon. He made his first appearance in public March 26, 1878, at the Cambridge University Musical Society, and has since then been steadily rising in favour. His voice is a good full bass of unusual compass, and he sings with taste and intelligence. Mr. Thorn- dike has frequently sung at the concerts of the Bach Choir, the Popular Concerts, the Nor- wich Festival, etc. At these he has introduced for the first time in England Schubert's noble songs, ' Waldesnacht ' and ' Wehmuth.' He appeared on the boards of Drury Lane in July 1887. [G.]
THOROUGHBASS. P. 108 6, add that the first use of a thoroughbass appears to be in a work by an English composer, Richard Dering, who published a set of 'Cantiones Sacrae' at
��Antwerp in 1597, in which a figured bass is em- ployed. See D BRING in A ppendix, voL i v. p. 6 1 2 b. THREE CHOIRS. The following is a list of the new works produced at these festivals since the article was written :
Worcester, 1884, Dr. J. F. Bridge's 'Hymn of St. Francis,' and Mr. C. H. Lloyd's 'Hero and Leander.'
Hereford, 1885, Dr. Joseph Smith's "St. Kevin,' and Mr. Lloyd's Song of Balder.'
Gloucester, 1886, Mr. W. S. Rockstro's 'Good Shepherd,' and Mr. Lloyd's 'Andromeda.'
Worcester. 1887, Mr. Cowen's 'Ruth.'
Hereford. 1888. No new work of Importance.
THREE-QUARTER FIDDLE. SeeViOLiNO PICCOLO.
TICHATSCHEK, J. A. Line 15 from end of article.ybr Hernando read Fernando. Add date of death, Jan. 18, 1886.
TOEPFER, GOTTLOB, was born in 1792 near Weimar, received a good education, and be- came organist of that city. He wrote two works on organ-building in 1833 and 1843 respectively. [V. de P.]
TONAL FUGUE. From a passage in Arthur Bedford's * Great Abuse of Musick' (1711) it may be inferred that the invention of tonal fugue was commonly ascribed, though of course wrongly, to Purcell. He gives an example in his appendix of a ' Canon of four parts in one, according to Mr. Purcell's rule of Fuging, viz. that where the Treble and Tenor leaps a fourth, there the Counter and Bass leaps a fifth.' [M.]
TONIC. The name given in modern music to the KEY-NOTE, i. e. the note from which the key is named. The functions of the tonic are in all respects identical with those of the final of the ancient modes. The tonic harmony is the com- mon chord or triad, major or minor as the case may be, which is built upon the key-note as its bass. The rule that every composition must end with this harmony in some shape or other is pro- bably the only law of music which has remained in full force through all the changes from the ancient to the modern styles. Its application is so universal that only one exception occurs readily to the mind, that of a song by Liszt, in which the effect of the innovation is so unsatis- factory that it is extremely improbable that it will often be repeated. [M.]
TORRIAN, JEHAN, of Venice, lived at the end of the I5th century, and built in 1504 the organ of Notre Dame des Tables, Montpellier. A copy of the curious contract may be seen in Roret's Manuel des Facteurs d'Orgues ' (Paris, 1849). t V ' de P 'J
TOSTI, F. P. Line 2 of article, for April 7, 1827, read April 9, 1846. P. 152 a, 1. n, for sine read sene.
TOWERS, JOHN. Line 8 from end of article, for Conell, read Charlton on Medlock.
TOY SYMPHONY (Ger. Kinder sinfoniei Fr. La Foire des Enfants, or Symphonic Bur- lesque'}. The English name by which a certain work of Haydn's is known. A tradition which there is no reasonable cause for doubting says that the composer got seven toy instruments at